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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651004/a-human-endogenous-retrovirus-derived-gene-that-can-contribute-to-oncogenesis-by-activating-the-erk-pathway-and-inducing-migration-and-invasion
#1
Cécile Lemaître, Jhen Tsang, Caroline Bireau, Thierry Heidmann, Marie Dewannieux
Endogenous retroviruses are cellular genes of retroviral origin captured by their host during the course of evolution and represent around 8% of the human genome. Although most are defective and transcriptionally silenced, some are still able to generate retroviral-like particles and proteins. Among these, the HERV-K(HML2) family is remarkable since its members have amplified relatively recently and many of them still have full length coding genes. Furthermore, they are induced in cancers, especially in melanoma, breast cancer and germ cell tumours, where viral particles, as well as the envelope protein (Env), can be detected...
June 26, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649372/the-use-of-high-frequency-ventilation-during-general-anaesthesia-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Karolina Galmén, Piotr Harbut, Jacob Freedman, Jan G Jakobsson
Various forms of high-frequency ventilation (HFV) have been described. HFV is broadly defined as artificial ventilation of the lungs with sub-deadspace tidal volumes delivered using supra-physiological frequencies. HFV has been used in anaesthesia and intensive care for special procedures and conditions since the 1960s. Clinical interest in the use and the technical evolution of HFV has developed over time. There is a renewed interest in HFV for avoiding parenchymal movement during stereotactic tumour ablation...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634106/biology-evolution-and-medical-importance-of-polyomaviruses-an-update
#3
REVIEW
Ugo Moens, Andi Krumbholz, Bernhard Ehlers, Roland Zell, Reimar Johne, Sébastien Calvignac-Spencer, Chris Lauber
The family Polyomaviridae encompasses non-enveloped viruses with a circular dsDNA genome that is typically approximately 5000bp in length. Originally isolated from mammals, polyomavirus sequences have now been detected in invertebrates, fish, amphibians, reptiles and birds, although it remains to be determined whether all these animals are genuine hosts. The genomes of all polyomaviruses encode at least two regulatory proteins (large and small tumour antigen) and two structural proteins (capsid proteins VP1 and VP2) whose functions have been defined...
June 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28622291/predicting-lung-cancer-recurrence-from-circulating-tumour-dna-commentary-on-phylogenetic-ctdna-analysis-depicts-early-stage-lung-cancer-evolution
#4
Daniel J Murphy, Kevin G Blyth
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 16, 2017: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614831/liquid-biopsies-for-monitoring-temporal-genomic-heterogeneity-in-breast-and-colon-cancers
#5
Tiziana Venesio, Giulia Siravegna, Alberto Bardelli, Anna Sapino
Cancer is a spatial and temporal dynamic disease where differently evolving genetic clones are responsible for progression. In this landscape, the genomic heterogeneity of the primary tumours can be captured by deep-sequencing representative spatial samples. However, the recognition of genetic alterations responsible for tumour evolution remains a challenging task. Recently, the "liquid biopsy" was recognized as a powerful real-time approach for the molecular monitoring of this dynamic disease. The term "liquid biopsy" generally refers to the use of circulating (cell-free) tumour DNA (ctDNA) and circulating tumour cells (CTCs) as non-invasive biomarkers for the early diagnosis, prognosis, monitoring of clinical progression, and response to treatment in different types of tumours, including the highly genomic heterogeneous breast cancer...
June 15, 2017: Pathobiology: Journal of Immunopathology, Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597984/dual-inhibition-of-bdnf-trkb-and-autophagy-a-promising-therapeutic-approach-for-colorectal-cancer
#6
Clément Mazouffre, Sophie Geyl, Aurélie Perraud, Sabrina Blondy, Marie-Odile Jauberteau, Muriel Mathonnet, Mireille Verdier
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common digestive cancer in the Western world. Despite effective therapies, resistance and/or recurrence frequently occur. The present study investigated the impact of two survival pathways-neurotrophic factors (TrkB/BDNF) and autophagy-on cell fate and tumour evolution. In vitro studies were performed on two CRC cell lines, SW480 (primary tumour) and SW620 (lymph node invasion), which were also used for subcutaneous xenografts on a nude mouse model. In addition, the presence of neurotrophic factors (NTs) and autophagy markers were assessed in tissue samples representative of different stages...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28592438/cd14-cd15-hla-dr-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cells-impair-antimicrobial-responses-in-patients-with-acute-on-chronic-liver-failure
#7
Christine Bernsmeier, Evangelos Triantafyllou, Robert Brenig, Fanny J Lebosse, Arjuna Singanayagam, Vishal C Patel, Oltin T Pop, Wafa Khamri, Rooshi Nathwani, Robert Tidswell, Christopher J Weston, David H Adams, Mark R Thursz, Julia A Wendon, Charalambos Gustav Antoniades
OBJECTIVE: Immune paresis in patients with acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF) accounts for infection susceptibility and increased mortality. Immunosuppressive mononuclear CD14(+)HLA-DR(-) myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs) have recently been identified to quell antimicrobial responses in immune-mediated diseases. We sought to delineate the function and derivation of M-MDSC in patients with ACLF, and explore potential targets to augment antimicrobial responses. DESIGN: Patients with ACLF (n=41) were compared with healthy subjects (n=25) and patients with cirrhosis (n=22) or acute liver failure (n=30)...
June 7, 2017: Gut
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28591719/stable-and-high-expression-of-galectin-8-tightly-controls-metastatic-progression-of-prostate-cancer
#8
Lucas Daniel Gentilini, Felipe Martín Jaworski, Carolina Tiraboschi, Ignacio González Pérez, Monica Lidia Kotler, Anne Chauchereau, Diego Jose Laderach, Daniel Compagno
Two decades ago, Galectin-8 was described as a prostate carcinoma biomarker since it is only expressed in the neoplastic prostate, but not in the healthy tissue. To date, no biological function has been attributed to Galectin-8 that could explain this differential expression. In this study we silenced Galectin-8 in two human prostate cancer cell lines, PC3 and IGR-CaP1, and designed a pre-clinical experimental model that allows monitoring the pathology from its early steps to the long-term metastatic stages...
May 18, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28586662/evolution-of-x-cells-and-x-men
#9
Geoffrey I McFadden, Naja Later
Humans are obsessed with labels, constantly seeking to name and categorise unknowns, or 'X-things'. DNA sequencing has finally solved the identity of mysterious X-cells associated with tumours in marine fish, but how should we approach X in people?
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28577732/-prospective-how-will-renal-prostatic-and-urothelial-tumours-be-treated-in-10%C3%A2-years
#10
REVIEW
Alain Toledano, Mayada Bourmech, Hanah Lamallem, Marc Bollet, Olivier Bauduceau, Pascal Pujol, Patrick Bloch, David Khayat
Forward thinking does not seek to predict the future, to unveil it as if it were already in existence, rather, its aim is to help us to construct it. Although today's epidemiological and therapeutic situations for urogenital tumours can evolve over the next 10 years, diagnostic and therapeutic methods, as well as the treatment and implementation of innovations, are already rapidly changing. Rather than reducing our prospective thinking to the therapeutic treatment of cancer only, we will aim at proposing a global sanitary vision that includes diagnosis, therapies, prevention, routine utilisation of technomedicine, genomics and even nanomedicine...
April 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28561041/acquired-ifn%C3%AE-resistance-impairs-anti-tumor-immunity-and-gives-rise-to-t-cell-resistant-melanoma-lesions
#11
Antje Sucker, Fang Zhao, Natalia Pieper, Christina Heeke, Raffaela Maltaner, Nadine Stadtler, Birgit Real, Nicola Bielefeld, Sebastian Howe, Benjamin Weide, Ralf Gutzmer, Jochen Utikal, Carmen Loquai, Helen Gogas, Ludger Klein-Hitpass, Michael Zeschnigk, Astrid M Westendorf, Mirko Trilling, Susanne Horn, Bastian Schilling, Dirk Schadendorf, Klaus G Griewank, Annette Paschen
Melanoma treatment has been revolutionized by antibody-based immunotherapies. IFNγ secretion by CD8(+) T cells is critical for therapy efficacy having anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic effects on tumour cells. Our study demonstrates a genetic evolution of IFNγ resistance in different melanoma patient models. Chromosomal alterations and subsequent inactivating mutations in genes of the IFNγ signalling cascade, most often JAK1 or JAK2, protect melanoma cells from anti-tumour IFNγ activity. JAK1/2 mutants further evolve into T-cell-resistant HLA class I-negative lesions with genes involved in antigen presentation silenced and no longer inducible by IFNγ...
May 31, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546710/current-status-of-nephron-sparing-surgery-nss-in-the-management-of-renal-tumours
#12
REVIEW
Vivek Venkatramani, Sanjaya Swain, Ramgopal Satyanarayana, Dipen J Parekh
Nephron-sparing surgery has emerged as the surgical treatment of choice for small renal masses over the past two decades, replacing the traditional teaching of radical nephrectomy for renal cell carcinoma. With time, there has been an evolution in the techniques and indications for partial nephrectomy. This review summarizes the current status of nephron-sparing surgery for renal carcinoma and also deals with the future of this procedure.
June 2017: Indian Journal of Surgical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545686/radiological-diagnosis-of-drop-metastases-from%C3%A2-paediatric-brain-tumours-using-combination%C3%A2-of-2d-and-3d-mri-sequences
#13
S F Kralik, D P O'Neill, A P Kamer, E Rodriguez, C Y Ho
AIM: To evaluate spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations using a combination of two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) MRI sequences for diagnosis of drop metastases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Fifty-five paediatric patients with primary brain tumours were evaluated for drop metastases at initial presentation using spinal MRI including sagittal 2D T1-weighted (W) contrast-enhanced (+C), axial 3D T1W+C volumetric interpolated breath-hold (VIBE), and sagittal 3D T2W SPACE (Sampling Perfection with Application optimised Contrasts using different flip angle Evolutions)...
May 22, 2017: Clinical Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539983/-clown-nose-as-first-manifestation-of-squamous-cell-carcinoma-of-the-lung
#14
Joaquim Marcoval, Laura Martínez-Molina, Montserrat Bonfill-Ortí, Francesc Valentí-Medina
BACKGROUND: Skin metastases occur in 0.7% to 9% of all patients with cancer and are usually considered a late event in the evolution of most visceral carcinomas. The development of a nodular metastatic lesion on the nasal tip is known as clown nose sign. MAIN OBSERVATION: We report a 64-year-old man that developed a nodular lesion on his nasal tip as first manifestation of squamous lung carcinoma. CONCLUSION: The biopsy of the cutaneous metastasis may be helpful to histopathologically confirm the suspected primary tumour avoiding invasive diagnostic procedures...
March 31, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536393/the-strategies-to-homogenize-pet-ct-metrics-the-case-of-onco-haematological-clinical-trials
#15
REVIEW
Stephane Chauvie, Fabrizio Bergesio
Positron emission tomography (PET) has been a widely used tool in oncology for staging lymphomas for a long time. Recently, several large clinical trials demonstrated its utility in therapy management during treatment, paving the way to personalized medicine. In doing so, the traditional way of reporting PET based on the extent of disease has been complemented by a discrete scale that takes in account tumour metabolism. However, due to several technical, physical and biological limitations in the use of PET uptake as a biomarker, stringent rules have been used in clinical trials to reduce the errors in its evaluation...
November 15, 2016: Biomedicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527349/maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-pregnancy-associated-melanoma-report-of-two-cases-and-a-systematic-literature-review
#16
Elsa Mendizábal, Juan De León-Luis, Natalia R Gómez-Hidalgo, Laura Joigneau, Pilar Pintado, Patricia Rincón, Virginia Ortega, Santiago Lizarraga
OBJETIVES: Melanoma is one of the most frequent malignancies during gestation. However, oncological and perinatal management is still challenging. Our first objective is to describe the cases of pregnancy-associated melanoma (PAM) diagnosed in our centre between January-2004 and May-2015. Secondly, to perform a systematic review of the published articles analysing the maternal-perinatal outcomes of patients diagnosed with PAM. DESIGN, POPULATION AND METHODS: Obstetrical, oncological and perinatal variables were recorded in the case series...
July 2017: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524159/hallmarks-of-response-to-immune-checkpoint-blockade
#17
Alexandria P Cogdill, Miles C Andrews, Jennifer A Wargo
Unprecedented advances have been made in the treatment of cancer through the use of immune checkpoint blockade, with approval of several checkpoint blockade regimens spanning multiple cancer types. However, responses to this form of therapy are not universal, and insights are clearly needed to identify optimal biomarkers of response and to combat mechanisms of therapeutic resistance. A working knowledge of the hallmarks of cancer yields insight into responses to immune checkpoint blockade, although the focus of this is rather tumour-centric and additional factors are pertinent, including host immunity and environmental influences...
June 27, 2017: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28517988/the-promise-and-the-hype-of-personalised-medicine
#18
Tim Maughan
Personalised medicine is widely considered as the way of the future for medicine. However, progress in cancer, with a few outstanding exceptions, has fallen below expectations because of the challenges of tumour heterogeneity and clonal evolution. In both benign and malignant disease, diseases caused by single genetic alterations are more amenable to precision medicine approaches. However, most common diseases are caused by a complex interplay of multiple genetic and environmental factors making personalised medicine far more challenging...
April 2017: New Bioethics: a Multidisciplinary Journal of Biotechnology and the Body
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512763/impact-of-mlh1-expression-on-tumour-evolution-after-curative-surgical-tumour-resection-in-a-murine-orthotopic-xenograft-model-for-human-msi-colon-cancer
#19
Katy Meunier, Marianne Ferron, Claire Calmel, Jean-François Fléjou, Marc Pocard, Françoise Praz
Colorectal cancers (CRCs) displaying microsatellite instability (MSI) most often result from MLH1 deficiency. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of MLH1 expression per se on tumour evolution after curative surgical resection using a xenograft tumour model. Transplantable tumours established with the human MLH1-deficient HCT116 cell line and its MLH1-complemented isogenic clone, mlh1-3, were implanted onto the caecum of NOD/SCID mice. Curative surgical resection was performed at day 10 in half of the animals...
May 16, 2017: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511526/angiolymphoid-hyperplasia-with-eosinophilia-involving-the-occipital-artery-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Laia Fite-Trepat, Miriam Martos-Fernandez, Margarita Alberola-Ferranti, Alba De Pablo-Garcia-Cuenca, Coro Bescosatin
Angiolymphoid Hyperplasia with Eosinophilia (ALHE) is an atypical vascular tumour occurring primarily in the head and neck area, which must be distinguished from Kimura's disease. The lesions can appear as single or multiple grouped intradermal papules or subcutaneous nodules. We report a rare case of ALHE in a 57-year-old female with a large lesion of three nodules involving the right occipital artery which had a long term evolution and we treated it by surgical excision. The definitive histopathological diagnosis was ALHE...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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