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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738214/plasmodium-falciparum-in%C3%A2-vitro-continuous-culture-conditions-a-comparison-of-parasite-susceptibility-and-tolerance-to-anti-malarial-drugs-throughout-the-asexual-intra-erythrocytic-life-cycle
#1
Sandra Duffy, Vicky M Avery
The continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is often seen as a means to an end, that end being to probe the biology of the parasite in question, and ultimately for many in the malaria drug discovery arena, to identify means of killing the parasite in order to treat malaria. In vitro continuous culture of Plasmodium falciparum is a fundamental requirement when undertaking malaria research where the primary objectives utilise viable parasites of a desired lifecycle stage. This investigation, and resulting data, compared the impact culturing Plasmodium falciparum long term (4 months) in different environmental conditions had on experimental outcomes and thus conclusions...
July 15, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701714/structural-and-biochemical-characterization-of-apicomplexan-inorganic-pyrophosphatases
#2
Abhishek Jamwal, Manickam Yogavel, Malik Z Abdin, Swatantra K Jain, Amit Sharma
Inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase) participate in energy cycling and they are essential for growth and survival of organisms. Here we report extensive structural and functional characterization of soluble PPases from the human parasites Plasmodium falciparum (PfPPase) and Toxoplasma gondii (TgPPase). Our results show that PfPPase is a cytosolic enzyme whose gene expression is upregulated during parasite asexual stages. Cambialistic PfPPase actively hydrolyzes linear short chain polyphosphates like PPi, polyP3 and ATP in the presence of Zn(2+)...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28699823/the-gmz2-malaria-vaccine-from-concept-to-efficacy-in-humans
#3
Michael Theisen, Bright Adu, Benjamin Mordmüller, Subhash Singh
GMZ2 is a recombinant protein consisting of conserved domains of GLURP and MSP3, two asexual blood-stage antigens of Plasmodium falciparum, and is designed with the aim of mimicking naturally acquired anti-malarial immunity. The rationale for combining these two antigens is based on a series of immune epidemiological studies from geographically diverse malaria endemic regions; functional in vitro studies; and pre-clinical studies in rodents and New World monkeys. GMZ2 adjuvanted with alhydrogel® (alum) was well tolerated and immunogenic in three phase 1 studies...
July 21, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688334/-behind-closed-doors-with-open-minds-a-qualitative-study-exploring-nursing-home-staff-s-narratives-towards-their-roles-and-duties-within-the-context-of-sexuality-in-dementia
#4
T Vandrevala, T Chrysanthaki, E Ogundipe
BACKGROUND: Despite sexual expression being recognised as a fundamental human need, sexuality in old age is often ignored and frequently misunderstood, with residents with dementia in a nursing home often viewed as asexual or incapable of being sexually active. OBJECTIVES: The current study aims to understand the views held by nursing care home staff towards dementia and sexuality and explore the roles they may adopt whilst responding and managing sexual needs and expression for residents with dementia...
June 13, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677124/myba-a-transcription-factor-involved-in-conidiation-and-conidial-viability-of-the-human-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Isabel Valsecchi, Özlem Sarikaya Bayram, Joanne Wong Sak Hoi, Laetitia Muszkieta, John Gibbons, Marie-Christine Prevost, Adeline Mallet, Jacomina Krijnse-Locker, Oumaima Ibrahim-Granet, Isabelle Mouyna, Paul Carr, Michael Bromley, VishuKumar Aimanianda, Y Jae-Hyuk Yu, Antonis Rokas, Gerhard Braus, Cosmin Saveanu, Özgür Bayram, Jean Paul Latgé
Aspergillus fumigatus, a ubiquitous human fungal pathogen, produces asexual spores (conidia), which are the main mode of propagation, survival, and infection of this human pathogen. In this study, we present the molecular characterization of a novel regulator of conidiogenesis and conidial survival called MybA because the predicted protein contains a Myb DNA binding motif. Cellular localisation of the MybA::Gfp fusion and immunoprecipitation of the MybA::Gfp or MybA::3xHa protein showed that MybA is localised to the nucleus...
July 5, 2017: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28671944/predominance-of-asymptomatic-and-sub-microscopic-infections-characterizes-the-plasmodium-gametocyte-reservoir-in-the-peruvian-amazon
#6
Eduard Rovira-Vallbona, Juan José Contreras-Mancilla, Roberson Ramirez, Mitchel Guzmán-Guzmán, Gabriel Carrasco-Escobar, Alejandro Llanos-Cuentas, Joseph M Vinetz, Dionicia Gamboa, Anna Rosanas-Urgell
Malaria transmission requires that Anopheles mosquitoes ingest Plasmodium gametocyte stages circulating in the human bloodstream. In the context of malaria elimination, understanding the epidemiology of gametocytes relative to all Plasmodium infections and the contribution of asymptomatic and sub-microscopic parasite carriers to the gametocyte reservoir is necessary, especially in low endemic settings with predominance of P.vivax. A 13-month longitudinal study was conducted in two communities (n = 1935 individuals) of Loreto Department, Peru, with five active screenings for Plasmodium infections and gametocyte stages by quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and reverse transcription (RT)-qPCR, respectively...
July 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28597816/sex-and-the-imperfect-fungi
#7
Paul S Dyer, Ulrich Kück
Approximately 20% of species in the fungal kingdom are only known to reproduce by asexual means despite the many supposed advantages of sexual reproduction. However, in recent years, sexual cycles have been induced in a series of emblematic "asexual" species. We describe how these discoveries were made, building on observations of evidence for sexual potential or "cryptic sexuality" from population genetic analyses; the presence, distribution, and functionality of mating-type genes; genome analyses revealing the presence of genes linked to sexuality; the functionality of sex-related genes; and formation of sex-related developmental structures...
June 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28572796/host-parasite-interactions-in-human-malaria-clinical-implications-of-basic-research
#8
REVIEW
Pragyan Acharya, Manika Garg, Praveen Kumar, Akshay Munjal, K D Raja
The malaria parasite, Plasmodium, is one of the oldest parasites documented to infect humans and has proven particularly hard to eradicate. One of the major hurdles in designing an effective subunit vaccine against the malaria parasite is the insufficient understanding of host-parasite interactions within the human host during infections. The success of the parasite lies in its ability to evade the human immune system and recruit host responses as physiological cues to regulate its life cycle, leading to rapid acclimatization of the parasite to its immediate host environment...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542484/simulating-within-vector-generation-of-the-malaria-parasite-diversity
#9
Lauren M Childs, Olivia F Prosper
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent human malaria parasite, undergoes asexual reproduction within the human host, but reproduces sexually within its vector host, the Anopheles mosquito. Consequently, the mosquito stage of the parasite life cycle provides an opportunity to create genetically novel parasites in multiply-infected mosquitoes, potentially increasing parasite population diversity. Despite the important implications for disease transmission and malaria control, a quantitative mapping of how parasite diversity entering a mosquito relates to diversity of the parasite exiting, has not been undertaken...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526032/multiplex-dnase-free-one-step-reverse-transcription-pcr-for-plasmodium-18s-rrna-and-spliced-gametocyte-specific-mrnas
#10
Amelia E Hanron, Zachary P Billman, Annette M Seilie, Tayla M Olsen, Matthew Fishbaugher, Ming Chang, Thomas Rueckle, Nicole Andenmatten, Bryan Greenhouse, Emmanuel Arinaitwe, John Rek, Smita Das, Gonzalo J Domingo, Kelly Shipman, Stefan H Kappe, James G Kublin, Sean C Murphy
BACKGROUND: Plasmodium gametocytes are sexual stages transmitted to female Anopheles mosquitoes. While Plasmodium parasites can be differentiated microscopically on Giemsa-stained blood smears, molecular methods are increasingly used because of their increased sensitivity. Molecular detection of gametocytes requires methods that discriminate between asexual and sexual stage parasites. Commonly tested gametocyte-specific mRNAs are pfs25 and pfs230 detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)...
May 19, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515780/evolution-and-the-duration-of-a-doomed-population
#11
Richard Gomulkiewicz, Stephen M Krone, Christopher H Remien
Many populations are doomed to extinction, but little is known about how evolution contributes to their longevity. We address this by modeling an asexual population consisting of genotypes whose abundances change independently according to a system of continuous branching diffusions. Each genotype is characterized by its initial abundance, growth rate, and reproductive variance. The latter two components determine the genotype's "risk function" which describes its per capita probability of extinction at any time...
June 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510363/purification-toxoplasma-gondii-tissue-cysts-using-percoll-gradients
#12
Elizabeth A Watts, Animesh Dhara, Anthony P Sinai
The protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is capable of infecting all warm-blooded animals and humans. Infectious, transmissible forms of the parasite include oocysts produced by the sexual cycle within the definitive feline host and tissue cysts that form Toxoplasma in the central nervous system and muscle during the asexual cycle within all chronically infected warm-blooded hosts. These tissue cysts are populated with slow-growing bradyzoites, which until recently have been thought to be dormant entities in the context of immune sufficiency...
May 16, 2017: Current Protocols in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502250/antiplasmodial-dihetarylthioethers-target-the-coenzyme-a-synthesis-pathway-in-plasmodium-falciparum-erythrocytic-stages
#13
Thomas Weidner, Leonardo Lucantoni, Abed Nasereddin, Lutz Preu, Peter G Jones, Ron Dzikowski, Vicky M Avery, Conrad Kunick
BACKGROUND: Malaria is a widespread infectious disease that threatens a large proportion of the population in tropical and subtropical areas. Given the emerging resistance against the current standard anti-malaria chemotherapeutics, the development of alternative drugs is urgently needed. New anti-malarials representing chemotypes unrelated to currently used drugs have an increased potential for displaying novel mechanisms of action and thus exhibit low risk of cross-resistance against established drugs...
May 15, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486558/temperature-during-conidiation-affects-stress-tolerance-pigmentation-and-trypacidin-accumulation-in-the-conidia-of-the-airborne-pathogen-aspergillus-fumigatus
#14
Daisuke Hagiwara, Kanae Sakai, Satoshi Suzuki, Myco Umemura, Toshihiko Nogawa, Naoki Kato, Hiroyuki Osada, Akira Watanabe, Susumu Kawamoto, Tohru Gonoi, Katsuhiko Kamei
Asexual spores (conidia) are reproductive structures that play a crucial role in fungal distribution and survival. As fungal conidia are, in most cases, etiological agents of plant diseases and fungal lung disease, their stress resistance and interaction with their hosts have drawn increasing attention. In the present study, we investigated whether environmental temperature during conidiation affects the stress tolerance of the conidia of the human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus. Conidia from a 25°C culture showed a lower tolerance to heat (60°C) and oxidative (H2O2) stresses and a marked resistance to ultraviolet radiation exposure, compared with those produced at 37 and 45°C...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464773/the-role-of-atypical-antipsychotics-in-sexuality-road-to-recovery-in-schizophrenia
#15
Raja Lope Adam, Hatta Sidi, Marhani Midin, Hazli Zakaria, Srijit Das, Khairi Che Mat
Sexuality is an important dimension in human beings as a form of expression of individuality. For many decades, sexual functioning has been a neglected area among patients suffering from schizophrenia. It was a presumption that patients with schizophrenia could be asexual and this could be secondary to overwhelming situations of delusion, hallucination, hostility and negative symptoms among others. The deficient in sexual functioning are due to innate factors, i.e. negative symptoms (apathy, avolition and amotivation) and also as a result of prefrontal dysfunction, i...
May 2, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430103/genomic-characterization-of-recrudescent-plasmodium-malariae-after-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine
#16
Gavin G Rutledge, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Mandy Sanders, Nicholas J White, Matthew Berriman, Chris I Newbold, Nicholas M Anstey, Thomas D Otto, Ric N Price
Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419342/future-generations-and-the-justifiability-of-germline-engineering
#17
Ioana Petre
The possibility of performing germline modifications on currently living individuals targets future generations' health and well-being by reducing the diversity of the human gene pool. This can have two negative repercussions: (1) reduction of heterozygosity, the latter being associated with a health or performance advantage; (2) uniformization of the genes involved in reproductive recombination, which may lead to the health risks involved in asexual reproduction. I argue that germline interventions aimed at modifying the genomes of future people cannot be ethically justifiable if there is no possibility of controlling the intervention either by reversing or altering it, whenever need demands it...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#18
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407766/novel-lead-structures-with-both-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytocidal-and-asexual-blood-stage-activity-identified-from-high-throughput-compound-screening
#19
Wei Sun, Xiuli Huang, Hao Li, Gregory Tawa, Ethan Fisher, Takeshi Q Tanaka, Paul Shinn, Wenwei Huang, Kim C Williamson, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Blocking malaria transmission is an important step in eradicating malaria. In the field, transmission requires the production of sexual stage Plasmodium parasites, called gametocytes, which are not effectively killed by the commonly used anti-malarials allowing individuals to remain infectious after clearance of asexual parasites. METHODS: To identify new gametocytocidal compounds, a library of 45,056 compounds with diverse structures was screened using a high throughput gametocyte viability assay...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351685/transcript-and-protein-expression-analysis-of-proteases-in-the-blood-stages-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#20
Tim Weißbach, Alexandra Golzmann, Sandra Bennink, Gabriele Pradel, Che Julius Ngwa
Proteases are crucial enzymes with varying roles in living organisms. In the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the role of proteases has been deciphered mainly in the asexual blood stages and shown to represent promising drug targets. However, little is known about their functions in the sexual blood stages, which are important for transmission of the disease from the human to the mosquito vector. Determination of their stage-specific expression during the malaria life-cycle is crucial for the effective design of multi-stage anti-malaria drugs aimed at eradicating the disease...
March 25, 2017: Experimental Parasitology
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