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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936646/apomixis-engineering-the-ability-to-harness-hybrid-vigor-in-crop-plants
#1
Joann A Conner, Peggy Ozias-Akins
Apomixis, commonly defined as asexual reproduction through seed, is a reproductive trait that occurs in only a few minor crops, but would be highly valuable in major crops. Apomixis results in seed-derived progenies that are genetically identical to their maternal parent. The advantage of apomixis would lie in seed propagation of elite food, feed, and biofuel crops that are heterozygous such as hybrid corn and switchgrass or self-pollinating crops for which no commercial-scale hybrid production system is available...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934121/current-status-of-early-blight-resistance-in-tomato-an-update
#2
REVIEW
Pragya Adhikari, Yeonyee Oh, Dilip R Panthee
Early blight (EB) is one of the dreadful diseases of tomato caused by several species of Alternaria including Alternaria linariae (which includes A. solani and A. tomatophila), as well as A. alternata. In some instances, annual economic yield losses due to EB have been estimated at 79%. Alternaria are known only to reproduce asexually, but a highly-virulent isolate has the potential to overcome existing resistance genes. Currently, cultural practices and fungicide applications are employed for the management of EB due to the lack of strong resistant cultivars...
September 21, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928944/polyp-bailout-in%C3%A2-pocillopora-damicornis-following-thermal-stress
#3
Alexander J Fordyce, Emma F Camp, Tracy D Ainsworth
Polyp bailout is an established but understudied coral stress response that involves the detachment of individual polyps from the colonial form as means of escaping unfavourable conditions. This may influence both the mortality and asexual recruitment of coral genotypes across a range of species. It was first described by Goreau & Goreau (1959) and has been observed in response to numerous stressors including high salinity and low pH. However, polyp bailout has not previously been described in association with thermal stress and the coral bleaching response, which is becoming increasingly common around the world...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926946/the-fungal-bzip-transcription-factor-atfb-controls-virulence-associated-processes-in-aspergillus-parasiticus
#4
Josephine Wee, Sung-Yong Hong, Ludmila V Roze, Devin M Day, Anindya Chanda, John E Linz
Fungal basic leucine zipper (bZIP) transcription factors mediate responses to oxidative stress. The ability to regulate stress response pathways in Aspergillus spp. was postulated to be an important virulence-associated cellular process, because it helps establish infection in humans, plants, and animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that the fungal transcription factor AtfB encodes a protein that is associated with resistance to oxidative stress in asexual conidiospores, and AtfB binds to the promoters of several stress response genes...
September 16, 2017: Toxins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924495/adaptations-to-different-habitats-in-sexual-and-asexual-populations-of-parasitoid-wasps-a-meta-analysis
#5
Isabelle Amat, Jacques J M van Alphen, Alex Kacelnik, Emmanuel Desouhant, Carlos Bernstein
BACKGROUND: Coexistence of sexual and asexual populations remains a key question in evolutionary ecology. We address the question how an asexual and a sexual form of the parasitoid Venturia canescens can coexist in southern Europe. We test the hypothesis that both forms are adapted to different habitats within their area of distribution. Sexuals inhabit natural environments that are highly unpredictable, and where density of wasps and their hosts is low and patchily distributed. Asexuals instead are common in anthropic environments (e...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923029/mitochondrial-genomes-reveal-recombination-in-the-presumed-asexual-fusarium-oxysporum-species-complex
#6
Balázs Brankovics, Peter van Dam, Martijn Rep, G Sybren de Hoog, Theo A J van der Lee, Cees Waalwijk, Anne D van Diepeningen
BACKGROUND: The Fusarium oxysporum species complex (FOSC) contains several phylogenetic lineages. Phylogenetic studies identified two to three major clades within the FOSC. The mitochondrial sequences are highly informative phylogenetic markers, but have been mostly neglected due to technical difficulties. RESULTS: A total of 61 complete mitogenomes of FOSC strains were de novo assembled and annotated. Length variations and intron patterns support the separation of three phylogenetic species...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923023/comparative-transcriptomics-of-female-and-male-gametocytes-in-plasmodium-berghei-and-the-evolution-of-sex-in-alveolates
#7
Lee M Yeoh, Christopher D Goodman, Vanessa Mollard, Geoffrey I McFadden, Stuart A Ralph
BACKGROUND: The clinical symptoms of malaria are caused by the asexual replication of Plasmodium parasites in the blood of the vertebrate host. To spread to new hosts, however, the malaria parasite must differentiate into sexual forms, termed gametocytes, which are ingested by a mosquito vector. Sexual differentiation produces either female or male gametocytes, and involves significant morphological and biochemical changes. These transformations prepare gametocytes for the rapid progression to gamete formation and fertilisation, which occur within 20 min of ingestion...
September 18, 2017: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916443/aq-13-an-investigational-antimalarial-versus-artemether-plus-lumefantrine-for-the-treatment-of-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-a-randomised-phase-2-non-inferiority-clinical-trial
#8
Ousmane A Koita, Lansana Sangaré, Haiyan D Miller, Aliou Sissako, Moctar Coulibaly, Trevor A Thompson, Saharé Fongoro, Youssouf Diarra, Mamadou Ba, Ababacar Maiga, Boubakar Diallo, David M Mushatt, Frances J Mather, Jeffrey G Shaffer, Asif H Anwar, Donald J Krogstad
BACKGROUND: Chloroquine was used for malaria treatment until resistant Plasmodium falciparum was identified. Because 4-aminoquinolines with modified side chains, such as AQ-13, are active against resistant parasites, we compared AQ-13 against artemether plus lumefantrine for treatment of uncomplicated P falciparum malaria. METHODS: We did a randomised, non-inferiority trial. We screened men (≥18 years) with uncomplicated malaria in Missira (northeast Mali) and Bamako (capital of Mali) for eligibility (≥2000 asexual P falciparum parasites per μL of blood)...
September 12, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902689/experiences-of-adults-with-intellectual-disability-who-identify-as-lesbian-gay-bisexual-transgender-queer-or-questioning-intersex-or-asexual-a-systematic-review-protocol
#9
Vemel Ramasamy, Fiona Rillotta, June Alexander
The purpose of this systematic review is to identify, appraise and synthesize the best available qualitative evidence on the lived experiences of adults with intellectual disability who identify as lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, queer or questioning, intersex or asexual in mainstream society.
September 2017: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902190/the-effects-of-outbreeding-on-a-parasitoid-wasp-fixed-for-infection-with-a-parthenogenesis-inducing-wolbachia-symbiont
#10
A R I Lindsey, R Stouthamer
Trichogramma wasps can be rendered asexual by infection with the maternally inherited symbiont Wolbachia. Previous studies indicate the Wolbachia strains infecting Trichogramma wasps are host-specific, inferred by failed horizontal transfer of Wolbachia to novel Trichogramma hosts. Additionally, Trichogramma can become dependent upon their Wolbachia infection for the production of female offspring, leaving them irreversibly asexual, further linking host and symbiont. We hypothesized Wolbachia strains infecting irreversibly asexual, resistant to horizontal transfer Trichogramma would show adaptation to a particular host genetic background...
September 13, 2017: Heredity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899381/ned-19-inhibition-of-parasite-growth-and-multiplication-suggests-a-role-for-naadp-mediated-signalling-in-the-asexual-development-of-plasmodium-falciparum
#11
Pablo Suárez-Cortés, Guido Gambara, Annarita Favia, Fioretta Palombi, Pietro Alano, Antonio Filippini
BACKGROUND: Although malaria is a preventable and curable human disease, millions of people risk to be infected by the Plasmodium parasites and to develop this illness. Therefore, there is an urgent need to identify new anti-malarial drugs. Ca(2+) signalling regulates different processes in the life cycle of Plasmodium falciparum, representing a suitable target for the development of new drugs. RESULTS: This study investigated for the first time the effect of a highly specific inhibitor of nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP)-induced Ca(2+) release (Ned-19) on P...
September 12, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898595/hematological-analysis-of-the-ascidian-botrylloides-leachii-savigny-1816-during-whole-body-regeneration
#12
Simon Blanchoud, Lisa Zondag, Miles D Lamare, Megan J Wilson
Whole-body regeneration (WBR)-the formation of an entire adult from only a small fragment of its own tissue-is extremely rare among chordates. Exceptionally, in the colonial ascidian Botrylloides leachii (Savigny, 1816) a fully functional adult is formed from their common vascular system after ablation of all adults from the colony in just 10 d, thanks to their high blastogenetic potential. While previous studies have identified key genetic markers and morphological changes, no study has yet focused on the hematological aspects of regeneration despite the major involvement of the remaining vascular system and the contained hemocytes in this process...
June 2017: Biological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894998/new-species-spiromastigoides-albida-from-a-lung-biopsy
#13
Alberto M Stchigel, Deanna A Sutton, José F Cano-Lira, Nathan Wiederhold, Josep Guarro
The new species Spiromastigoides albida (Onygenales, Eurotiomycetes, Ascomycota), from a lung biopsy in USA, is proposed and described based on morphological data and the analysis of rRNA, and fragments of actin and ß-tubulin gene sequences. This species is characterized by white colonies and a malbranchea-like asexual morph with profusely branching curved conidiophores forming sporodochia-like structures. Moreover, new combinations for Gymnoascus alatosporus, and for some new species recently described under the generic name Spiromastix, are provided...
September 11, 2017: Mycopathologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894236/genome-wide-functional-analysis-reveals-that-autophagy-is-necessary-for-growth-sporulation-deoxynivalenol-production-and-virulence-in-fusarium-graminearum
#14
Wuyun Lv, Chunyan Wang, Nan Yang, Yawei Que, Nicholas J Talbot, Zhengyi Wang
Autophagy is a conserved cellular recycling and trafficking pathway in eukaryotic cells and has been reported to be important in the virulence of a number of microbial pathogens. Here, we report genome-wide identification and characterization of autophagy-related genes (ATGs) in the wheat pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum. We identified twenty-eight genes associated with the regulation and operation of autophagy in F. graminearum. Using targeted gene deletion, we generated a set of 28 isogenic mutants...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893907/compositional-and-expression-analyses-of-the-glideosome-during-the-plasmodium-life-cycle-reveal-an-additional-myosin-light-chain-required-for-maximum-motility
#15
Judith L Green, Richard J Wall, Juha Vahokoski, Noor A Yusuf, Mohd A Mohd Ridzuan, Rebecca R Stanway, Jessica Stock, Ellen Knuepfer, Declan Brady, Stephen R Martin, Steven A Howell, Isa P Pires, Robert W Moon, Justin E Molloy, Inari Kursula, Rita Tewari, Anthony A Holder
Myosin A (MyoA) is a Class XIV myosin implicated in gliding motility and host cell and tissue invasion by malaria parasites. MyoA is part of a membrane-associated protein complex called the glideosome, which is essential for parasite motility and includes the MyoA light chain MTIP, and several glideosome-associated proteins (GAPs). However, most studies of MyoA have focused on single stages of the parasite life cycle. We examined MyoA expression throughout the Plasmodium berghei life cycle in both mammalian and insect hosts...
September 11, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893636/advances-in-the-application-of-genetic-manipulation-methods-to-apicomplexan-parasites
#16
REVIEW
C E Suarez, R P Bishop, H F Alzan, W A Poole, B M Cooke
Apicomplexan parasites such as Babesia, Theileria, Eimeria, Cryptosporidium and Toxoplasma greatly impact animal health globally, and improved, cost-effective measures to control them are urgently required. These parasites have complex multi-stage life cycles including obligate intracellular stages. Major gaps in our understanding of the biology of these relatively poorly characterised parasites and the diseases they cause severely limit options for designing novel control methods. Here we review potentially important shared aspects of the biology of these parasites, such as cell invasion, host cell modification, and asexual and sexual reproduction, and explore the potential of the application of relatively well-established or newly emerging genetic manipulation methods, such as classical transfection or gene editing, respectively, for closing important gaps in our knowledge of the function of specific genes and proteins, and the biology of these parasites...
September 8, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890581/fitness-effects-of-thermal-stress-differ-between-outcrossing-and-selfing-populations-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#17
Agata Plesnar-Bielak, Marta K Labocha, Paulina Kosztyła, Katarzyna R Woch, Weronika M Banot, Karolina Sychta, Magdalena Skarboń, Monika A Prus, Zofia M Prokop
The maintenance of males and outcrossing is widespread, despite considerable costs of males. By enabling recombination between distinct genotypes, outcrossing may be advantageous during adaptation to novel environments and if so, it should be selected for under environmental challenge. However, a given environmental change may influence fitness of male, female, and hermaphrodite or asexual individuals differently, and hence the relationship between reproductive system and dynamics of adaptation to novel conditions may not be driven solely by the level of outcrossing and recombination...
2017: Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889913/phylogenetic-relationships-of-chlamydomyces-harzia-olpitrichum-and-their-sexual-allies-melanospora-and-sphaerodes
#18
Neil P Schultes, Besnik Murtishi, De-Wei Li
Phylogenetic analyses using internal transcribed spacer (ITS), large subunit rRNA (LSU), and small subunit (SSU) sequence data showed that Harzia, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum are con-generic. Thus, Chlamydomyces, and Olpitrichum were reduced to synonymy of Harzia. The generic concept was amended and expanded accordingly. Eight new combinations were proposed. Melanospora and Sphaerodes are phylogenetically related to Harzia. However, several members of Melanospora and Sphaerodes are polyphyletic and belong to Hypocreales or Microascales in Sordariomycetes...
October 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888885/a-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-gene-vmpmk1-regulates-virulence-and-cell-wall-degrading-enzyme-expression-in-valsa-mali
#19
Yuxing Wu, Liangsheng Xu, Juan Liu, Zhiyuan Yin, Xiaoning Gao, Hao Feng, Lili Huang
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) play critical roles in the regulation of different developmental processes and hydrolytic enzyme production in many fungal plant pathogens. In this study, an FUS3/KSS1-related MAPK gene, VmPmk1, was identified and characterized in Valsa mali, which causes a highly destructive canker disease on apple. VmPmk1 deletion mutant showed a significant reduction in growth rate in vitro, and could not produce pycnidium, indicating that the MAPK gene is important for growth and asexual development...
September 6, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886443/antiplasmodial-activities-of-dyes-against-plasmodium-falciparum-asexual-and-sexual-stages-contrasted-uptakes-of-triarylmethanes-brilliant-green-green-s-e142-and-patent-blue-v-e131-by-erythrocytes
#20
Louis-Jérôme Leba, Jean Popovici, Yannick Estevez, Stéphane Pelleau, Eric Legrand, Lise Musset, Christophe Duplais
The search for safe antimalarial compounds acting against asexual symptom-responsible stages and sexual transmission-responsible forms of Plasmodium species is one of the major challenges in malaria elimination programs. So far, among current drugs approved for human use, only primaquine has transmission-blocking activity. The discovery of small molecules targeting different Plasmodium falciparum life stages remains a priority in antimalarial drug research. In this context, several independent studies have recently reported antiplasmodial and transmission-blocking activities of commonly used stains, dyes and fluorescent probes against P...
August 2, 2017: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
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