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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909934/current-achievements-and-future-perspectives-of-metronomic-chemotherapy
#1
REVIEW
Adriana Romiti, Rosa Falcone, Michela Roberto, Paolo Marchetti
In recent years, many anticancer drugs have been tested at metronomic dosages for a variety of tumours. Mechanisms of action attributed to metronomic chemotherapy (MCT) include antiangiogenesis, immunomodulation, direct inhibition of tumour growth, effect on tumour initiating cells and the modulation of clonal evolution. An active clinical research, aimed at testing MCT in several cancers, has been conducted over the past 15 years. However, because the majority of available results come from earlier phase II studies, mainly performed in the area of breast cancer (BC), it is clear that there are areas still to be investigated...
December 1, 2016: Investigational New Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905446/genomic-evolution-and-chemoresistance-in-germ-cell-tumours
#2
Amaro Taylor-Weiner, Travis Zack, Elizabeth O'Donnell, Jennifer L Guerriero, Brandon Bernard, Anita Reddy, G Celine Han, Saud AlDubayan, Ali Amin-Mansour, Steven E Schumacher, Kevin Litchfield, Clare Turnbull, Stacey Gabriel, Rameen Beroukhim, Gad Getz, Scott L Carter, Michelle S Hirsch, Anthony Letai, Christopher Sweeney, Eliezer M Van Allen
Germ-cell tumours (GCTs) are derived from germ cells and occur most frequently in the testes. GCTs are histologically heterogeneous and distinctly curable with chemotherapy. Gains of chromosome arm 12p and aneuploidy are nearly universal in GCTs, but specific somatic genomic features driving tumour initiation, chemosensitivity and progression are incompletely characterized. Here, using clinical whole-exome and transcriptome sequencing of precursor, primary (testicular and mediastinal) and chemoresistant metastatic human GCTs, we show that the primary somatic feature of GCTs is highly recurrent chromosome arm level amplifications and reciprocal deletions (reciprocal loss of heterozygosity), variations that are significantly enriched in GCTs compared to 19 other cancer types...
November 30, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903276/accurate-prediction-of-response-to-endocrine-therapy-in-breast-cancer-patients-current-and-future-biomarkers
#3
REVIEW
Cigdem Selli, J Michael Dixon, Andrew H Sims
Approximately 70% of patients have breast cancers that are oestrogen receptor alpha positive (ER+) and are therefore candidates for endocrine treatment. Many of these patients relapse in the years during or following completion of adjuvant endocrine therapy. Thus, many ER+ cancers have primary resistance or develop resistance to endocrine therapy during treatment. Recent improvements in our understanding of how tumours evolve during treatment with endocrine agents have identified both changes in gene expression and mutational profiles, in the primary cancer as well as in circulating tumour cells...
December 1, 2016: Breast Cancer Research: BCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899374/an-induction-or-flare-of-arthritis-and-or-sacroiliitis-by-vedolizumab-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-case-series
#4
G Varkas, K Thevissen, G De Brabanter, L Van Praet, F Czul-Gurdian, H Cypers, J De Kock, P Carron, M De Vos, P Hindryckx, J Arts, I Vanneuville, P Schoenaers, B Claerhout, M Abreu, F Van den Bosch, D Elewaut
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), a new biological therapy has recently been approved. Vedolizumab is a humanised IgG1 monoclonal antibody to α4β7 integrin that modulates gut lymphocyte trafficking. Although an exclusively local effect of vedolizumab could be expected based on the restricted presence of the α4β7-mucosal vascular addressin cell adhesion molecule 1 complex in the gut, past combined success with anti-tumour necrosis factor, and previous demonstration of α4β7 integrin in the joint, led to the expectation of a therapeutic efficacy in spondyloarthritis...
November 29, 2016: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891398/an-unusual-evolution-of-krukenberg-tumour-a-case-report
#5
Claudio Spinelli, Concetta Liloia, Jessica Piscioneri, Clara Ugolini, Silvia Strambi
Krukenberg tumours are rare metastatic tumours of the ovaries characterized by the presence of mucin-producing neoplastic Signet Ring Cell Carcinoma (SRCC). At first glance, this tumour may be confused with a primary ovarian tumour. Surgery and chemotherapy combination have led to improvement in prognosis, but it still remains severe. We report the case of a 60-year-old woman with a Krukenberg tumour rising from a low differentiated gastric adenocarcinoma. The patient was clinically stable for 26 months after surgery until she experienced a prompt decline and died of cerebral haemorrhage within two weeks...
October 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889943/a-clinicopathological-study-of-the-oral-lesions-of-cowden-disease
#6
Mariana Hammerschmidt, Silvia Vanessa Lourenço, Marcello Menta Simonsen Nico
BACKGROUND: Cowden disease is a multisystemic cancer predisposition disorder, inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern. Cutaneous and visceral lesions are either malignant tumours or are believed to represent hamartomatous growths. Mucocutaneous lesions are present on almost 100% of affected individuals. Nonetheless, some authors consider that the mucocutaneous manifestations of Cowden disease are, in reality, viral warts at distinct steps of evolution. There are only a few studies regarding the oral manifestations of Cowden disease...
November 7, 2016: Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889671/european-journal-of-cancer-s-biennial-report-on-soft-tissue-and-visceral-sarcomas-or-the-rapid-evolution-of-treatment-concepts-in-sarcomas
#7
Jean-Yves Blay, Mehdi Brahmi, Isabelle Ray-Coquard
Soft tissue and visceral sarcoma gather a large group of rare to very rare cancers and locally aggressive connective tissue tumours. Novel concepts on histological and molecular classification, optimal management of patients, systemic adjuvant and neoadjuvant treatment have been emerging in the last 5 years. In the present publication, we review and summarise significant changes which impact on disease management in this group of rare cancers.
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888620/identification-of-different-alk-mutations-in-a-pair-of-neuroblastoma-cell-lines-established-at-diagnosis-and-relapse
#8
Lindi Chen, Angharad Humphreys, Lisa Turnbull, Angela Bellini, Gudrun Schleiermacher, Helen Salwen, Susan L Cohn, Nick Bown, Deborah A Tweddle
Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase (ALK) is a transmembrane receptor kinase that belongs to the insulin receptor superfamily and has previously been shown to play a role in cell proliferation, migration and invasion in neuroblastoma. Activating ALK mutations are reported in both hereditary and sporadic neuroblastoma tumours, and several ALK inhibitors are currently under clinical evaluation as novel treatments for neuroblastoma. Overall, mutations at codons F1174, R1275 and F1245 together account for ~85% of reported ALK mutations in neuroblastoma...
November 24, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888193/conserved-and-novel-functions-of-programmed-cellular-senescence-during-vertebrate-development
#9
Hongorzul Davaapil, Jeremy P Brockes, Maximina H Yun
Cellular senescence, a form of stable cell cycle arrest traditionally associated with tumour suppression, has been recently found to occur during mammalian development. Here, we show that cell senescence is an intrinsic part of the developmental programme in amphibians. Programmed senescence occurs in specific structures at defined time-windows during amphibian development. It contributes to the physiological degeneration of the amphibian pronephros and to the development of the cement gland and oral cavity...
November 25, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880734/the-role-of-necrosis-acute-hypoxia-and-chronic-hypoxia-in-18-f-fmiso-pet-image-contrast-a-computational-modelling-study
#10
Daniel R Warren, Mike Partridge
Positron emission tomography (PET) using (18)F-fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) is a promising technique for imaging tumour hypoxia, and a potential target for radiotherapy dose-painting. However, the relationship between FMISO uptake and oxygen partial pressure ([Formula: see text]) is yet to be quantified fully. Tissue oxygenation varies over distances much smaller than clinical PET resolution (<100 μm versus  ∼4 mm), and cyclic variations in tumour perfusion have been observed on timescales shorter than typical FMISO PET studies (∼20 min versus a few hours)...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866097/current-therapy-and-the-evolving-molecular-landscape-of-paediatric-ependymoma
#11
REVIEW
Soumen Khatua, Vijay Ramaswamy, Eric Bouffet
Ependymomas are the third commonest paediatric central nervous system (CNS) tumour, accounting for 6-12% of brain tumours in children. The management of these tumours has seen considerable changes over the last two decades, leading to a significant improvement in outcomes. However, despite advances in neurosurgical, neuroimaging and postoperative adjuvant therapy, management of these tumours remain challenging, and recurrence occurs in over 50% of cases, particularly when complete resection is not achieved prior to conformal radiotherapy...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864070/friend-or-foe-the-tumour-microenvironment-dilemma-in-colorectal-cancer
#12
REVIEW
Tommaso Colangelo, Giovanna Polcaro, Livio Muccillo, Giovanna D'Agostino, Valeria Rosato, Pamela Ziccardi, Angelo Lupo, Gianluigi Mazzoccoli, Lina Sabatino, Vittorio Colantuoni
The network of bidirectional homotypic and heterotypic interactions established among parenchymal tumour cells and surrounding mesenchymal stromal cells generates the tumour microenvironment (TME). These intricate crosstalks elicit both beneficial and adverse effects on tumour initiation and progression unbalancing the signals and responses from the neighbouring cells. Here, we highlight the structure, activities and evolution of TME cells considering a novel colorectal cancer (CRC) classification based on differential stromal composition and gene expression profiles...
November 16, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861897/genome-evolution-in-ductal-carcinoma-in-situ-invasion-of-the-clones
#13
REVIEW
Anna Casasent, Mary Edgerton, Nicholas E Navin
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS) is the most frequently diagnosed early stage breast cancer. Only a subset of patients progress to invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC), and this presents a formidable clinical challenge for determining which patients to treat aggressively and which patients to monitor without therapeutic intervention. Understanding the molecular and genomic basis of invasion has been difficult to study in DCIS cancers due to several technical obstacles, including low tumour cellularity, lack of fresh-frozen tissues, and intratumour heterogeneity...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843640/therapeutic-value-of-egfr-inhibition-in-crc-and-nsclc-15%C3%A2-years-of-clinical-evidence
#14
REVIEW
Teresa Troiani, Stefania Napolitano, Carminia Maria Della Corte, Giulia Martini, Erika Martinelli, Floriana Morgillo, Fortunato Ciardiello
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) plays a key role in tumour evolution, proliferation and immune evasion, and is one of the most important targets for biological therapy, especially for non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and colorectal cancer (CRC). In the past 15 years, several EGFR antagonists have been approved for the treatment of NSCLC and metastatic CRC (mCRC). To optimise the use of anti-EGFR agents in clinical practice, various clinical and molecular biomarkers have been investigated, thus moving their indication from unselected to selected populations...
2016: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817215/biological-therapy-targeting-the-il-23-il-17-axis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#15
Bram Verstockt, Gert Van Assche, Séverine Vermeire, Marc Ferrante
Introduction As many inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients do not benefit from long-term anti-tumour necrosis factor treatment, new anti-inflammatories are urgently needed. After the discovery of the interleukin (IL) 23/17 axis being pivotal in IBD pathogenesis, many different compounds were developed, targeting different components within this pathway. Areas covered A literature search to March 2016 was performed to identify the most relevant reports on the role of the IL-23/IL-17 axis in IBD and on the different molecules targeting this pathway...
November 6, 2016: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806376/single-cell-rna-seq-supports-a-developmental-hierarchy-in-human-oligodendroglioma
#16
Itay Tirosh, Andrew S Venteicher, Christine Hebert, Leah E Escalante, Anoop P Patel, Keren Yizhak, Jonathan M Fisher, Christopher Rodman, Christopher Mount, Mariella G Filbin, Cyril Neftel, Niyati Desai, Jackson Nyman, Benjamin Izar, Christina C Luo, Joshua M Francis, Aanand A Patel, Maristela L Onozato, Nicolo Riggi, Kenneth J Livak, Dave Gennert, Rahul Satija, Brian V Nahed, William T Curry, Robert L Martuza, Ravindra Mylvaganam, A John Iafrate, Matthew P Frosch, Todd R Golub, Miguel N Rivera, Gad Getz, Orit Rozenblatt-Rosen, Daniel P Cahill, Michelle Monje, Bradley E Bernstein, David N Louis, Aviv Regev, Mario L Suvà
Although human tumours are shaped by the genetic evolution of cancer cells, evidence also suggests that they display hierarchies related to developmental pathways and epigenetic programs in which cancer stem cells (CSCs) can drive tumour growth and give rise to differentiated progeny. Yet, unbiased evidence for CSCs in solid human malignancies remains elusive. Here we profile 4,347 single cells from six IDH1 or IDH2 mutant human oligodendrogliomas by RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) and reconstruct their developmental programs from genome-wide expression signatures...
November 2, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793528/-mucinous-carcinoma-of-the-breast-clinical-biological-and-evolutive-profile
#17
N Naqos, A Naim, H Jouhadi, A Taleb, Z Bouchbika, N Benchakroune, N Tawfiq, S Sahraoui, A Benider
PURPOSE: Mucinous carcinoma of the breast accounts for 1 to 4% of all breast cancer. There are two histological subtypes: mixed mucinous carcinoma, where the ductal carcinoma is associated with the colloid component, and pure mucinous carcinoma, with a favorable prognosis, where the mucus surrounds the tumour tissue and constitutes a mechanical barrier limiting cell invasion and making this form less aggressive. Our study aimed to determine retrospectively the main epidemiological, clinical, biological, and therapeutic features, as well as the prognosis of this rare form of breast carcinoma...
December 2016: Cancer Radiothérapie: Journal de la Société Française de Radiothérapie Oncologique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776223/the-substrate-binding-domains-of-human-siah-e3-ubiquitin-ligases-are-now-crystal-clear
#18
Qi Zhang, Zhongduo Wang, Feng Hou, Rachel Harding, Xinyi Huang, Aiping Dong, John R Walker, Yufeng Tong
BACKGROUND: Seven in absentia homologs (SIAHs) comprise a family of highly conserved E3 ubiquitin ligases that play an important role in regulating signalling pathways in tumorigenesis, including the DNA damage repair and hypoxia response pathways. SIAH1 and SIAH2 have been found to function as a tumour repressor and a proto-oncogene, respectively, despite the high sequence identity of their substrate binding domains (SBDs). Ubiquitin-specific protease USP19 is a deubiquitinase that forms a complex with SIAHs and counteracts the ligase function...
October 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773104/the-who-2015-classification-of-lung-tumours-evolution-of-tumour-classification-in-lung-cancer
#19
Andrew G Nicholson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 2016: Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27754614/modelling-mutational-signatures-of-human-carcinogens-using-experimental-systems
#20
Maria Zhivagui, Michael Korenjak, Jiri Zavadil
Mutation spectra in cancer genomes provide information on the disease aetiology and the causality underlying the evolution and progression of cancer. Genome-wide mutation patterns reflect the effects of mutagenic insults and can thus reveal past carcinogen-specific exposures and inform hypotheses on the causative factors for specific cancer types. In order to identify mutation profiles in human cancers, single genes studies were first employed, focusing mainly on the tumour suppressor gene TP53. Furthermore, experimental studies had been developed in model organisms...
October 18, 2016: Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology
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