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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757235/clinically-applicable-inhibitors-impacting-genome-stability
#1
REVIEW
Anu Prakash, Juan F Garcia-Moreno, James A L Brown, Emer Bourke
Advances in technology have facilitated the molecular profiling (genomic and transcriptomic) of tumours, and has led to improved stratification of patients and the individualisation of treatment regimes. To fully realize the potential of truly personalised treatment options, we need targeted therapies that precisely disrupt the compensatory pathways identified by profiling which allow tumours to survive or gain resistance to treatments. Here, we discuss recent advances in novel therapies that impact the genome (chromosomes and chromatin), pathways targeted and the stage of the pathways targeted...
May 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725601/-drosophila-as-a-model-system-to-study-nonautonomous-mechanisms-affecting-tumour-growth-and-cell-death
#2
REVIEW
Jean-Philippe Parvy, Joseph A Hodgson, Julia B Cordero
The study of cancer has represented a central focus in medical research for over a century. The great complexity and constant evolution of the pathology require the use of multiple research model systems and interdisciplinary approaches. This is necessary in order to achieve a comprehensive understanding into the mechanisms driving disease initiation and progression, to aid the development of appropriate therapies. In recent decades, the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and its associated powerful genetic tools have become a very attractive model system to study tumour-intrinsic and non-tumour-derived processes that mediate tumour development in vivo ...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722058/breast-cancer-intra-tumour-heterogeneity-current-status-and-clinical-implications
#3
REVIEW
Chitra Joseph, Athanasia Papadaki, Maryam Althobiti, Mansour Alsaleem, Mohammed A Aleskandarany, Emad A Rakha
Breast cancer (BC) is a heterogeneous disease that varies in presentation, morphological features, behaviour and response to therapy. High throughput molecular profiling studies have revolutionised our understanding of BC heterogeneity and demonstrated that molecular portraits of tumours are not only variable between tumours but also within individual tumours. Current evidence indicates that spatial and temporal intra-tumour heterogeneity of BC exists at levels beyond common anticipations. Intra-tumoural heterogeneity poses critical challenges in the diagnosis, prediction of behaviour and management of BC...
May 2, 2018: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720713/treatment-resistance-in-urothelial-carcinoma-an-evolutionary-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Panagiotis J Vlachostergios, Bishoy M Faltas
The emergence of treatment-resistant clones is a critical barrier to cure in patients with urothelial carcinoma. Setting the stage for the evolution of resistance, urothelial carcinoma is characterized by extensive mutational heterogeneity, which is detectable even in patients with early stage disease. Chemotherapy and immunotherapy both act as selective pressures that shape the evolutionary trajectory of urothelial carcinoma throughout the course of the disease. A detailed understanding of the dynamics of evolutionary drivers is required for the rational development of curative therapies...
May 2, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29696948/role-of-amino-acid-pet-in-hggs-limitations-and-perspectives
#5
Antoine Verger, Javier Arbizu, Ian Law
Positron emission tomography (PET) using radiolabelled amino acids was recently recommended by the Response Assessment in Neuro-Oncology (RANO) working group as an additional tool in the diagnostic assessment of brain tumours. The aim of this review is to summarise available literature data on the role of amino-acid PET imaging in high-grade gliomas (HGGs), with regard to diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of these tumours. Indeed, amino acid PET applications are multiple throughout the evolution of HGGs...
April 26, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29694715/evolution-of-pituitary-surgery-in-a-tertiary-centre
#6
Katherine J McNamara, Thomas F C Saunders, Adnan Darr, Sonia Kumar, Simon Shaw, Natarajan Saravanappa
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic trans-sphenoidal hypophysectomy is now widely recognised as being the chosen method of resecting pituitary gland tumours. There have been a number of advances both in technology and management of this group of patients over the years from the introduction of a multi disciplinary team (MDT) to the use of computed tomography (CT) navigation system for operative guidance. OBJECTIVE OF REVIEW: This study reviews one UK centre's experience of pituitary tumour resection over a period of 26 years and identifies how management of these cases has changed over this time...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674709/known-and-novel-roles-of-the-met-oncogene-in-cancer-a-coherent-approach-to-targeted-therapy
#7
REVIEW
Paolo M Comoglio, Livio Trusolino, Carla Boccaccio
The MET oncogene encodes an unconventional receptor tyrosine kinase with pleiotropic functions: it initiates and sustains neoplastic transformation when genetically altered ('oncogene addiction') and fosters cancer cell survival and tumour dissemination when transcriptionally activated in the context of an adaptive response to adverse microenvironmental conditions ('oncogene expedience'). Moreover, MET is an intrinsic modulator of the self-renewal and clonogenic ability of cancer stem cells ('oncogene inherence')...
April 19, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671943/epithelial-to-mesenchymal-transition-in-the-context-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-inhibition-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#8
Giuseppe Bronte, Sara Bravaccini, Enrico Bronte, Marco Angelo Burgio, Christian Rolfo, Angelo Delmonte, Lucio Crinò
The identification of oncogenic driver mutations in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) has led to the development of targeted drugs. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) directed against the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) target lung tumours bearing EGFR-activating mutations. This new therapeutic strategy has greatly improved tumour response rates. However, drug resistance invariably occurs during TKI-based treatment. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is one of the resistance mechanisms identified in EGFR-mutated NSCLC treated with TKIs...
April 19, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664130/time-to-redefine-the-intramammary-lymph-node-as-a-separate-entity
#9
M Green, H Tafazal, B Swati, R Vidya
The lymphatic drainage for the majority of primary breast tumours is to the axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Some, however drain to the so-called extra-axillary basins, namely the internal mammary, supra- and infraclavicular regions. Another potential drainage route includes the intramammary lymph nodes (IMLNs). Current guidance suggests IMLNs should be considered as part of the axillary group, potentially affecting axillary management. However, due to evolution in imaging and advancement in technology, IMLNs may now be distinguished more accurately pre-operatively...
April 17, 2018: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664032/expression-of-p53-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-in-glioblastoma
#10
Sameera Karnam, Radhika Kottu, Amit Kumar Chowhan, Prasad Chandramouleswara Bodepati
Background & objectives: Glioblastoma (GB) is the most frequent brain tumour, manifesting at any age, with a peak incidence between 45 and 75 years. Primary and secondary GBs constitute relatively distinct disease entities in evolution, in expression profiles and in therapeutic response. Histopathologically, primary and secondary GBs are indistinguishable. The aim of this investigation was to study the immunohistochemical (IHC) expression of p53 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in GB with the objective of categorizing the morphological variants of GB into primary and secondary based on the presence of low-grade areas and knowing the variable expression of p53 and EGFR in primary and secondary GB...
December 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662108/nips-a-3d-network-integrated-predictor-of-deleterious-protein-saps-and-its-application-in-cancer-prognosis
#11
Bo Wang, Jing Li, Xi Cheng, Qiao Zhou, Jingxu Yang, Menghuan Zhang, Haifeng Chen, Jing Li
Identifying deleterious mutations remains a challenge in cancer genome sequencing projects, reflecting the vast number of candidate mutations per tumour and the existence of interpatient heterogeneity. Based on a 3D protein interaction network profiled via large-scale cross-linking mass spectrometry, we propose a weighted average formula involving the combination of three types of information into a 'meta-score'. We assume that a single amino acid polymorphism (SAP) may have a deleterious effect if the mutation rarely occurs naturally during evolution, if it inhibits binding between a pair of interacting proteins when located at their interface, or if it plays an important role in a protein interaction (PPI) network...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662054/characterising-the-phenotypic-evolution-of-circulating-tumour-cells-during-treatment
#12
Simon Chang-Hao Tsao, Jing Wang, Yuling Wang, Andreas Behren, Jonathan Cebon, Matt Trau
Real-time monitoring of cancer cells' phenotypic evolution during therapy can provide vital tumour biology information for treatment management. Circulating tumour cell (CTC) analysis has emerged as a useful monitoring tool, but its routine usage is restricted by either limited multiplexing capability or sensitivity. Here, we demonstrate the use of antibody-conjugated and Raman reporter-coated gold nanoparticles for simultaneous labelling and monitoring of multiple CTC surface markers (named as "cell signature"), without the need for isolating individual CTCs...
April 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659511/quorum-sensing-and-quorum-quenching-in-agrobacterium-a-go-no-go-system
#13
REVIEW
Yves Dessaux, Denis Faure
The pathogen Agrobacterium induces gall formation on a wide range of dicotyledonous plants. In this bacteria, most pathogenicity determinants are borne on the tumour inducing (Ti) plasmid. The conjugative transfer of this plasmid between agrobacteria is regulated by quorum sensing (QS). However, processes involved in the disturbance of QS also occur in this bacteria under the molecular form of a protein, TraM, inhibiting the sensing of the QS signals, and two lactonases BlcC (AttM) and AiiB that degrade the acylhomoserine lactone (AHL) QS signal...
April 16, 2018: Genes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656754/malignant-cells-from-pleural-fluids-in-malignant-mesothelioma-patients-reveal-novel-mutations
#14
Sophie Sneddon, Ian Dick, Y C Gary Lee, A W Bill Musk, Ann-Marie Patch, John V Pearson, Nicola Waddell, Richard J N Allcock, Robert A Holt, Bruce W S Robinson, Jenette Creaney
OBJECTIVES: Malignant mesothelioma (MM) is an asbestos related tumour affecting cells of serosal cavities. More than 70% of MM patients develop pleural effusions which contain tumour cells, representing a readily accessible source of malignant cells for genetic analysis. Although common somatic mutations and losses have been identified in solid MM tumours, the characterization of tumour cells within pleural effusions could provide novel insights but is little studied. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA and RNA were extracted from cells from short term cultures of 27 human MM pleural effusion samples...
May 2018: Lung Cancer: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653092/cd10-inhibits-cell-motility-but-expression-is-associated-with-advanced-stage-disease-in-colorectal-cancer
#15
Teresa P Raposo, Mireia Sueca Comes, Adeyemi Idowu, Bora Agit, James Hassall, Wakkas Fadhil, Robert Nica, Rupert Ecker, Takashi Yao, Mohammad Ilyas
INTRODUCTION: CD10 is a cell membrane-bound endopeptidase which is expressed in normal small bowel but not in normal colon. It is aberrantly expressed in a small proportion of colorectal cancers (CRC) and this has been associated with liver metastasis and poor prognosis. We sought to investigate the mechanism of CD10 activity and its association with clinicopathological features. MATERIAL AND METHODS: CD10 was stably knocked down by lentiviral shRNA transduction in the CRC cell lines SW480 and SW620 which are derived from a primary tumour and its corresponding metastasis respectively...
April 11, 2018: Experimental and Molecular Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644800/defining-cell-identity-with-single-cell-omics
#16
REVIEW
Laura Mincarelli, Ashleigh Lister, James Lipscombe, Iain C Macaulay
Cells are a fundamental unit of life, and the ability to study the phenotypes and behaviours of individual cells is crucial to understanding the workings of complex biological systems. Cell phenotypes (epigenomic, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic) exhibit dramatic heterogeneity between and within the different cell types and states underlying cellular functional diversity. Cell genotypes can also display heterogeneity throughout an organism, in the form of somatic genetic variation - most notably in the emergence and evolution of tumours...
April 12, 2018: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644408/modul-a-multicenter-randomized-clinical-trial-of-biomarker-driven-maintenance-therapy-following-first-line-standard-induction-treatment-of-metastatic-colorectal-cancer-an-adaptable-signal-seeking-approach
#17
Hans-Joachim Schmoll, Dirk Arnold, Aimery de Gramont, Michel Ducreux, Axel Grothey, Peter J O'Dwyer, Eric Van Cutsem, Frank Hermann, Ivan Bosanac, Belguendouz Bendahmane, Christoph Mancao, Josep Tabernero
PURPOSE: The old approach of one therapeutic for all patients with mCRC is evolving with a need to target specific molecular aberrations or cell-signalling pathways. Molecular screening approaches and new biomarkers are required to fully characterize tumours, identify patients most likely to benefit, and predict treatment response. METHODS: MODUL is a signal-seeking trial with a design that is highly adaptable, permitting modification of different treatment cohorts and inclusion of further additional cohorts based on novel evidence on new compounds/combinations that emerge during the study...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29628799/clinical-and-immunological-correlates-of-long-term-survival-in-glioblastoma
#18
REVIEW
Bartosz Czapski, Szymon Baluszek, Christel Herold-Mende, Bozena Kaminska
Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and most aggressive type of primary brain tumour in adults. It represents 54% of all gliomas and 16% of all brain tumours (Ostrom et al. 2016). Despite surgery and treatment with radiotherapy plus an oral alkylating agent, temozolomide (TMZ), tumours invariably recur, and the patient survival is an average of ~14-16 months. In this review we summarise the current understanding of multiple factors that may affect survival of patients with GBMs. In particular, we discuss recent advancements in surgery and detection of genomic-based markers with prognostic values, such as IDH1/2 mutations, MGMT gene promoter methylation, and TERT gene promoter alterations...
March 2018: Contemporary Oncology Współczesna Onkologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625863/circulating-cell-free-dna-for-non-invasive-cancer-management
#19
REVIEW
Caitlin M Stewart, Dana W Y Tsui
Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) was first identified in human plasma in 1948 and is thought to be released from cells throughout the body into the circulatory system. In cancer, a portion of the cfDNA originates from tumour cells, referred to as circulating-tumour DNA (ctDNA), and can contain mutations corresponding to the patient's tumour, for instance specific TP53 alleles. Profiling of cfDNA has recently become an area of increasing clinical relevance in oncology, in particular due to advances in the sensitivity of molecular biology techniques and development of next generation sequencing technologies, as this allows tumour mutations to be identified and tracked non-invasively...
March 11, 2018: Cancer Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608694/scanpav-a-pipeline-for-extracting-presence-absence-variations-in-genome-pairs
#20
Francesca Giordano, Maximilian R Stammnitz, Elizabeth P Murchison, Zemin Ning
Motivation: The recent technological advances in genome sequencing techniques have resulted in an exponential increase in the number of sequenced human and non-human genomes. The ever increasing number of assemblies generated by novel de novo pipelines and strategies demands the development of new software to evaluate assembly quality and completeness. One way to determine the completeness of an assembly is by detecting its Presence-Absence variations (PAV) with respect to a reference, where PAVs between two assemblies are defined as the sequences present in one assembly but entirely missing in the other one...
March 28, 2018: Bioinformatics
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