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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542484/simulating-within-vector-generation-of-the-malaria-parasite-diversity
#1
Lauren M Childs, Olivia F Prosper
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, undergoes asexual reproduction within the human host, but reproduces sexually within its vector host, the Anopheles mosquito. Consequently, the mosquito stage of the parasite life cycle provides an opportunity to create genetically novel parasites in multiply-infected mosquitoes, potentially increasing parasite population diversity. Despite the important implications for disease transmission and malaria control, a quantitative mapping of how parasite diversity entering a mosquito relates to diversity of the parasite exiting, has not been undertaken...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526032/multiplex-dnase-free-one-step-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-plasmodium-18s-rrna-and-spliced-gametocyte-specific-mrnas
#2
Amelia E Hanron, Zachary P Billman, Annette M Seilie, Tayla M Olsen, Matthew Fishbaugher, Ming Chang, Thomas Rueckle, Nicole Andenmatten, Bryan Greenhouse, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Smita Das, Gonzalo J Domingo, Kelly Shipman, Stefan H Kappe, James G Kublin, Sean C Murphy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium gametocytes are sexual stages transmitted to female Anopheles mosquitoes. While Plasmodium parasites can be differentiated microscopically on Giemsa-stained blood smears, molecular methods are increasingly used because of their increased sensitivity. Molecular detection of gametocytes requires methods that discriminate between asexual and sexual stage parasites. Commonly tested gametocyte-specific mRNAs are pfs25 and pfs230 detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515780/evolution-and-the-duration-of-a-doomed-population
#3
Richard Gomulkiewicz, Stephen M Krone, Christopher H Remien
Many populations are doomed to extinction, but little is known about how evolution contributes to their longevity. We address this by modeling an asexual population consisting of genotypes whose abundances change independently according to a system of continuous branching diffusions. Each genotype is characterized by its initial abundance, growth rate, and reproductive variance. The latter two components determine the genotype's "risk function" which describes its per capita probability of extinction at any time...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510363/purification-toxoplasma-gondii-tissue-cysts-using-percoll-gradients
#4
Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Anthony P Sinai
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the central nervous system and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow-growing bradyzoites, which until recently have been thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502250/antiplasmodial-dihetarylthioethers-target-the-coenzyme-a-synthesis-pathway-in-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocytic-stages
#5
Thomas Weidner, Leonardo Lucantoni, Abed Nasereddin, Lutz Preu, Peter G Jones, Ron Dzikowski, Vicky M Avery, Conrad Kunick
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a widespread infectious disease that threatens a large proportion of the population in tropical and subtropical areas. Given the emerging resistance against the current standard anti-malaria chemotherapeutics, the development of alternative drugs is urgently needed. New anti-malarials representing chemotypes unrelated to currently used drugs have an increased potential for displaying novel mechanisms of action and thus exhibit low risk of cross-resistance against established drugs...
May 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486558/temperature-during-conidiation-affects-stress-tolerance-pigmentation-and-trypacidin-accumulation-in-the-conidia-of-the-airborne-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#6
Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Satoshi Suzuki, Myco Umemura, Toshihiko Nogawa, Naoki Kato, Hiroyuki Osada, Akira Watanabe, Susumu Kawamoto, Tohru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei
Asexual spores (conidia) are reproductive structures that play a crucial role in fungal distribution and survival. As fungal conidia are, in most cases, etiological agents of plant diseases and fungal lung disease, their stress resistance and interaction with their hosts have drawn increasing attention. In the present study, we investigated whether environmental temperature during conidiation affects the stress tolerance of the conidia of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Conidia from a 25°C culture showed a lower tolerance to heat (60°C) and oxidative (H2O2) stresses and a marked resistance to ultraviolet radiation exposure, compared with those produced at 37 and 45°C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#7
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430103/genomic-characterization-of-recrudescent-plasmodium-malariae-after-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine
#8
Gavin G Rutledge, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Mandy Sanders, Nicholas J White, Matthew Berriman, Chris I Newbold, Nicholas M Anstey, Thomas D Otto, Ric N Price
Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419342/future-generations-and-the-justifiability-of-germline-engineering
#9
Ioana Petre
The possibility of performing germline modifications on currently living individuals targets future generations' health and well-being by reducing the diversity of the human gene pool. This can have two negative repercussions: (1) reduction of heterozygosity, the latter being associated with a health or performance advantage; (2) uniformization of the genes involved in reproductive recombination, which may lead to the health risks involved in asexual reproduction. I argue that germline interventions aimed at modifying the genomes of future people cannot be ethically justifiable if there is no possibility of controlling the intervention either by reversing or altering it, whenever need demands it...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#10
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407766/novel-lead-structures-with-both-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytocidal-and-asexual-blood-stage-activity-identified-from-high-throughput-compound-screening
#11
Wei Sun, Xiuli Huang, Hao Li, Gregory Tawa, Ethan Fisher, Takeshi Q Tanaka, Paul Shinn, Wenwei Huang, Kim C Williamson, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Blocking malaria transmission is an important step in eradicating malaria. In the field, transmission requires the production of sexual stage Plasmodium parasites, called gametocytes, which are not effectively killed by the commonly used anti-malarials allowing individuals to remain infectious after clearance of asexual parasites. METHODS: To identify new gametocytocidal compounds, a library of 45,056 compounds with diverse structures was screened using a high throughput gametocyte viability assay...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351685/transcript-and-protein-expression-analysis-of-proteases-in-the-blood-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#12
Tim Weißbach, Alexandra Golzmann, Sandra Bennink, Gabriele Pradel, Che Julius Ngwa
Proteases are crucial enzymes with varying roles in living organisms. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the role of proteases has been deciphered mainly in the asexual blood stages and shown to represent promising drug targets. However, little is known about their functions in the sexual blood stages, which are important for transmission of the disease from the human to the mosquito vector. Determination of their stage-specific expression during the malaria life-cycle is crucial for the effective design of multi-stage anti-malaria drugs aimed at eradicating the disease...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348446/exploring-the-genomic-diversity-of-black-yeasts-and-relatives-chaetothyriales-ascomycota
#13
M M Teixeira, L F Moreno, B J Stielow, A Muszewska, M Hainaut, L Gonzaga, A Abouelleil, J S L Patané, M Priest, R Souza, S Young, K S Ferreira, Q Zeng, M M L da Cunha, A Gladki, B Barker, V A Vicente, E M de Souza, S Almeida, B Henrissat, A T R Vasconcelos, S Deng, H Voglmayr, T A A Moussa, A Gorbushina, M S S Felipe, C A Cuomo, G Sybren de Hoog
The order Chaetothyriales (Pezizomycotina, Ascomycetes) harbours obligatorily melanised fungi and includes numerous etiologic agents of chromoblastomycosis, phaeohyphomycosis and other diseases of vertebrate hosts. Diseases range from mild cutaneous to fatal cerebral or disseminated infections and affect humans and cold-blooded animals globally. In addition, Chaetothyriales comprise species with aquatic, rock-inhabiting, ant-associated, and mycoparasitic life-styles, as well as species that tolerate toxic compounds, suggesting a high degree of versatile extremotolerance...
March 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28340380/the-origin-and-evolution-of-the-term-clone
#14
David P Steensma
In biology, the term "clone" is most widely used to designate genetically identical cells or organisms that are asexually descended from a common progenitor. The concept of clonality in hematology-oncology has received much attention in recent years, as the advent of next-generation sequencing platforms has provided new tools for detection of clonal populations in patients, and experiments on primary cells have provided fascinating new insights into the clonal architecture of human malignancies. The term "clone" is used more loosely by the general public to mean any close or identical copy...
March 4, 2017: Leukemia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317157/design-and-synthesis-of-novel-anti-plasmodial-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-containing-an-alkoxyamide-connecting-unit
#15
Leandro A Alves Avelar, Jana Held, Jessica A Engel, Parichat Sureechatchaiyan, Finn K Hansen, Alexandra Hamacher, Matthias U Kassack, Benjamin Mordmüller, Katherine T Andrews, Thomas Kurz
Despite recent declines in mortality, malaria remains an important global health problem. New therapies are needed, including new drugs with novel modes of action compared to existing agents. Among new potential therapeutic targets for malaria, inhibition of parasitic histone deacetylases (HDACs) is a promising approach. Homology modeling of PfHDAC1, a known target of some anti-plasmodial HDAC inhibitors, revealed a unique threonine residue at the rim of the active site in close proximity to the location of the cap group of vorinostat-type HDAC inhibitors...
April 2017: Archiv der Pharmazie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314772/two-phylogenetically-and-compartmentally-distinct-cdp-diacylglycerol-synthases-cooperate-for-lipid-biogenesis-in-toxoplasma-gondii
#16
Pengfei Kong, Christoph-Martin Ufermann, Diana L M Zimmermann, Qing Yin, Xun Suo, J Bernd Helms, Jos F Brouwers, Nishith Gupta
Toxoplasma gondii is among the most prevalent protozoan parasites, which infects a wide range of organisms, including one-third of the human population. Its rapid intracellular replication within a vacuole requires efficient synthesis of glycerophospholipids. Cytidine diphosphate-diacylglycerol (CDP-DAG) serves as a major precursor for phospholipid synthesis. Given the peculiarities of lipid biogenesis, understanding the mechanism and physiological importance of CDP-DAG synthesis is particularly relevant in T...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259146/conservation-of-estrogen-receptor-function-in-invertebrate-reproduction
#17
Brande L Jones, Chris Walker, Bahareh Azizi, Laren Tolbert, Loren Dean Williams, Terry W Snell
BACKGROUND: Rotifers are microscopic aquatic invertebrates that reproduce both sexually and asexually. Though rotifers are phylogenetically distant from humans, and have specialized reproductive physiology, this work identifies a surprising conservation in the control of reproduction between humans and rotifers through the estrogen receptor. Until recently, steroid signaling has been observed in only a few invertebrate taxa and its role in regulating invertebrate reproduction has not been clearly demonstrated...
March 4, 2017: BMC Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249563/genome-wide-transcriptomics-of-aging-in-the-rotifer-brachionus-manjavacas-an-emerging-model-system
#18
Kristin E Gribble, David B Mark Welch
BACKGROUND: Understanding gene expression changes over lifespan in diverse animal species will lead to insights to conserved processes in the biology of aging and allow development of interventions to improve health. Rotifers are small aquatic invertebrates that have been used in aging studies for nearly 100 years and are now re-emerging as a modern model system. To provide a baseline to evaluate genetic responses to interventions that change health throughout lifespan and a framework for new hypotheses about the molecular genetic mechanisms of aging, we examined the transcriptome of an asexual female lineage of the rotifer Brachionus manjavacas at five life stages: eggs, neonates, and early-, late-, and post-reproductive adults...
March 1, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196534/comparative-genomics-reveals-high-biological-diversity-and-specific-adaptations-in-the-industrially-and-medically-important-fungal-genus-aspergillus
#19
Ronald P de Vries, Robert Riley, Ad Wiebenga, Guillermo Aguilar-Osorio, Sotiris Amillis, Cristiane Akemi Uchima, Gregor Anderluh, Mojtaba Asadollahi, Marion Askin, Kerrie Barry, Evy Battaglia, Özgür Bayram, Tiziano Benocci, Susanna A Braus-Stromeyer, Camila Caldana, David Cánovas, Gustavo C Cerqueira, Fusheng Chen, Wanping Chen, Cindy Choi, Alicia Clum, Renato Augusto Corrêa Dos Santos, André Ricardo de Lima Damásio, George Diallinas, Tamás Emri, Erzsébet Fekete, Michel Flipphi, Susanne Freyberg, Antonia Gallo, Christos Gournas, Rob Habgood, Matthieu Hainaut, María Laura Harispe, Bernard Henrissat, Kristiina S Hildén, Ryan Hope, Abeer Hossain, Eugenia Karabika, Levente Karaffa, Zsolt Karányi, Nada Kraševec, Alan Kuo, Harald Kusch, Kurt LaButti, Ellen L Lagendijk, Alla Lapidus, Anthony Levasseur, Erika Lindquist, Anna Lipzen, Antonio F Logrieco, Andrew MacCabe, Miia R Mäkelä, Iran Malavazi, Petter Melin, Vera Meyer, Natalia Mielnichuk, Márton Miskei, Ákos P Molnár, Giuseppina Mulé, Chew Yee Ngan, Margarita Orejas, Erzsébet Orosz, Jean Paul Ouedraogo, Karin M Overkamp, Hee-Soo Park, Giancarlo Perrone, Francois Piumi, Peter J Punt, Arthur F J Ram, Ana Ramón, Stefan Rauscher, Eric Record, Diego Mauricio Riaño-Pachón, Vincent Robert, Julian Röhrig, Roberto Ruller, Asaf Salamov, Nadhira S Salih, Rob A Samson, Erzsébet Sándor, Manuel Sanguinetti, Tabea Schütze, Kristina Sepčić, Ekaterina Shelest, Gavin Sherlock, Vicky Sophianopoulou, Fabio M Squina, Hui Sun, Antonia Susca, Richard B Todd, Adrian Tsang, Shiela E Unkles, Nathalie van de Wiele, Diana van Rossen-Uffink, Juliana Velasco de Castro Oliveira, Tammi C Vesth, Jaap Visser, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Miaomiao Zhou, Mikael R Andersen, David B Archer, Scott E Baker, Isabelle Benoit, Axel A Brakhage, Gerhard H Braus, Reinhard Fischer, Jens C Frisvad, Gustavo H Goldman, Jos Houbraken, Berl Oakley, István Pócsi, Claudio Scazzocchio, Bernhard Seiboth, Patricia A vanKuyk, Jennifer Wortman, Paul S Dyer, Igor V Grigoriev
BACKGROUND: The fungal genus Aspergillus is of critical importance to humankind. Species include those with industrial applications, important pathogens of humans, animals and crops, a source of potent carcinogenic contaminants of food, and an important genetic model. The genome sequences of eight aspergilli have already been explored to investigate aspects of fungal biology, raising questions about evolution and specialization within this genus. RESULTS: We have generated genome sequences for ten novel, highly diverse Aspergillus species and compared these in detail to sister and more distant genera...
February 14, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195530/structural-basis-for-inhibition-of-erythrocyte-invasion-by-antibodies-to-plasmodium-falciparum-protein-cyrpa
#20
Lin Chen, Yibin Xu, Wilson Wong, Jennifer K Thompson, Julie Healer, Ethan D Goddard-Borger, Michael C Lawrence, Alan F Cowman
Plasmodium falciparum causes malaria in humans with over 450,000 deaths annually. The asexual blood stage involves invasion of erythrocytes by merozoites, in which they grow and divide to release daughter merozoites, which in turn invade new erythrocytes perpetuating the cycle responsible for malaria. A key step in merozoite invasion is the essential binding of PfRh5/CyRPA/PfRipr complex to basigin, a step linked to the formation of a pore between merozoites and erythrocytes. We show CyRPA interacts directly with PfRh5...
February 14, 2017: ELife
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