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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28062360/determination-of-glutathione-redox-potential-and-ph-value-in-subcellular-compartments-of-malaria-parasites
#1
Franziska Mohring, Mahsa Rahbari, Bernd Zechmann, Stefan Rahlfs, Jude M Przyborski, Andreas J Meyer, Katja Becker
The malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum is exposed to multiple sources of oxidative challenge during its complex life cycle in the Anopheles vector and its human host. In order to further elucidate redox-based parasite host cell interactions and mechanisms of drug action, we targeted the genetically encoded glutathione redox sensor roGFP2 coupled to human glutaredoxin 1 (roGFP2-hGrx1) as well as the ratiometric pH sensor pHluorin to the apicoplast and the mitochondrion of P. falciparum. Using live cell imaging, this allowed for the first time the determination of the pH values of the apicoplast (7...
January 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057055/functional-characterization-of-plasmodium-berghei-psop25-during-ookinete-development-and-as-a-malaria-transmission-blocking-vaccine-candidate
#2
Wenqi Zheng, Fei Liu, Yiwen He, Qingyang Liu, Gregory B Humphreys, Takafumi Tsuboi, Qi Fan, Enjie Luo, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium ookinete surface proteins as post-fertilization target antigens are potential malaria transmission-blocking vaccine (TBV) candidates. Putative secreted ookinete protein 25 (PSOP25) is a highly conserved ookinete surface protein, and has been shown to be a promising novel TBV target. Here, we further investigated the TBV activities of the full-length recombinant PSOP25 (rPSOP25) protein in Plasmodium berghei, and characterized the potential functions of PSOP25 during the P...
January 5, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055573/guidelines-for-the-detection-of-babesia-and-theileria-parasites
#3
Laetitia Lempereur, Relja Beck, Isabel Fonseca, Cátia Marques, Ana Duarte, Marcos Santos, Sara Zúquete, Jacinto Gomes, Gernot Walder, Ana Domingos, Sandra Antunes, Gad Baneth, Cornelia Silaghi, Patricia Holman, Annetta Zintl
The genera Babesia and Theileria (phylum Apicomplexa, order Piroplasmida) are mainly transmitted by Ixodid ticks in which the sexual part of their life cycle followed by sporogony takes place. They include protozoan parasites that infect erythrocytes of a variety of vertebrate hosts, including domestic and wild animals, with some Babesia spp. also infecting humans. Babesia sporozoites transmitted in the tick's saliva during the bloodmeal directly infect erythrocytes, where they asexually multiply to produce pear-shaped merozoites in the process of merogony; whereas a pre-erythrocytic schizogonic life stage in leukocytes is found in Theileria and precedes merogony in the erythrocytes...
January 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052996/a-novel-bioengineered-3d-human-intestinal-model-for-long-term-infection-of-cryptosporidium-parvum
#4
Maria A DeCicco RePass, Ying Chen, Yinan Lin, Wenda Zhou, David L Kaplan, Honorine D Ward
Cryptosporidium spp. are apicomplexan parasites of global importance that cause human diarrheal disease. In vitro culture models to study this parasite with physiological relevance to in vivo infection remain sub-optimal. Thus, the pathogenesis of cryptosporidiosis remains poorly characterized, and interventions for the disease are limited. In this study, we evaluated the potential of a novel bioengineered 3D human intestinal tissue model (which we developed previously) to support long term infection by C. parvum...
January 4, 2017: Infection and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043178/towards-clinical-development-of-a-pfs48-45-based-transmission-blocking-malaria-vaccine
#5
Michael Theisen, Matthijs M Jore, Robert Sauerwein
Malaria is a devastating vector-borne disease caused by the Plasmodium parasite, resulting in almost 0.5 million casualties per year. The parasite has a complex life-cycle that includes asexual replication in human red blood cells, causing symptomatic malaria, and sexual stages which are essential for the transmission to the mosquito vector. A vaccine targeting the sexual stages of the parasite and thus blocking transmission will be instrumental for the eradication of malaria. One of the leading transmission blocking vaccine candidates is the sexual stage antigen Pfs48/45...
January 3, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28027318/stage-specific-changes-in-plasmodium-metabolism-required-for-differentiation-and-adaptation-to-different-host-and-vector-environments
#6
Anubhav Srivastava, Nisha Philip, Katie R Hughes, Konstantina Georgiou, James I MacRae, Michael P Barrett, Darren J Creek, Malcolm J McConville, Andrew P Waters
Malaria parasites (Plasmodium spp.) encounter markedly different (nutritional) environments during their complex life cycles in the mosquito and human hosts. Adaptation to these different host niches is associated with a dramatic rewiring of metabolism, from a highly glycolytic metabolism in the asexual blood stages to increased dependence on tricarboxylic acid (TCA) metabolism in mosquito stages. Here we have used stable isotope labelling, targeted metabolomics and reverse genetics to map stage-specific changes in Plasmodium berghei carbon metabolism and determine the functional significance of these changes on parasite survival in the blood and mosquito stages...
December 2016: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997583/rapid-generation-of-marker-free-p-falciparum-fluorescent-reporter-lines-using-modified-crispr-cas9-constructs-and-selection-protocol
#7
Catherin Marin Mogollon, Fiona J A van Pul, Takashi Imai, Jai Ramesar, Séverine Chevalley-Maurel, Guido M de Roo, Sabrina A J Veld, Hans Kroeze, Blandine M D Franke-Fayard, Chris J Janse, Shahid M Khan
The CRISPR/Cas9 system is a powerful genome editing technique employed in a wide variety of organisms including recently the human malaria parasite, P. falciparum. Here we report on further improvements to the CRISPR/Cas9 transfection constructs and selection protocol to more rapidly modify the P. falciparum genome and to introduce transgenes into the parasite genome without the inclusion of drug-selectable marker genes. This method was used to stably integrate the gene encoding GFP into the P. falciparum genome under the control of promoters of three different Plasmodium genes (calmodulin, gapdh and hsp70)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933903/proteomic-identification-and-analysis-of-arginine-methylated-proteins-of-plasmodium-falciparum-at-asexual-blood-stages
#8
Mohammad Zeeshan, Inderjeet Kaur, Joseph Joy, Ekta Saini, Gourab Paul, Abhinav Kaushik, Surbhi Dabral, Asif Mohmmed, Dinesh Gupta, Pawan Malhotra
Plasmodium falciparum undergoes a tightly regulated developmental process in human erythrocytes, and recent studies suggest an important regulatory role of post-translational modifications (PTMs). As compared with Plasmodium phosphoproteome, little is known about other PTMs in the parasite. In the present study, we performed a global analysis of asexual blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum to identify arginine-methylated proteins. Using two different methyl arginine-specific antibodies, we immunoprecipitated the arginine-methylated proteins from the stage-specific parasite lysates and identified 843 putative arginine-methylated proteins by LC-MS/MS...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927918/coelomycetous-fungi-in-the-clinical-setting-morphological-convergence-and-cryptic-diversity
#9
Nicomedes Valenzuela-Lopez, Deanna A Sutton, José F Cano-Lira, Katihuska Paredes, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro, Alberto M Stchigel
Human infections by coelomycetous fungi are becoming more frequent and range from superficial to systemic dissemination. Traumatic implantation of contaminated plant material is the most common cause. The typical morphological feature of these fungi is the production of asexual spores (conidia) within fruiting bodies called conidiomata. This study aimed to determine the distribution of the coelomycetes in clinical samples by a phenotypic and molecular study of a large set of isolates received from a USA reference mycological institution and by obtaining the in vitro antifungal susceptibility pattern of a selected group of strains against nine antifungals...
December 7, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921081/a-fungus-specific-protein-domain-is-essential-for-rasa-mediated-morphogenetic-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#10
Qusai Al Abdallah, Tiffany S Norton, Amy M Hill, Lawrence L LeClaire, Jarrod R Fortwendel
Ras proteins function as conserved regulators of eukaryotic growth and differentiation and are essential signaling proteins orchestrating virulence in pathogenic fungi. Here, we report the identification of a novel N-terminal domain of the RasA protein in the filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Whereas this domain is absent in Ras homologs of higher eukaryotes, the N-terminal extension is conserved among fungi and is characterized by a short string of two to eight amino acids terminating in an invariant arginine...
November 2016: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917156/inhibitory-effects-of-macrotetrolides-from-streptomyces-spp-on-zoosporogenesis-and-motility-of-peronosporomycete-zoospores-are-likely-linked-with-enhanced-atpase-activity-in-mitochondria
#11
Md Tofazzal Islam, Hartmut Laatsch, Andreas von Tiedemann
The release of zoospores from sporangia and motility of the released zoospores are critical in the disease cycle of the Peronosporomycetes that cause devastating diseases in plants, fishes, animals and humans. Disruption of any of these asexual life stages eliminates the possibility of pathogenesis. In the course of screening novel bioactive secondary metabolites, we found that extracts of some strains of marine Streptomyces spp. rapidly impaired motility and caused subsequent lysis of zoospores of the grapevine downy mildew pathogen Plasmopara viticola at 10 μg/ml...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882477/sexual-fantasy-and-masturbation-among-asexual-individuals-an-in-depth-exploration
#12
Morag A Yule, Lori A Brotto, Boris B Gorzalka
Human asexuality is generally defined as a lack of sexual attraction. We used online questionnaires to investigate reasons for masturbation, and explored and compared the contents of sexual fantasies of asexual individuals (identified using the Asexual Identification Scale) with those of sexual individuals. A total of 351 asexual participants (292 women, 59 men) and 388 sexual participants (221 women, 167 men) participated. Asexual women were significantly less likely to masturbate than sexual women, sexual men, and asexual men...
November 23, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791095/fungal-dna-virus-infects-a-mycophagous-insect-and-utilizes-it-as-a-transmission-vector
#13
Si Liu, Jiatao Xie, Jiasen Cheng, Bo Li, Tao Chen, Yanping Fu, Guoqing Li, Manqun Wang, Huanan Jin, Hu Wan, Daohong Jiang
Mycoviruses are usually transmitted horizontally via hyphal anastomosis and vertically via sexual/asexual spores. Previously, we reported that a gemycircularvirus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum hypovirulence-associated DNA virus 1 (SsHADV-1), could infect its fungal host extracellularly. Here, we discovered that SsHADV-1 could infect a mycophagous insect, Lycoriella ingenua, and use it as a transmission vector. Virus acquired by larvae feeding on colonies of a virus-infected strain of S. sclerotiorum was replicated and retained in larvae, pupae, adults, and eggs...
October 24, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27705841/human-dihydrofolate-reductase-influences-the-sensitivity-of-the-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-to-ketotifen-a-cautionary-tale-in-screening-transgenic-parasites
#14
Phuong N Tran, Cameron J Tate, Melanie C Ridgway, Kevin J Saliba, Kiaran Kirk, Alexander G Maier
Ketotifen has recently been reported to inhibit the growth of both asexual and sexual malaria parasites. A parasite transporter, PfgABCG2, has been implicated in its mechanism of action. Human dihydrofolate reductase (hDHFR) is the most commonly used selectable marker to create transgenic Plasmodium falciparum cell lines. Growth assays using transgenic P. falciparum parasites with different selectable markers revealed that the presence of hDHFR rather than the absence of PfgABCG2 is responsible for a shift in the parasite's sensitivity to ketotifen...
December 2016: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27701420/characterization-of-novel-antimalarial-compound-act-451840-preclinical-assessment-of-activity-and-dose-efficacy-modeling
#15
Amélie Le Bihan, Ruben de Kanter, Iñigo Angulo-Barturen, Christoph Binkert, Christoph Boss, Reto Brun, Ralf Brunner, Stephan Buchmann, Jeremy Burrows, Koen J Dechering, Michael Delves, Sonja Ewerling, Santiago Ferrer, Christoph Fischli, Francisco Javier Gamo-Benito, Nina F Gnädig, Bibia Heidmann, María Belén Jiménez-Díaz, Didier Leroy, Maria Santos Martínez, Solange Meyer, Joerg J Moehrle, Caroline L Ng, Rintis Noviyanti, Andrea Ruecker, Laura María Sanz, Robert W Sauerwein, Christian Scheurer, Sarah Schleiferboeck, Robert Sinden, Christopher Snyder, Judith Straimer, Grennady Wirjanata, Jutta Marfurt, Ric N Price, Thomas Weller, Walter Fischli, David A Fidock, Martine Clozel, Sergio Wittlin
BACKGROUND: Artemisinin resistance observed in Southeast Asia threatens the continued use of artemisinin-based combination therapy in endemic countries. Additionally, the diversity of chemical mode of action in the global portfolio of marketed antimalarials is extremely limited. Addressing the urgent need for the development of new antimalarials, a chemical class of potent antimalarial compounds with a novel mode of action was recently identified. Herein, the preclinical characterization of one of these compounds, ACT-451840, conducted in partnership with academic and industrial groups is presented...
October 2016: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27644319/genetic-characterization-of-plasmodium-putative-pantothenate-kinase-genes-reveals-their-essential-role-in-malaria-parasite-transmission-to-the-mosquito
#16
Robert J Hart, Emmanuel Cornillot, Amanah Abraham, Emily Molina, Catherine S Nation, Choukri Ben Mamoun, Ahmed S I Aly
The metabolic machinery for the biosynthesis of Coenzyme A (CoA) from exogenous pantothenic acid (Vitamin B5) has long been considered as an excellent target for the development of selective antimicrobials. Earlier studies in the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum have shown that pantothenate analogs interfere with pantothenate phosphorylation and block asexual blood stage development. Although two eukaryotic-type putative pantothenate kinase genes (PanK1 and PanK2) have been identified in all malaria parasite species, their role in the development of Plasmodium life cycle stages remains unknown...
September 20, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642688/laea-and-vea-are-involved-in-growth-morphology-asexual-development-and-mycotoxin-production-in-alternaria-alternata
#17
N Estiarte, C B Lawrence, V Sanchis, A J Ramos, A Crespo-Sempere
Alternaria alternata is a common filamentous fungus that contaminates various fruits, grains and vegetables causing important economic losses to farmers and the food industry. A. alternata is a mycotoxigenic mould, which may jeopardize human and animal health. Two of the most common A. alternata mycotoxins found in food and feed are alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether. In this study we examined the role of LaeA and VeA, two regulatory proteins belonging to the velvet family, which have been described to be involved in several functions in many fungi including secondary metabolism...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Food Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638360/in-host-adaptation-and-acquired-triazole-resistance-in-aspergillus-fumigatus-a-dilemma-for-clinical-management
#18
REVIEW
Paul E Verweij, Jianhua Zhang, Alfons J M Debets, Jacques F Meis, Frank L van de Veerdonk, Sijmen E Schoustra, Bas J Zwaan, Willem J G Melchers
Aspergillus fumigatus causes a range of diseases in human beings, some of which are characterised by fungal persistence. A fumigatus can persist by adapting to the human lung environment through physiological and genomic changes. The physiological changes are based on the large biochemical versatility of the fungus, and the genomic changes are based on the capacity of the fungus to generate genetic diversity by spontaneous mutations or recombination and subsequent selection of the genotypes that are most adapted to the new environment...
November 2016: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27632813/-and-now-i-m-just-different-but-there-s-nothing-actually-wrong-with-me-asexual-marginalization-and-resistance
#19
Kristina Gupta
This article explores the relationship between contemporary asexual lives and compulsory sexuality, or the privileging of sexuality and the marginalizing of nonsexuality. Drawing on 30 in-depth interviews, I identify four ways the asexually identified individuals in this study saw themselves as affected by compulsory sexuality: pathologization, isolation, unwanted sex and relationship conflict, and the denial of epistemic authority. I also identify five ways these asexually identified individuals disrupted compulsory sexuality: adopting a language of difference and a capacity to describe asexuality; deemphasizing the importance of sexuality in human life; developing new types of nonsexual relationships; constituting asexuality as a sexual orientation or identity; and engaging in community building and outreach...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Homosexuality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27630883/neuropsychiatric-profile-in-malaria-an-overview
#20
Veer Bahadur Singh, Harish Kumar, Babu Lal Meena, Subhash Chandra, Jatin Agrawal, Naresh Kanogiya
INTRODUCTION: Malaria is the most important parasitic disease of humans causes clinical illness over 300-500 million people globally and over one million death every year globally. The involvement of the nervous system in malaria is studied in this paper, to help formulate a strategy for better malaria management. AIM: To study the Neuropsychiatric manifestation in malaria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a prospective observational study in 170 patients with a clinical diagnosis of malaria admitted in various medical wards of medicine department of PBM Hospital, Bikaner during epidemic of malaria...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
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