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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351238/telomeres-implications-for-cancer-development
#1
REVIEW
Aina Bernal, Laura Tusell
Telomeres facilitate the protection of natural ends of chromosomes from constitutive exposure to the DNA damage response (DDR). This is most likely achieved by a lariat structure that hides the linear telomeric DNA through protein-protein and protein-DNA interactions. The telomere shortening associated with DNA replication in the absence of a compensatory mechanism culminates in unmasked telomeres. Then, the subsequent activation of the DDR will define the fate of cells according to the functionality of cell cycle checkpoints...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348641/refined-control-of-cell-stemness-allowed-animal-evolution-in-the-oxic-realm
#2
REVIEW
Emma U Hammarlund, Kristoffer von Stedingk, Sven Påhlman
Animal diversification on Earth has long been presumed to be associated with the increasing extent of oxic niches. Here, we challenge that view. We start with the fact that hypoxia (<1-3% O2) maintains cellular immaturity (stemness), whereas adult stem cells continuously-and paradoxically-regenerate animal tissue in oxygenated settings. Novel insights from tumour biology illuminate how cell stemness nevertheless can be achieved through the action of oxygen-sensing transcription factors in oxygenated, regenerating tissue...
January 18, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348602/the-ten-year-evolutionary-trajectory-of-a-highly-recurrent-paediatric-high-grade-neuroepithelial-tumour-with-mn1-bend2-fusion
#3
Anna Burford, Alan Mackay, Sergey Popov, Maria Vinci, Diana Carvalho, Matthew Clarke, Elisa Izquierdo, Aimee Avery, Thomas S Jacques, Wendy J Ingram, Andrew S Moore, Kieran Frawley, Timothy E Hassall, Thomas Robertson, Chris Jones
Astroblastomas are rare brain tumours which predominate in children and young adults, and have a controversial claim as a distinct entity, with no established WHO grade. Reports suggest a better outcome than high grade gliomas, though they frequently recur. Recently, they have been described to overlap with a newly-discovered group of tumours described as'high grade neuroepithelial tumour with MN1 alteration' (CNS HGNET-MN1), defined by global methylation patterns and strongly associated with gene fusions targeting MN1...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344954/mixed-ductal-lobular-carcinomas-evidence-for-progression-from-ductal-to-lobular-morphology
#4
Amy E McCart Reed, Jamie R Kutasovic, Katia Nones, Jodi M Saunus, Leonard Da Silva, Felicity Newell, Stephen Kazakoff, Lewis Melville, Janani Jayanthan, Ana Cristina Vargas, Lynne E Reid, Jonathan Beesley, Xiao Qing Chen, Anne Marie Patch, D David Clouston, Alan Porter, Elizabeth Evans, John V Pearson, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Margaret C Cummings, Nic Waddell, Sunil R Lakhani, Peter T Simpson
Mixed ductal-lobular carcinomas (MDL) display both ductal and lobular morphology, and are an archetypal example of intra-tumour morphological heterogeneity. The mechanisms underlying coexistence of these different morphologic entities are poorly understood, although theories include that these components either represent 'collision' of independent tumours or evolve from a common ancestor. We performed comprehensive clinico-pathological analysis of a cohort of 82 MDLs and found: i) MDLs more frequently co-exist with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) than lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS); ii) the E-cadherin-catenin complex was normal in the ductal component in 77...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29342134/chromosomal-instability-drives-metastasis-through-a-cytosolic-dna-response
#5
Samuel F Bakhoum, Bryan Ngo, Ashley M Laughney, Julie-Ann Cavallo, Charles J Murphy, Peter Ly, Pragya Shah, Roshan K Sriram, Thomas B K Watkins, Neil K Taunk, Mercedes Duran, Chantal Pauli, Christine Shaw, Kalyani Chadalavada, Vinagolu K Rajasekhar, Giulio Genovese, Subramanian Venkatesan, Nicolai J Birkbak, Nicholas McGranahan, Mark Lundquist, Quincey LaPlant, John H Healey, Olivier Elemento, Christine H Chung, Nancy Y Lee, Marcin Imielenski, Gouri Nanjangud, Dana Pe'er, Don W Cleveland, Simon N Powell, Jan Lammerding, Charles Swanton, Lewis C Cantley
Chromosomal instability is a hallmark of cancer that results from ongoing errors in chromosome segregation during mitosis. Although chromosomal instability is a major driver of tumour evolution, its role in metastasis has not been established. Here we show that chromosomal instability promotes metastasis by sustaining a tumour cell-autonomous response to cytosolic DNA. Errors in chromosome segregation create a preponderance of micronuclei whose rupture spills genomic DNA into the cytosol. This leads to the activation of the cGAS-STING (cyclic GMP-AMP synthase-stimulator of interferon genes) cytosolic DNA-sensing pathway and downstream noncanonical NF-κB signalling...
January 17, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337961/how-the-evolution-of-multicellularity-set-the-stage-for-cancer
#6
REVIEW
Anna S Trigos, Richard B Pearson, Anthony T Papenfuss, David L Goode
Neoplastic growth and many of the hallmark properties of cancer are driven by the disruption of molecular networks established during the emergence of multicellularity. Regulatory pathways and molecules that evolved to impose regulatory constraints upon networks established in earlier unicellular organisms enabled greater communication and coordination between the diverse cell types required for multicellularity, but also created liabilities in the form of points of vulnerability in the network that when mutated or dysregulated facilitate the development of cancer...
January 16, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336926/changes-of-tumour-node-metastasis-staging-in-2017-concepts-and-evolutions-in-the-european-and-american-continents
#7
EDITORIAL
Eva Compérat
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 11, 2018: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335373/ectothermic-telomeres-it-s-time-they-came-in-from-the-cold
#8
REVIEW
Mats Olsson, Erik Wapstra, Christopher Friesen
We review the evolutionary ecology and genetics of telomeres in taxa that cannot elevate their body temperature to a preferred level through metabolism but do so by basking or seeking out a warm environment. This group of organisms contains all living things on earth, apart from birds and mammals. One reason for our interest in this synthetic group is the argument that high, stable body temperature increases the risk of malignant tumours if long, telomerase-restored telomeres make cells 'live forever'. If this holds true, ectotherms should have significantly lower cancer frequencies...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335372/all-s-well-that-ends-well-why-large-species-have-short-telomeres
#9
Rosa Ana Risques, Daniel E L Promislow
Among mammal species, almost all life-history traits are strongly size dependent. This size dependence even occurs at a molecular level. For example, both telomere length and telomerase expression show a size-dependent threshold. With some exceptions, species smaller than approximately 2 kg express telomerase, while species larger than that do not. Among species greater than approximately 5 kg, telomeres tend to be short-less than 25 kb-while among smaller species, some species have short and some have long telomeres...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335367/evolution-of-telomere-maintenance-and-tumour-suppressor-mechanisms-across-mammals
#10
Xiao Tian, Katherine Doerig, Rosa Park, Alice Can Ran Qin, Chaewon Hwang, Alexander Neary, Michael Gilbert, Andrei Seluanov, Vera Gorbunova
Mammalian species differ dramatically in telomere biology. Species larger than 5-10 kg repress somatic telomerase activity and have shorter telomeres, leading to replicative senescence. It has been proposed that evolution of replicative senescence in large-bodied species is an anti-tumour mechanism counteracting increased risk of cancer due to increased cell numbers. By contrast, small-bodied species express high telomerase activity and have longer telomeres. To counteract cancer risk due to longer lifespan, long-lived small-bodied species evolved additional telomere-independent tumour suppressor mechanisms...
March 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331227/the-impact-of-technology-on-the-changing-practice-of-lung-sbrt
#11
REVIEW
Marianne Camille Aznar, Samantha Warren, Mischa Hoogeman, Mirjana Josipovic
Stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for lung tumours has been gaining wide acceptance in lung cancer. Here, we review the technological evolution of SBRT delivery in lung cancer, from the first treatments using the stereotactic body frame in the 1990's to modern developments in image guidance and motion management. Finally, we discuss the impact of current technological approaches on the requirements for quality assurance as well as future technological developments.
January 10, 2018: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325166/drug-safety-and-immunogenicity-of-tumour-necrosis-factor-inhibitors-the-story-so-far
#12
Meghna Jani, William G Dixon, Hector Chinoy
TNF-α inhibitor (TNFi) therapies have transformed the treatment of several rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases. However, the majority of TNFi's are immunogenic and consequent anti-drug antibodies formation can impact on both treatment efficacy and safety. Several controversies exist in the area of immunogenicity of TNFis and drug safety. While anti-drug antibodies to TNFis have been described in association with infusion reactions; serious adverse events (AEs) such as thromboembolic events, lupus-like syndrome, paradoxical AEs, for example, vasculitis-like events and other autoimmune manifestations have also been reported...
January 8, 2018: Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324689/characterization-of-translationally-controlled-tumour-protein-from-the-sea-anemone-anemonia-viridis-and-transcriptome-wide-identification-of-cnidarian-homologues
#13
Aldo Nicosia, Carmelo Bennici, Girolama Biondo, Salvatore Costa, Marilena Di Natale, Tiziana Masullo, Calogera Monastero, Maria Antonietta Ragusa, Marcello Tagliavia, Angela Cuttitta
Gene family encoding translationally controlled tumour protein (TCTP) is defined as highly conserved among organisms; however, there is limited knowledge of non-bilateria. In this study, the first TCTP homologue from anthozoan was characterised in the Mediterranean Sea anemone, Anemonia viridis. The release of the genome sequence of Acropora digitifera, Exaiptasia pallida, Nematostella vectensis and Hydra vulgaris enabled a comprehensive study of the molecular evolution of TCTP family among cnidarians. A comparison among TCTP members from Cnidaria and Bilateria showed conserved intron exon organization, evolutionary conserved TCTP signatures and 3D protein structure...
January 11, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306639/skin-tissue-engineering-using-3d-bioprinting-an-evolving-research-field
#14
REVIEW
Sam P Tarassoli, Zita M Jessop, Ayesha Al-Sabah, Neng Gao, Sairan Whitaker, Shareen Doak, Iain S Whitaker
BACKGROUND: Commercially available tissue engineered skin remains elusive despite extensive research because the multi-stratified anisotropic structure is difficult to replicate in vitro using traditional tissue engineering techniques. Bioprinting, involving computer-controlled deposition of cells and scaffolds into spatially controlled patterns, is able to control not only the macro but also micro and nanoarchitecture and could offer the potential to more faithfully replicate native skin...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Plastic, Reconstructive & Aesthetic Surgery: JPRAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297505/determinants-and-clinical-implications-of-chromosomal-instability-in-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Laurent Sansregret, Bart Vanhaesebroeck, Charles Swanton
Aberrant chromosomal architecture, ranging from small insertions or deletions to large chromosomal alterations, is one of the most common characteristics of cancer genomes. Chromosomal instability (CIN) underpins much of the intratumoural heterogeneity observed in cancers and drives phenotypic adaptation during tumour evolution. Thus, an urgent need exists to increase our efforts to target CIN as if it were a molecular entity. Indeed, CIN accelerates the development of anticancer drug resistance, often leading to treatment failure and disease recurrence, which limit the effectiveness of most current therapies...
January 3, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296589/time-resolved-amplified-fret-identifies-protein-kinase-b-activation-state-as-a-marker-for-poor-prognosis-in-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#16
James Miles, Christopher J Applebee, Pierre Leboucher, Sonia Lopez-Fernandez, Dae-Jin Lee, Rosa Guarch, Stephen Ward, Peter J Parker, Jose I López, Banafshé Larijani
Purpose: Clear cell Renal Cell Carcinomas (ccRCC), the largest group of renal tumours, are resistant to classical therapies. The determination of the functional state of actionable biomarkers for the assessment of these adenocarcinomas is essential. The dysregulation of the oncoprotein, PKB/Akt has been linked with poor prognoses in human cancers. Material & methods: We analysed the status of the PKB/Akt pathway in a representative tumour tissue microarray obtained from the primary tumours and their metastases in 60 ccRCC with long term follow up...
December 2017: BBA Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29290323/-dendritic-infraclavicular-fibromyxolipoma-at-the-boundary-between-spindle-cell-lipoma-and-solitary-fibrous-tumour
#17
Inmaculada Ruiz Molina, Eduardo Solís García, Vicente Cívico Amat
Dendritic fibromyxolipoma (DFML) is a rare soft tissue tumor recently described with only 27 cases reported in the literature. None of them have shown recurrence or metastasis after excision. Histologically it is composed of small stellate or spindle cells in a myxoid stroma with abundant collagen bundles mixed with mature adipose tissue. The proliferating cells typically show immunoexpression positive for CD34 and bcl-2. A cytogenetic analysis reveals deletion involving 13q14.3 region. We describe the first reported case to date located in the infraclavicular region...
January 2018: Revista Española de Patología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282596/a-poroelasticity-theory-approach-to-study-the-mechanisms-leading-to-elevated-interstitial-fluid-pressure-in-solid-tumours
#18
Andrijana Burazin, Corina S Drapaca, Giuseppe Tenti, Siv Sivaloganathan
Although the mechanisms responsible for elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) in tumours remain obscure, it seems clear that high IFP represents a barrier to drug delivery (since the resulting adverse pressure gradient implies a reduction in the driving force for transvascular exchange of both fluid and macromolecules). R. Jain and co-workers studied this problem, and although the conclusions drawn from their idealized mathematical models offered useful insights into the causes of elevated IFP, they by no means gave a definitive explanation for this phenomenon...
December 27, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29281983/resource-competition-promotes-tumour-expansion-in-experimentally-evolved-cancer
#19
Tiffany B Taylor, Anastasia V Wass, Louise J Johnson, Phil Dash
BACKGROUND: Tumour progression involves a series of phenotypic changes to cancer cells, each of which presents therapeutic targets. Here, using techniques adapted from microbial experimental evolution, we investigate the evolution of tumour spreading - a precursor for metastasis and tissue invasion - in environments with varied resource supply. Evolutionary theory predicts that competition for resources within a population will select for individuals to move away from a natal site (i...
December 27, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279943/assessment-of-alteration-in-liver-18f-fdg-uptake-due-to-steatosis-in-lymphoma-patients-and-its-impact-on-the-deauville-score
#20
Thibault Salomon, Catherine Nganoa, Anne-Claire Gac, Christophe Fruchart, Gandhi Damaj, Nicolas Aide, Charline Lasnon
AIM: Our aim was (1) to evaluate the prevalence of steatosis in lymphoma patients and its evolution during treatment; (2) to evaluate the impact of hepatic steatosis on 18F-FDG liver uptake; and (3) to study how hepatic steatosis affects the Deauville score (DS) for discriminating between responders and non-responders. METHODS: Over a 1-year period, 358 PET scans from 227 patients [122 diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), 57 Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and 48 Follicular lymphoma (FL)] referred for baseline (n = 143), interim (n = 79) and end-of-treatment (EoT, n = 136) PET scans were reviewed...
December 26, 2017: European Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
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