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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818084/do-the-venous-blood-samples-replicate-malaria-parasite-densities-found-in-capillary-blood-a-field-study-performed-in-naturally-infected-asymptomatic-children-in-cameroon
#1
Maurice M Sandeu, Albert N Bayibéki, Majoline T Tchioffo, Luc Abate, Geoffrey Gimonneau, Parfait H Awono-Ambéné, Sandrine E Nsango, Diadier Diallo, Antoine Berry, Gaétan Texier, Isabelle Morlais
BACKGROUND: The measure of new drug- or vaccine-based approaches for malaria control is based on direct membrane feeding assays (DMFAs) where gametocyte-infected blood samples are offered to mosquitoes through an artificial feeder system. Gametocyte donors are identified by the microscopic detection and quantification of malaria blood stages on blood films prepared using either capillary or venous blood. However, parasites are known to sequester in the microvasculature and this phenomenon may alter accurate detection of parasites in blood films...
August 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814405/can-asexuality-confer-a-short-term-advantage-investigating-apparent-biogeographic-success-in-the-apomictic-triploid-fern-myriopteris-gracilis
#2
David A Wickell, Michael D Windham, Xiaofei Wang, Stuart J Macdonald, James B Beck
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Although asexual taxa are generally seen as evolutionary dead ends, asexuality appears to provide a short-term benefit in some taxa, including a wider geographic distribution compared to sexual relatives. However, this may be an illusion created by multiple, morphologically cryptic, asexual lineages, each occupying a relatively small area. In this study we investigate the role of multiple lineages in the biogeography of Myriopteris gracilis Fée (Pteridaceae), a North American apomictic triploid fern species with a particularly large range...
August 16, 2017: American Journal of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812327/design-and-synthesis-of-terephthalic-acid-based-histone-deacetylase-inhibitors-with-dual-stage-anti-plasmodium-activity
#3
Katharina Stenzel, Ming Jang Chua, Sandra Duffy, Yevgeniya Antonova-Koch, Stephan Meister, Alexandra Hamacher, Matthias U Kassack, Elizabeth A Winzeler, Vicky M Avery, Thomas Kurz, Katherine T Andrews, Finn Kristian Hansen
In this work we aimed to develop parasite-selective HDAC inhibitors with activity against the disease-causing asexual blood stages of Plasmodium as well as causal prophylactic and/or transmission blocking properties. We report the design, synthesis and biological testing of a series of 13 terephthalic acid-based histone deacetylase inhibitors. All compounds showed low cytotoxicity against human embryonic kidney (HEK293) cells (IC50 8 - >51 µM), with 11 also having sub-micromolar in vitro activity against drug-sensitive (3D7) and multi-drug resistant (Dd2) asexual blood stage Plasmodium falciparum parasites (IC50 ~ 0...
August 15, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808560/exploring-the-relationship-between-tychoparthenogenesis-and-inbreeding-depression-in-the-desert-locust-schistocerca-gregaria
#4
Chelsea J Little, Marie-Pierre Chapuis, Laurence Blondin, Elodie Chapuis, Hélène Jourdan-Pineau
Tychoparthenogenesis, a form of asexual reproduction in which a small proportion of unfertilized eggs can hatch spontaneously, could be an intermediate evolutionary link in the transition from sexual to parthenogenetic reproduction. The lower fitness of tychoparthenogenetic offspring could be due to either developmental constraints or to inbreeding depression in more homozygous individuals. We tested the hypothesis that in populations where inbreeding depression has been purged, tychoparthenogenesis may be less costly...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808558/the-impact-of-parasitism-on-resource-allocation-in-a-fungal-host-the-case-of-cryphonectria-parasitica-and-its-mycovirus-cryphonectria-hypovirus-1
#5
Jérémie Brusini, Marta L Wayne, Alain Franc, Cécile Robin
Parasites are known to profoundly affect resource allocation in their host. In order to investigate the effects of Cryphonectria Hypovirus 1 (CHV1) on the life-history traits of its fungal host Cryphonectria parasitica, an infection matrix was completed with the cross-infection of six fungal isolates by six different viruses. Mycelial growth, asexual sporulation, and spore size were measured in the 36 combinations, for which horizontal and vertical transmission of the viruses was also assessed. As expected by life-history theory, a significant negative correlation was found between host somatic growth and asexual reproduction in virus-free isolates...
August 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803406/does-wolbachia-infection-change-the-overwintering-ability-of-trichogramma-brassicae-hymenoptera-trichogrammatidae
#6
S Rahimi-Kaldeh, A Ashouri, A Bandani
The overwintering ability of a biological control agent helps predict potential survival and establishment in natural conditions. Here, we compared the overwintering ability in sexual and asexual Trichogramma brassicae Bezdenko, a key natural enemy of Lepidopteran pests in Iran over two consecutive winters in central Alborz Mountains. Our aim was to investigate the effect of Wolbachia infection on the overwintering rate of T. brassicae after emergence in the subsequent year. We also wanted to know whether there is any difference in the overwintering capacity of T...
August 12, 2017: Neotropical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801599/mating-type-genes-of-the-anamorphic-fungus-ulocladium-botrytis-affect-both-asexual-sporulation-and-sexual-reproduction
#7
Qun Wang, Shi Wang, Chen Lin Xiong, Timothy Y James, Xiu Guo Zhang
Ulocladium was thought to be a strictly asexual genus of filamentous fungi. However, Ulocladium strains were shown to possess both MAT1-1-1 and MAT1-2-1 genes as observed in homothallic filamentous Ascomycetes. Here, we demonstrate that the U. botrytis MAT genes play essential roles for controlling asexual traits (conidial size and number). Using reciprocal genetic transformation, we demonstrate that MAT genes from the related heterothallic species Cochliobolus heterostrophus can also influence U. botrytis colony growth, conidial number and size, and have a strong effect on the range of the number of septa/conidium...
August 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800735/life-span-of-in-vitro-differentiated-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytes
#8
Tamirat Gebru, Albert Lalremruata, Peter G Kremsner, Benjamin Mordmüller, Jana Held
BACKGROUND: The sexual stages (gametocytes) of Plasmodium falciparum do not directly contribute to the pathology of malaria but are essential for transmission of the parasite from the human host to the mosquito. Mature gametocytes circulate in infected human blood for several days and their circulation time has been modelled mathematically from data of previous in vivo studies. This is the first time that longevity of gametocytes is studied experimentally in vitro. METHODS: The in vitro longevity of P...
August 11, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800640/knockdown-of-the-plasmodium-falciparum-surfin4-1-antigen-leads-to-an-increase-of-its-cognate-transcript
#9
Tatiane Macedo-Silva, Rosana Beatriz Duque Araujo, Kamila Anna Meissner, Wesley Luzetti Fotoran, Márcia Melo Medeiros, Mauro Ferreira de Azevedo, Gerhard Wunderlich
The genome of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum contains the surf gene family which encodes large transmembrane proteins of unknown function. While some surf alleles appear to be expressed in sexual stages, others occur in asexual blood stage forms and may be associated to virulence-associated processes and undergo transcriptional switching. We accessed the transcription of surf genes along multiple invasions by real time PCR. Based on the observation of persistent expression of gene surf4.1, we created a parasite line which expresses a conditionally destabilized SURFIN4...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794574/pseudodidymellaceae-fam-nov-phylogenetic-affiliations-of-mycopappus-like-genera-in-dothideomycetes
#10
A Hashimoto, M Matsumura, K Hirayama, R Fujimoto, K Tanaka
The familial placement of four genera, Mycodidymella, Petrakia, Pseudodidymella, and Xenostigmina, was taxonomically revised based on morphological observations and phylogenetic analyses of nuclear rDNA SSU, LSU, tef1, and rpb2 sequences. ITS sequences were also provided as barcode markers. A total of 130 sequences were newly obtained from 28 isolates which are phylogenetically related to Melanommataceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes) and its relatives. Phylogenetic analyses and morphological observation of sexual and asexual morphs led to the conclusion that Melanommataceae should be restricted to its type genus Melanomma, which is characterised by ascomata composed of a well-developed, carbonaceous peridium, and an aposphaeria-like coelomycetous asexual morph...
June 2017: Studies in Mycology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28792668/comparative-transcriptomic-and-proteomic-analyses-reveal-a-flug-mediated-signalling-pathway-relating-to-asexual-sporulation-of-antrodia-camphorata
#11
Hua-Xiang Li, Zhen-Ming Lu, Qing Zhu, Jin-Song Gong, Yan Geng, Jin-Song Shi, Zheng-Hong Xu, Yan-He Ma
Medicinal mushroom Antrodia camphorata sporulate large numbers of arthroconidia in submerged fermentation, which is rarely reported in basidiomycetous fungi. Nevertheless, the molecular mechanisms underlying this asexual sporulation (conidiation) remain unclear. Here, we used comparative transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to elucidate possible signalling pathway relating to the asexual sporulation of A. camphorata. First, 104 differentially expressed proteins and 2586 differential cDNA sequences during the culture process of A...
August 9, 2017: Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28779948/statistical-aspects-of-evolution-under-natural-selection-with-implications-for-the-advantage-of-sexual-reproduction
#12
Daniel J M Crouch
The prevalence of sexual reproduction remains mysterious, as it poses clear evolutionary drawbacks compared to reproducing asexually. Several possible explanations exist, with one of the most likely being that finite population size causes linkage disequilibria to randomly generate and impede the progress of natural selection, and that these are eroded by recombination via sexual reproduction. Previous investigations have either analysed this phenomenon in detail for small numbers of loci, or performed population simulations for many loci...
August 2, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770685/insulin-igf-signaling-and-life-history-traits-in-response-to-food-availability-and-perceived-density-in-the-cnidarian-hydra-vulgaris
#13
Flóra Sebestyén, Szilárd Póliska, Rita Rácz, Judit Bereczki, Kinga Lénárt, Zoltán Barta, Ádám Z Lendvai, Jácint Tökölyi
Insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling (IIS) is thought to be a central mediator of life history traits, but the generality of its role is not clear. Here, we investigated mRNA expression levels of three insulin-like peptide genes, the insulin-like receptor htk7, as well as several antioxidant genes, and the heat-shock protein hsp70 in the freshwater cnidarian Hydra vulgaris. Hydra polyps were exposed to a combination of different levels of food and perceived population density to manipulate life history traits (asexual reproduction and oxidative stress tolerance)...
August 2017: Zoological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28770052/environmental-adaptation-in-an-asexual-invasive-insect
#14
Jeffrey A Lombardo, Joseph S Elkinton
Parthenogenetic reproduction is generally associated with low genetic variance and therefore reduced ability for environmental adaptation, and this could limit the potential invasiveness of introduced species that reproduce asexually. However, the hemlock woolly adelgid is an asexual invasive insect that has spread across a large geographic temperature gradient in its introduced range. Consequently, this insect has shown significant variation in cold hardiness among populations. We hypothesized that the increased cold hardiness of northern populations represents an adaptation to the colder temperatures...
July 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768894/phenotypic-plasticity-in-reproductive-effort-malaria-parasites-respond-to-resource-availability
#15
Philip L G Birget, Charlotte Repton, Aidan J O'Donnell, Petra Schneider, Sarah E Reece
The trade-off between survival and reproduction is fundamental in the life history of all sexually reproducing organisms. This includes malaria parasites, which rely on asexually replicating stages for within-host survival and on sexually reproducing stages (gametocytes) for between-host transmission. The proportion of asexual stages that form gametocytes (reproductive effort) varies during infections-i.e. is phenotypically plastic-in response to changes in a number of within-host factors, including anaemia...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768890/is-meiosis-a-fundamental-cause-of-inviability-among-sexual-and-asexual-plants-and-animals
#16
Daniel A Levitis, Kolea Zimmerman, Anne Pringle
Differences in viability between asexually and sexually generated offspring strongly influence the selective advantage and therefore the prevalence of sexual reproduction (sex). However, no general principle predicts when sexual offspring will be more viable than asexual offspring. We hypothesize that when any kind of reproduction is based on a more complex cellular process, it will encompass more potential failure points, and therefore lower offspring viability. Asexual reproduction (asex) can be simpler than sex, when offspring are generated using only mitosis...
August 16, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764717/a-longitudinal-cohort-study-of-malaria-exposure-and-changing-serostatus-in-a-malaria-endemic-area-of-rural-tanzania
#17
Ryan A Simmons, Leonard Mboera, Marie Lynn Miranda, Alison Morris, Gillian Stresman, Elizabeth L Turner, Randall Kramer, Chris Drakeley, Wendy P O'Meara
BACKGROUND: Measurements of anti-malarial antibodies are increasingly used as a proxy of transmission intensity. Most serological surveys are based on the use of cross-sectional data that, when age-stratified, approximates historical patterns of transmission within a population. Comparatively few studies leverage longitudinal data to explicitly relate individual infection events with subsequent antibody responses. METHODS: The occurrence of seroconversion and seroreversion events for two Plasmodium falciparum asexual stage antigens (MSP-1 and AMA-1) was examined using three annual measurements of 691 individuals from a cohort of individuals in a malaria-endemic area of rural east-central Tanzania...
August 2, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28761008/epigenetic-inheritance-prions-and-evolution
#18
Johannes Manjrekar
The field of epigenetics has grown explosively in the past two decades or so. As currently defined, epigenetics deals with heritable, metastable and usually reversible changes that do not involve alterations in DNA sequence, but alter the way that information encoded inDNAis utilized.The bulk of current research in epigenetics concerns itself with mitotically inherited epigenetic processes underlying development or responses to environmental cues (as well as the role of mis-regulation or dys-regulation of such processes in disease and ageing), i...
July 2017: Journal of Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759324/non-suicidal-self-injury-sexuality-concerns-and-emotion-regulation-among-sexually-diverse-adolescents-a-multiple-mediation-analysis
#19
Gloria Fraser, Marc Stewart Wilson, Jessica Anne Garisch, Kealagh Robinson, Madeleine Brocklesby, Tahlia Kingi, Angelique O'Connell, Lynne Russell
Objectives Despite increasing interest in the prevalence and correlates of Non-Suicidal Self-Injury (NSSI) in adolescent populations, relatively few studies have examined NSSI among lesbian, gay and bisexual (LGB) adolescents. The current study explored sexuality concerns and elevated emotion dysregulation as potential mechanisms underlying the relationship between sexual orientation elevated non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI). Methods A community sample of 1799 adolescents completed a questionnaire assessing NSSI, sexual orientation, sexuality concerns, and emotion regulation...
July 31, 2017: Archives of Suicide Research: Official Journal of the International Academy for Suicide Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28754765/intraspecific-life-history-variation-in-contrasting-habitats-insights-from-an-obligate-symbiotic-organism
#20
Sonia Merinero, Gregorio Aragón, Isabel Martínez
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Life history theory predicts that plants in unfavorable habitats for juvenile growth and survival will commence reproduction at smaller sizes and exhibit higher reproductive allocations than those in favorable habitats. The scope of life history theory will increase if these predictions apply to a broad range of organisms. Populations of organisms in contrasting habitats may experience different demographic rates. Thus, we compared the demography and life history traits of a lichen species in contrasting habitats...
July 28, 2017: American Journal of Botany
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