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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#1
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138437/photosensitized-ina-labelled-protein-1-phil1-is-novel-component-of-the-inner-membrane-complex-and-is-required-for-plasmodium-parasite-development
#2
Ekta Saini, Mohammad Zeeshan, Declan Brady, Rajan Pandey, Gesine Kaiser, Ludek Koreny, Pradeep Kumar, Vandana Thakur, Shreyansh Tatiya, Nicholas J Katris, Rebecca Stanway Limenitakis, Inderjeet Kaur, Judith L Green, Andrew R Bottrill, David S Guttery, Ross F Waller, Volker Heussler, Anthony A Holder, Asif Mohmmed, Pawan Malhotra, Rita Tewari
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, possess a distinctive membranous structure of flattened alveolar vesicles supported by a proteinaceous network, and referred to as the inner membrane complex (IMC). The IMC has a role in actomyosin-mediated motility and host cell invasion. Here, we examine the location, protein interactome and function of PhIL1, an IMC-associated protein on the motile and invasive stages of both human and rodent parasites. We show that PhIL1 is located in the IMC in all three invasive (merozoite, ookinete-, and sporozoite) stages of development, as well as in the male gametocyte and locates both at the apical and basal ends of ookinete and sporozoite stages...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109714/characteristics-of-a-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-rgsc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#3
Young Kim, In-Beom Heo, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have a conserved RGS domain that facilitates the intrinsic GTPase activity of an activated Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, thereby attenuating signal transduction. Among six predicted RGS proteins in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, only three (FlbA, GprK, and Rax1) have been studied. The unexplored RgsC composed of the Phox-associated (PXA), RGS, Phox homology (PX), and Nexin_C superfamily domains is highly conserved in many ascomycete fungi, suggesting a crucial role of RgsC in fungal biology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094698/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-signature-of-sexual-commitment-in-malaria-parasites
#4
Asaf Poran, Christopher Nötzel, Omar Aly, Nuria Mencia-Trinchant, Chantal T Harris, Monica L Guzman, Duane C Hassane, Olivier Elemento, Björn F C Kafsack
Pathogens have to balance transmission with persistence. For Plasmodium falciparum, the most widespread and virulent malaria parasite, persistence within its human host requires continuous asexual replication within red blood cells, while its mosquito-borne transmission depends on intra-erythrocytic differentiation into non-replicating sexual stages called gametocytes. Commitment to either fate is determined during the preceding cell cycle that begins with invasion by a single, asexually committed merozoite and ends, 48 hours later, with a schizont releasing newly formed merozoites, all committed to either continued asexual replication or differentiation into gametocytes...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079720/a-global-survey-of-atpase-activity-in-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-blood-stages-and-gametocytes
#5
Corrie Ortega, Andrew Frando, Bobbie-Jo Webb-Robertson, Lindsey N Anderson, Neil D Fleck, Erika L Flannery, Matthew Fishbaugher, Taylor A Murphree, Joshua R Hansen, Richard D Smith, Stefan Hi Kappe, Aaron Wright, Christoph Grundner
Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of the Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage that causes disease as well as the gametocyte stage that is required for transmission from humans to the mosquito vector. Most currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, a highly specialized, non-replicating sexual parasite stage. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the unknown metabolic state of the gametocyte and the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products in general...
October 27, 2017: Molecular & Cellular Proteomics: MCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042501/plasmodium-falciparum-calcium-dependent-protein-kinase-2-is-critical-for-male-gametocyte-exflagellation-but-not-essential-for-asexual-proliferation
#6
Abhisheka Bansal, Alvaro Molina-Cruz, Joseph Brzostowski, Jianbing Mu, Louis H Miller
Drug development efforts have focused mostly on the asexual blood stages of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum Except for primaquine, which has its own limitations, there are no available drugs that target the transmission of the parasite to mosquitoes. Therefore, there is a need to validate new parasite proteins that can be targeted for blocking transmission. P. falciparum calcium-dependent protein kinases (PfCDPKs) play critical roles at various stages of the parasite life cycle and, importantly, are absent in the human host...
October 17, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28983103/characterization-of-a-putative-plasmodium-falciparum-sac1-phosphoinositide-phosphatase-homologue-potentially-required-for-survival-during-the-asexual-erythrocytic-stages
#7
Catherine Thériault, Dave Richard
Despite marked reductions in morbidity and mortality in the last ten years, malaria still takes a tremendous toll on human populations throughout tropical and sub-tropical regions of the world. The absence of an effective vaccine and resistance to most antimalarial drugs available demonstrate the urgent need for new intervention strategies. Phosphoinositides are a class of lipids with critical roles in numerous processes and their specific subcellular distribution, generated through the action of kinases and phosphatases, define organelle identity in a wide range of eukaryotic cells...
October 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974215/species-and-genotype-diversity-of-plasmodium-in-malaria-patients-from-gabon-analysed-by-next-generation-sequencing
#8
Albert Lalremruata, Sankarganesh Jeyaraj, Thomas Engleitner, Fanny Joanny, Annika Lang, Sabine Bélard, Ghyslain Mombo-Ngoma, Michael Ramharter, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: Six Plasmodium species are known to naturally infect humans. Mixed species infections occur regularly but morphological discrimination by microscopy is difficult and multiplicity of infection (MOI) can only be evaluated by molecular methods. This study investigated the complexity of Plasmodium infections in patients treated for microscopically detected non-falciparum or mixed species malaria in Gabon. METHODS: Ultra-deep sequencing of nucleus (18S rRNA), mitochondrion, and apicoplast encoded genes was used to evaluate Plasmodium species diversity and MOI in 46 symptomatic Gabonese patients with microscopically diagnosed non-falciparum or mixed species malaria...
October 3, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28968020/-molecular-characterization-of-cryptococcus-neoformans-isolates-from-hiv-patients-guayaquil-ecuador
#9
Sunny Sánchez, Dolores Zambrano, Maylen García, César Bedoya, Carlos Fernández, María Teresa Illnait-Zaragozí
INTRODUCTION: Neurocryptococcosis is an opportunistic fungal infection that represents a high cost in human lives and for the economy of countries. Its causative agent, the Cryptococcus neoformans/Cryptococcus gattii species complex, has a sexual and an asexual phase, four major serotypes and seven molecular varieties with phenotypic, clinical-epidemiological and antifungal susceptibility differences. OBJECTIVE: To characterize by molecular methods clinical isolates of C...
September 1, 2017: Biomédica: Revista del Instituto Nacional de Salud
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959740/the-exported-chaperone-pfhsp70x-is-dispensable-for-the-plasmodium-falciparum-intraerythrocytic-life-cycle
#10
David W Cobb, Anat Florentin, Manuel A Fierro, Michelle Krakowiak, Julie M Moore, Vasant Muralidharan
Export of parasite proteins into the host erythrocyte is essential for survival of Plasmodium falciparum during its asexual life cycle. While several studies described key factors within the parasite that are involved in protein export, the mechanisms employed to traffic exported proteins within the host cell are currently unknown. Members of the Hsp70 family of chaperones, together with their Hsp40 cochaperones, facilitate protein trafficking in other organisms, and are thus likely used by P. falciparum in the trafficking of its exported proteins...
September 2017: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944037/clonal-structure-through-space-and-time-high-stability-in-the-holothurian-stichopus-chloronotus-echinodermata
#11
Agathe Pirog, Pauline Gélin, Alexandre Bédier, Grégoire Bianchetti, Stéphane Georget, Patrick Frouin, Hélène Magalon
Sea cucumbers are increasingly exploited for human consumption and for their curative properties, and many wild populations are now depleted or in danger of extinction. While aquaculture is seen as an alternative to fisheries and as a mean to restore wild populations, more knowledge is needed on their reproductive strategies to render this practice efficient, notably for fissiparous holothurians, which are some of the mobile animals able of asexual reproduction by transverse fission. Little information is available on their population genetic diversity and structure...
September 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28939120/synthesis-characterization-and-cellular-localization-of-a-fluorescent-probe-of-the-antimalarial-8-aminoquinoline-primaquine
#12
Adonis McQueen, Lynn D Blake, Ala Azhari, M Trent Kemp, Tommy W McGaha, Niranjan Namelikonda, Randy W Larsen, Roman Manetsch, Dennis E Kyle
Primaquine (PQ) is the only commercially available drug that clears dormant liver stages of malaria and blocks transmission to mosquito vectors. Although an old drug, much remains to be known about the mechanism(s) of action. Herein we develop a fluorescent tagged PQ to discover cellular localization in the human malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. Successful synthesis and characterization of a primaquine-coumarin fluorescent probe (PQCP) demonstrated potency equivalent to the parent drug and the probe was not cytotoxic to HepG2 carcinoma cells...
October 15, 2017: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#13
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899381/ned-19-inhibition-of-parasite-growth-and-multiplication-suggests-a-role-for-naadp-mediated-signalling-in-the-asexual-development-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#14
Pablo Suárez-Cortés, Guido Gambara, Annarita Favia, Fioretta Palombi, Pietro Alano, Antonio Filippini
BACKGROUND: Although malaria is a preventable and curable human disease, millions of people risk to be infected by the Plasmodium parasites and to develop this illness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Ca(2+) signalling regulates different processes in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, representing a suitable target for the development of new drugs. RESULTS: This study investigated for the first time the effect of a highly specific inhibitor of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-induced Ca(2+) release (Ned-19) on P...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886443/antiplasmodial-activities-of-dyes-against-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-and-sexual-stages-contrasted-uptakes-of-triarylmethanes-brilliant-green-green-s-e142-and-patent-blue-v-e131-by-erythrocytes
#15
Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, Lise Musset, Christophe Duplais
The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P...
August 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877692/the-use-of-a-p-falciparum-specific-coiled-coil-domain-to-construct-a-self-assembling-protein-nanoparticle-vaccine-to-prevent-malaria
#16
Christopher P Karch, Tais A P F Doll, Sara M Paulillo, Issa Nebie, David E Lanar, Giampietro Corradin, Peter Burkhard
BACKGROUND: The parasitic disease malaria remains a major global public health concern and no truly effective vaccine exists. One approach to the development of a malaria vaccine is to target the asexual blood stage that results in clinical symptoms. Most attempts have failed. New antigens such as P27A and P27 have emerged as potential new vaccine candidates. Multiple studies have demonstrated that antigens are more immunogenic and are better correlated with protection when presented on particulate delivery systems...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Nanobiotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870457/a-fluorogenic-c-neoformans-reporter-strain-with-a-robust-expression-of-m-cherry-expressed-from-a-safe-haven-site-in-the-genome
#17
Rajendra Upadhya, Woei C Lam, Brian T Maybruck, Maureen J Donlin, Andrew L Chang, Sarah Kayode, Kate L Ormerod, James A Fraser, Tamara L Doering, Jennifer K Lodge
C. neoformans is an encapsulated fungal pathogen with defined asexual and sexual life cycles. Due to the availability of genetic and molecular tools for its manipulation, it has become a model organism for studies of fungal pathogens, even though it lacks a reliable system for maintaining DNA fragments as extrachromosomal plasmids. To compensate for this deficiency, we identified a genomic gene-free intergenic region where heterologous DNA could be inserted by homologous recombination without adverse effects on the phenotype of the recipient strain...
November 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859429/gametocytemia-and-attractiveness-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-kenyan-children-to-anopheles-gambiae-mosquitoes
#18
Annette O Busula, Teun Bousema, Collins K Mweresa, Daniel Masiga, James G Logan, Robert W Sauerwein, Niels O Verhulst, Willem Takken, Jetske G de Boer
It has been suggested that Plasmodia manipulate their vertebrate hosts to enhance parasite transmission. Using a dual-choice olfactometer, we investigated the attraction of Anopheles gambiae to 50 Kenyan children (aged 5-12 years) who were naturally infected with Plasmodium falciparum or noninfected controls. Microscopic gametocyte carriers attracted almost 2 times more mosquitoes than children who were parasite free, harbored asexual stages, or had gametocytes at submicroscopic densities. By using highly sensitive stage-specific molecular methods to detect P...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840304/myba-a-new-player-driving-survival-of-the-conidium-of-the-human-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#19
REVIEW
Özlem Sarikaya Bayram, Jean Paul Latgé, Özgür Bayram
Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic human pathogen that causes various complications in patients with a weakened immune system functions. Asexual spores of A. fumigatus are responsible for initiation of aspergillosis. Long-term viability and proper germination of dormant conidia depend on trehalose accumulation, which protect the spores against thermal and oxidative stress. A putative Myb transcription factor, MybA has been recently found to be responsible for a variety of physiological and molecular roles ranging from conidiation, spore viability, trehalose accumulation, cell wall integrity and protection against reactive oxygen species...
August 24, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839251/odours-of-plasmodium-falciparum-infected-participants-influence-mosquito-host-interactions
#20
Jetske G de Boer, Ailie Robinson, Stephen J Powers, Saskia L G E Burgers, John C Caulfield, Michael A Birkett, Renate C Smallegange, Perry J J van Genderen, Teun Bousema, Robert W Sauerwein, John A Pickett, Willem Takken, James G Logan
Malaria parasites are thought to influence mosquito attraction to human hosts, a phenomenon that may enhance parasite transmission. This is likely mediated by alterations in host odour because of its importance in mosquito host-searching behaviour. Here, we report that the human skin odour profile is affected by malaria infection. We compared the chemical composition and attractiveness to Anopheles coluzzii mosquitoes of skin odours from participants that were infected by Controlled Human Malaria Infection with Plasmodium falciparum...
August 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
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