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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156701/association-of-breast-carcinoma-growth-with-a-non-canonical-axis-of-ifn%C3%AE-ido1-tsp1
#1
Bruno Lopes-Bastos, Liang Jin, Fiona Ruge, Sioned Owen, Andrew Sanders, Christopher Cogle, John Chester, Wen G Jiang, Jun Cai
Reciprocal interactions between cancers and the surrounding microenvironment have an important role in tumour evolution. In this study, our data suggested that through thrombospondin 1 (TSP1), tumour-associated microvessel provides a dormant niche to sustain inactive status of breast invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) cells. TSP1 levels in the tumour stroma were negatively correlated with vascular indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) in IDC tissues. IDO1 is an intracellular enzyme initiating the first and rate-limited step of tryptophan breakdown...
October 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138043/non-traumatic-limping-in-paediatric-emergencies-epidemiology-evaluation-and-results
#2
M I Lázaro Carreño, R Fraile Currius, A García Clemente
INTRODUCTION: Non-traumatic limping is a common reason for consultation in paediatric emergencies. Although transient synovitis of the hip (TS) is the most frequent diagnosis, there are cases of limping secondary to serious pathologies. The aim of this review is to describe the variables related to non-traumatic limp that come to the paediatric emergency department to establish the best management protocol, making the most of resources and speeding up emergency care. MATERIAL AND METHOD: A prospective study was conducted, selecting all children less than 15 years old who consulted aspaediatric emergencies for non-traumatic limping during the 2014...
November 11, 2017: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134064/cancer-and-intercellular-cooperation
#3
REVIEW
Marta Bertolaso, Anna Maria Dieli
The major transitions approach in evolutionary biology has shown that the intercellular cooperation that characterizes multicellular organisms would never have emerged without some kind of multilevel selection. Relying on this view, the Evolutionary Somatic view of cancer considers cancer as a breakdown of intercellular cooperation and as a loss of the balance between selection processes that take place at different levels of organization (particularly single cell and individual organism). This seems an elegant unifying framework for healthy organism, carcinogenesis, tumour proliferation, metastasis and other phenomena such as ageing...
October 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132144/a-neoantigen-fitness-model-predicts-tumour-response-to-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#4
Marta Łuksza, Nadeem Riaz, Vladimir Makarov, Vinod P Balachandran, Matthew D Hellmann, Alexander Solovyov, Naiyer A Rizvi, Taha Merghoub, Arnold J Levine, Timothy A Chan, Jedd D Wolchok, Benjamin D Greenbaum
Checkpoint blockade immunotherapies enable the host immune system to recognize and destroy tumour cells. Their clinical activity has been correlated with activated T-cell recognition of neoantigens, which are tumour-specific, mutated peptides presented on the surface of cancer cells. Here we present a fitness model for tumours based on immune interactions of neoantigens that predicts response to immunotherapy. Two main factors determine neoantigen fitness: the likelihood of neoantigen presentation by the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and subsequent recognition by T cells...
November 8, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132141/shoulder-giant-schwannoma-a-diagnosis-to-be-considered-in-painless-shoulder-masses
#5
Romeu Pinho, Sara Santana, Filipa Farinha, Inês Cunha, Anabela Barcelos, José Brenha
Tumours formed from peripheral nerve sheaths are rare in the shoulder. We present the case of a 80-year-old female referred to an orthopaedic surgery clinic because of a large painless mass of the right shoulder, with one year of evolution. There was no history of trauma, involvement of any other joint or systemic complaints. Given the clinical and imagiological suspicion of a giant synovial cyst, the patient underwent complete surgical resection of the mass, which took place without any complications or functional impairment...
November 5, 2017: Acta Reumatológica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113995/time-for-change-a-new-training-programme-for-morpho-molecular-pathologists
#6
REVIEW
David A Moore, Caroline A Young, Hayley T Morris, Karin A Oien, Jessica L Lee, J Louise Jones, Manuel Salto-Tellez
The evolution of cellular pathology as a specialty has always been driven by technological developments and the clinical relevance of incorporating novel investigations into diagnostic practice. In recent years, the molecular characterisation of cancer has become of crucial relevance in patient treatment both for predictive testing and subclassification of certain tumours. Much of this has become possible due to the availability of next-generation sequencing technologies and the whole-genome sequencing of tumours is now being rolled out into clinical practice in England via the 100 000 Genome Project...
November 7, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109790/aptamer-based-therapeutic-approaches-to-target-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Gang Zhou, Olivier Latchoumanin, Mary Bagdesar, Lionel Hebbard, Wei Duan, Christopher Liddle, Jacob George, Liang Qiao
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are believed to be a principal cellular source for tumour progression and therapeutic drug resistance as they are capable of self-renewal and can differentiate into cancer cells. Importantly, CSCs acquire the ability to evade the killing effects of cytotoxic agents through changes at the genetic, epigenetic and micro-environment levels. Therefore, therapeutic strategies targeting CSCs hold great potential as an avenue for cancer treatment. Aptamers or "chemical antibodies" are a group of single-stranded nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) oligonucleotides with distinctive properties such as smaller size, lower toxicity and less immunogenicity compared to conventional antibodies...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106464/application-of-single-cell-sequencing-in-human-cancer
#8
Mattias Rantalainen
Precision medicine is emerging as a cornerstone of future cancer care with the objective of providing targeted therapies based on the molecular phenotype of each individual patient. Traditional bulk-level molecular phenotyping of tumours leads to significant information loss, as the molecular profile represents an average phenotype over large numbers of cells, while cancer is a disease with inherent intra-tumour heterogeneity at the cellular level caused by several factors, including clonal evolution, tissue hierarchies, rare cells and dynamic cell states...
November 2, 2017: Briefings in Functional Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093191/silica-induced-fibrosis-an-ancient-response-from-the-early-metazoans
#9
Marina Pozzolini, Sonia Scarfì, Lorenzo Gallus, Sara Ferrando, Carlo Cerrano, Marco Giovine
Exposure to crystalline silica particles causes silicosis, an occupational disease leading to an overproduction of collagen in the lung. The first step of this pathology is characterized by the release of inflammatory mediators. Tumour necrosis factor (TNF) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine directly involved in silica-induced pulmonary fibrosis. The marine demosponge Chondrosia reniformis is able to incorporate silica grains and partially dissolve the crystalline forms apparently without toxic effects. In the present work, C...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079995/bone-targeted-therapies-in-cancer-induced-bone-disease
#10
REVIEW
Sofia Sousa, Philippe Clézardin
Cancer-induced bone disease is a major source of morbidity and mortality in cancer patients. Thus, effective bone-targeted therapies are essential to improve disease-free, overall survival and quality of life of cancer patients with bone metastases. Depending of the cancer-type, bone metastases mainly involve the modulation of osteoclast and/or osteoblast activity by tumour cells. To inhibit metastatic bone disease effectively, it is imperative to understand its underlying mechanisms and identify the target cells for therapy...
October 27, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076965/mutational-and-epigenetic-signatures-in-cancer-tissue-linked-to-environmental-exposures-and-lifestyle
#11
Vittorio Perduca, Hanane Omichessan, Laura Baglietto, Gianluca Severi
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In this article, we describe how recent advances in the study of mutational and epigenetic signatures in tumours provide new opportunities to understand the role of the environment and lifestyle in cancer development. RECENT FINDINGS: Cancer-related mutational events have been investigated for decades but only recently the wide availability of genomic sequences and epigenomic data from thousands of cancer genomes has made it possible to identify numerous distinct mutational and epigenetic signatures through the application of advanced mathematical models...
October 25, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29076131/minimal-residual-disease-in-non-hodgkin-lymphoma-current-applications-and-future-directions
#12
REVIEW
Matthew L Chase, Philippe Armand
Non-Hodgkin Lymphomas (NHLs) are a heterogeneous group of tumours with distinct treatment paradigms, but in all cases the goal of treatment is to maximize quality and duration of remission while minimizing therapy-related toxicity. Identification of persistent disease or relapse is most often the trigger to intensify or re-initiate anti-neoplastic therapy, respectively. In the current era of NHL treatment, this determination is mostly based on imaging and clinical evaluations, tools with imperfect sensitivity and specificity...
October 26, 2017: British Journal of Haematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075517/rethinking-cancer-nanotheranostics
#13
Hongmin Chen, Weizhong Zhang, Guizhi Zhu, Jin Xie, Xiaoyuan Chen
Advances in nanoparticle synthesis and engineering have produced nanoscale agents affording both therapeutic and diagnostic functions that are often referred to by the portmanteau 'nanotheranostics'. The field is associated with many applications in the clinic, especially in cancer management. These include patient stratification, drug-release monitoring, imaging-guided focal therapy and post-treatment response monitoring. Recent advances in nanotheranostics have expanded this notion and enabled the characterization of individual tumours, the prediction of nanoparticle-tumour interactions, and the creation of tailor-designed nanomedicines for individualized treatment...
2017: Nature Reviews. Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067216/genotyping-tumour-dna-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-and-plasma-of-a-her2-positive-breast-cancer-patient-with-brain-metastases
#14
Giulia Siravegna, Elena Geuna, Benedetta Mussolin, Giovanni Crisafulli, Alice Bartolini, Danilo Galizia, Laura Casorzo, Ivana Sarotto, Maurizio Scaltriti, Anna Sapino, Alberto Bardelli, Filippo Montemurro
BACKGROUND: Central nervous system (CNS) involvement contributes to significant morbidity and mortality in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive metastatic breast cancer (mBC) and represents a major challenge for clinicians. Liquid biopsy of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)-derived circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA) harbours clinically relevant genomic alterations in patients with CNS metastases and could be effective in tracking tumour evolution. METHODS: In a HER2-positive mBC patient with brain metastases, we applied droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) and next-generation whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis to measure ctDNA dynamic changes in CSF and plasma collected during treatment...
2017: ESMO Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29045530/tracking-evolution-of-aromatase-inhibitor-resistance-with-circulating-tumour-dna-analysis-in-metastatic-breast-cancer
#15
Charlotte Fribbens, Isaac Garcia Murillas, Matthew Beaney, Sarah Hrebien, Ben O'Leary, Lucy Kilburn, Karen Howarth, Michael Epstein, Emma Green, Nitzan Rosenfeld, Alistair Ring, Stephen Johnston, Nicholas Turner
Background: Selection of resistance mutations may play a major role in the development of endocrine resistance. ESR1 mutations are rare in primary breast cancer but have high prevalence in patients treated with aromatase inhibitors (AI) for advanced breast cancer. We investigated the evolution of genetic resistance to first line AI therapy using sequential ctDNA sampling in patients with advanced breast cancer. Patients and Methods: 83 patients on first line AI therapy for metastatic breast cancer were enrolled in a prospective study...
October 4, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28989791/sweepstake-evolution-revealed-by-population-genetic-analysis-of-copy-number-alterations-in-single-genomes-of-breast-cancer
#16
Mamoru Kato, Daniel A Vasco, Ryuichi Sugino, Daichi Narushima, Alexander Krasnitz
Single-cell sequencing is a promising technology that can address cancer cell evolution by identifying genetic alterations in individual cells. In a recent study, genome-wide DNA copy numbers of single cells were accurately quantified by single-cell sequencing in breast cancers. Phylogenetic-tree analysis revealed genetically distinct populations, each consisting of homogeneous cells. Bioinformatics methods based on population genetics should be further developed to quantitatively analyse the single-cell sequencing data...
September 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984338/synchronous-cervical-minimal-deviation-adenocarcinoma-gastric-type-adenocarcinoma-and-lobular-endocervical-glandular-hyperplasia-along-with-stil-in-peutz-jeghers-syndrome-eliciting-oncogenesis-pathways
#17
Azfar Neyaz, Nuzhat Husain, Manish Deodhar, Rohini Khurana, Saumya Shukla, Aditi Arora
We describe an unusual case of a Peutz-Jeghers syndrome associated with a composite synchronous cervical neoplasia comprising precursor "lobular endocervical glandular hyperplasia (LEGH)", "minimal deviation adenocarcinoma (MDA)" and "gastric-type adenocarcinoma (GTA)" along with a serous tubal intraepithelial lesion (STIL) in the right fallopian tube. A 24-year-old woman presented with a white mucoid discharge and bleeding per vaginum for one year. Histopathological evaluation showed MDA & GTA in FIGO grade III with pelvic lymph node metastasis despite a deceptively bland tumour morphology and low Ki-67 index, indicating an aggressive tumour course and poor prognosis...
October 6, 2017: Türk Patoloji Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982213/primary-salivary-gland-malignancies-a-review-of-clinicopathological-evolution-molecular-mechanisms-and-management
#18
REVIEW
James Badlani, Ruta Gupta, Deepak Balasubramanian, Joel Smith, Peter Luk, Jonathan Clark
Salivary gland cancers are a complex group of tumours with variations in location, type and grade, all of which influence their biological behaviour. The understanding of salivary gland pathology has evolved at the molecular level in the last decade leading to identification of distinct entities, development of improved methods of diagnosis as well as identifying therapeutic targets for selected high-grade tumours. This article focuses on these advances and their impact on the management of primary salivary gland cancers...
October 5, 2017: ANZ Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971346/combined-pet-mri-global-warming-summary-report-of-the-6th-international-workshop-on-pet-mri-march-27-29-2017-t%C3%A3-bingen-germany
#19
REVIEW
D L Bailey, B J Pichler, B Gückel, G Antoch, H Barthel, Z M Bhujwalla, S Biskup, S Biswal, M Bitzer, R Boellaard, R F Braren, C Brendle, K Brindle, A Chiti, C la Fougère, R Gillies, V Goh, M Goyen, M Hacker, L Heukamp, G M Knudsen, A M Krackhardt, I Law, J C Morris, K Nikolaou, J Nuyts, A A Ordonez, K Pantel, H H Quick, K Riklund, O Sabri, B Sattler, E G C Troost, M Zaiss, L Zender, Thomas Beyer
The 6th annual meeting to address key issues in positron emission tomography (PET)/magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was held again in Tübingen, Germany, from March 27 to 29, 2017. Over three days of invited plenary lectures, round table discussions and dialogue board deliberations, participants critically assessed the current state of PET/MRI, both clinically and as a research tool, and attempted to chart future directions. The meeting addressed the use of PET/MRI and workflows in oncology, neurosciences, infection, inflammation and chronic pain syndromes, as well as deeper discussions about how best to characterise the tumour microenvironment, optimise the complementary information available from PET and MRI, and how advanced data mining and bioinformatics, as well as information from liquid biomarkers (circulating tumour cells and nucleic acids) and pathology, can be integrated to give a more complete characterisation of disease phenotype...
October 2, 2017: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961847/intratumoural-evolutionary-landscape-of-high-risk-prostate-cancer-the-progeny-study-of-genomic-and-immune-parameters
#20
M Linch, G Goh, C Hiley, Y Shanmugabavan, N McGranahan, A Rowan, Y N S Wong, H King, A Furness, A Freeman, J Linares, A Akarca, J Herrero, R Rosenthal, N Harder, G Schmidt, G A Wilson, N J Birkbak, R Mitter, S Dentro, P Cathcart, M Arya, E Johnston, R Scott, M Hung, M Emberton, G Attard, Z Szallasi, S Punwani, S A Quezada, T Marafioti, M Gerlinger, H U Ahmed, C Swanton
Background: Intratumoural heterogeneity (ITH) is well recognised in prostate cancer (PC), but its role in high-risk disease is uncertain. A prospective, single-arm, translational study using targeted multiregion prostate biopsies was carried out to study genomic and T-cell ITH in clinically high-risk PC aiming to identify drivers and potential therapeutic strategies. Patients and methods: Forty-nine men with elevated prostate-specific antigen and multiparametric-magnetic resonance imaging detected PC underwent image-guided multiregion transperineal biopsy...
October 1, 2017: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
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