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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149898/detection-of-plasmodium-falciparum-male-and-female-gametocytes-and-determination-of-parasite-sex-ratio-in-human-endemic-populations-by-novel-cheap-and-robust-rtqpcr-assays
#1
Federica Santolamazza, Pamela Avellino, Giulia Siciliano, Franck Adama Yao, Fabrizio Lombardo, Jean Bosco Ouédraogo, David Modiano, Pietro Alano, Valentina Dianora Mangano
BACKGROUND: The presence of Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in peripheral blood is essential for human to mosquito parasite transmission. The detection of submicroscopic infections with gametocytes and the estimation of the gametocyte sex ratio are crucial to assess the human host potential ability to infect mosquitoes and transmit malaria parasites. AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this work was to develop sensitive and cheap Real Time qPCR assays for large-scale epidemiological surveys, based on detection and amplification of gametocyte sex specific transcripts selected from the literature: the female-specific pfs25 and pf glycerol kinase (pfGK) and the male-specific pfs230p and pf13 transcripts...
November 17, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145842/age-specific-plasmodium-parasite-profile-in-pre-and-post-itn-intervention-period-at-a-highland-site-in-western-kenya
#2
Ednah N Ototo, Guofa Zhou, Lucy Kamau, Jenard P Mbugi, Christine L Wanjala, Maxwell Machani, Harrysone Atieli, Andrew K Githeko, Guiyun Yan
BACKGROUND: Monitoring and evaluation of entomological, parasitological and clinical data is an important component of malaria control as it is a measure of the success of the interventions. In many studies, clinical data has been used to monitor trends in malaria morbidity and mortality. This study was conducted to demonstrate age dependent prevalence of malaria in the pre- and post-interventions period. METHODS: A series of cross-sectional malaria parasitological surveys were conducted in Iguhu, western Kenya...
November 16, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144843/brevicollum-a-new-genus-in-neohendersoniaceae-pleosporales
#3
Kazuaki Tanaka, Akira Hashimoto, Misato Matsumura, Toyozo Sato
A new genus, Brevicollum, is established for two new species, B. hyalosporum on Syzygium samarangense and B. versicolor on Volkameria inermis, in Japan. This genus is characterized by the presence of immersed ascomata with an excentric to central, short cylindrical ostiolar neck, thin ascomatal wall, clavate asci with a shallow ocular chamber, and broadly fusiform, hyaline to pale brown ascospores with a sheath. Molecular phylogenetic analyses based on a combined data set of sequences of 18S and 28S nuc rDNA genes and the second largest subunit of RNA polymerase II (RPB2) revealed that Brevicollum is a member of Neohendersoniaceae (Pleosporales, Dothideomycetes)...
October 5, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141762/efficacy-of-artemether-lumefantrine-for-uncomplicated-plasmodium-falciparum-malaria-in-cruzeiro-do-sul-brazil-2016
#4
Megumi Itoh, Suiane Negreiros do Valle, Sâmela Farias, Thayna Maria Holanda de Souza, Giselle Maria Rachid Viana, Naomi Lucchi, Stella Chenet, Paola Marchesini, Marinete Póvoa, Ana Carolina Faria E Silva Santelli, Alexandre Macedo de Oliveira
We evaluated the therapeutic efficacy of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) fixed-dose combination to treat uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Cruzeiro do Sul, Acre State, in the Amazon region of Brazil. Between December 2015 and May 2016, we enrolled 79 patients, 5-79 years old with fever or history of fever in the previous 48 hours and P. falciparum monoinfection confirmed by microscopy. Attempts were made to provide direct observation or phone reminders for all six doses of AL, and patients were followed-up for 28 days...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138437/photosensitized-ina-labelled-protein-1-phil1-is-novel-component-of-the-inner-membrane-complex-and-is-required-for-plasmodium-parasite-development
#5
Ekta Saini, Mohammad Zeeshan, Declan Brady, Rajan Pandey, Gesine Kaiser, Ludek Koreny, Pradeep Kumar, Vandana Thakur, Shreyansh Tatiya, Nicholas J Katris, Rebecca Stanway Limenitakis, Inderjeet Kaur, Judith L Green, Andrew R Bottrill, David S Guttery, Ross F Waller, Volker Heussler, Anthony A Holder, Asif Mohmmed, Pawan Malhotra, Rita Tewari
Plasmodium parasites, the causative agents of malaria, possess a distinctive membranous structure of flattened alveolar vesicles supported by a proteinaceous network, and referred to as the inner membrane complex (IMC). The IMC has a role in actomyosin-mediated motility and host cell invasion. Here, we examine the location, protein interactome and function of PhIL1, an IMC-associated protein on the motile and invasive stages of both human and rodent parasites. We show that PhIL1 is located in the IMC in all three invasive (merozoite, ookinete-, and sporozoite) stages of development, as well as in the male gametocyte and locates both at the apical and basal ends of ookinete and sporozoite stages...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134709/light-sensing-by-opsins-and-fungal-ecology-nop-1-modulates-entry-into-sexual-reproduction-in-response-to-environmental-cues
#6
Zheng Wang, Junrui Wang, Ning Li, Jigang Li, Frances Trail, Jay C Dunlap, Jeffrey P Townsend
Understanding the genetic basis of the switch from asexual to sexual lifestyles in response to sometimes rapid environmental changes is one of the major challenges in fungal ecology. Light appears to play a critical role in the switch-but fungal genomes harbor diverse light sensors. Fungal opsins are homologous to bacterial green-light sensory rhodopsins, and their organismal functions in fungi have not been well understood. Three of these opsin-like proteins were widely distributed across fungal genomes, but homologs of the Fusarium opsin-like protein CarO were present only in plant-associated fungi...
November 13, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132437/hap2-a-novel-gene-in-babesia-bigemina-is-expressed-in-tick-stages-and-specific-antibodies-block-zygote-formation
#7
Minerva Camacho-Nuez, Diego Josimar Hernández-Silva, Elizabeth Jacqueline Castañeda-Ortiz, María Elena Paredes-Martínez, Marisol Karina Rocha-Martínez, María Elizbeth Alvarez-Sánchez, Ricardo Francisco Mercado-Curiel, Gabriela Aguilar-Tipacamu, Juan Mosqueda
BACKGROUND: Bovine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease caused by the protozoan parasites of the genus Babesia. In their host vector, Babesia spp. undergo sexual reproduction. Therefore, the development of sexual stages and the subsequent formation of the zygote are essential for the parasite to invade the intestinal cells of the vector tick and continue its life-cycle. HAP2/GCS1 is a protein identified in plants, protozoan parasites and other organisms that has an important role during membrane fusion in fertilization processes...
November 13, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132428/characterization-of-pb51-in-plasmodium-berghei-as-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate-targeting-both-asexual-erythrocytic-proliferation-and-transmission
#8
Jian Wang, Wenqi Zheng, Fei Liu, Yaru Wang, Yiwen He, Li Zheng, Qi Fan, Enjie Luo, Yaming Cao, Liwang Cui
BACKGROUND: A vaccine that targets multiple developmental stages of malaria parasites would be an effective tool for malaria control and elimination. METHODS: A conserved gene in Plasmodium, the Plasmodium berghei gene (PBANKA_020570) encoding a 51 kDa protein (pb51 gene), was identified through search of the PlasmoDB database using a combination of expression and protein localization criteria. A partial domain of the Pb51 protein was expressed in a prokaryotic expression system (rPb51) and used for immunization in mice...
November 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125522/sexual-identity-and-orientation-in-adult-men-and-women-with-spina-bifida
#9
Konrad M Szymanski, Devon J Hensel, John S Wiener, Benjamin Whittam, Mark P Cain, Rosalia Misseri
PURPOSE: Sexuality has received little attention in spina bifida (SB) care. The aim of this study was to assess sexual identity and orientation in adults with SB. METHODS: An international online survey to adults with SB was administered over 10-months (recruitment: SB clinics, SB organizations via social media). Collected data included demographics, sexual identity and orientation. Non-parametric tests were used for analysis. RESULTS: Median age of 77 men and 119 women was 35 years old (52...
October 20, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122178/pdslt2-penicillium-digitatum-mitogen-activated-protein-kinase-controls-sporulation-and-virulence-during-citrus-fruit-infection
#10
Marta de Ramón-Carbonell, Paloma Sánchez-Torres
The Slt2 mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinase homologue of Penicillium digitatum, the most relevant pathogen-producing citrus green mould decay during postharvest, was identified and explored. The P. digitatum Slt2-MAPK coding gene (PdSlt2) was functionally characterized by homologous gene elimination and transcriptomic evaluation. The absence of PdSlt2 gene resulted in significantly reduced virulence during citrus infection. The ΔPdSlt2 mutants were also defective in asexual reproduction, showing impairment of sporulation during citrus infection...
December 2017: Fungal Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118334/temporal-and-spatial-expression-of-genes-involved-in-dna-methylation-during-reproductive-development-of-sexual-and-apomictic-eragrostis-curvula
#11
J P Selva, L Siena, J M Rodrigo, I Garbus, D Zappacosta, J R Romero, J P A Ortiz, S C Pessino, O Leblanc, V Echenique
Recent reports in model plant species have highlighted a role for DNA methylation pathways in the regulation of the somatic-to-reproductive transition in the ovule, suggesting that apomixis (asexual reproduction through seeds) likely relies on RdDM downregulation. Our aim was therefore to explore this hypothesis by characterizing genes involved in DNA methylation in the apomictic grass Eragrostis curvula. We explored floral transcriptomes to identify homologs of three candidate genes, for which mutations in Arabidopsis and maize mimic apomixis (AtAGO9/ZmAGO104, AtCMT3/ZmDMT102/ZmDMT105, and AtDDM1/ZmCHR106), and compared both their spatial and temporal expression patterns during reproduction in sexual and apomictic genotypes...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118134/temperature-effects-on-life-history-trade-offs-germline-maintenance-and-mutation-rate-under-simulated-climate-warming
#12
David Berger, Josefine Stångberg, Karl Grieshop, Ivain Martinossi-Allibert, Göran Arnqvist
Mutation has a fundamental influence over evolutionary processes, but how evolutionary processes shape mutation rate remains less clear. In asexual unicellular organism, increased mutation rates have been observed in stressful environments and the reigning paradigm ascribes this increase to selection for evolvability. However, this explanation does not apply in sexually reproducing species, where little is known about how the environment affects mutation rate. Here we challenged experimental lines of seed beetle, evolved at ancestral temperature or under simulated climate warming, to repair induced mutations at ancestral and stressful temperature...
November 15, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115539/two%C3%A2-component-histidine-kinase-drk1-is-required-for-pathogenesis-in-sporothrix%C3%A2-schenckii
#13
Zhenying Zhang, Binbin Hou, Yong Zhuo Wu, Ying Wang, Xiaoming Liu, Shixin Han
Sporothrix schenckii is a pathogenic dimorphic fungus with a global distribution. It grows in a multicellular hyphal form at 25˚C and a unicellular yeast form at 37˚C. The morphological switch from mold to yeast form is obligatory for establishing pathogenicity in S. schenckii. Two‑component signaling systems are utilized by eukaryotes to sense and respond to external environmental changes. DRK1is a hybrid histidine kinase, which functions as a global regulator of dimorphism and virulence in Blastomyces dermatitidis and Histoplasma capsulatum...
November 7, 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115023/secondary-queens-in-the-parthenogenetic-termite-cavitermes-tuberosus-develop-through-a-transitional-helper-stage
#14
Simon Hellemans, Denis Fournier, Robert Hanus, Yves Roisin
In termite species with asexual queen succession (AQS), parthenogenetically produced immatures mostly differentiate into secondary queens, called "neotenics." In order to elucidate the ontogenetic origin of neotenics in Cavitermes tuberosus (Termitidae: Termitinae), a neotropical termite with AQS, we investigated developmental pathways of offspring according to their sex and genetic origin using both morphometric and genetic tools. The caste system of C. tuberosus follows the classical pathway of Termitidae...
November 2017: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109714/characteristics-of-a-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-rgs-rgsc-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#15
Young Kim, In-Beom Heo, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The regulator of G-protein signaling (RGS) proteins have a conserved RGS domain that facilitates the intrinsic GTPase activity of an activated Gα subunit of heterotrimeric G protein, thereby attenuating signal transduction. Among six predicted RGS proteins in the opportunistic human pathogenic fungus Aspergillus fumigatus, only three (FlbA, GprK, and Rax1) have been studied. The unexplored RgsC composed of the Phox-associated (PXA), RGS, Phox homology (PX), and Nexin_C superfamily domains is highly conserved in many ascomycete fungi, suggesting a crucial role of RgsC in fungal biology...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109232/recombination-the-good-the-bad-and-the-variable
#16
Jessica Stapley, Philine G D Feulner, Susan E Johnston, Anna W Santure, Carole M Smadja
Recombination, the process by which DNA strands are broken and repaired, producing new combinations of alleles, occurs in nearly all multicellular organisms and has important implications for many evolutionary processes. The effects of recombination can be good, as it can facilitate adaptation, but also bad when it breaks apart beneficial combinations of alleles, and recombination is highly variable between taxa, species, individuals and across the genome. Understanding how and why recombination rate varies is a major challenge in biology...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109224/low-recombination-rates-in-sexual-species-and-sex-asex-transitions
#17
Christoph R Haag, Loukas Theodosiou, Roula Zahab, Thomas Lenormand
In most sexual, diploid eukaryotes, at least one crossover occurs between each pair of homologous chromosomes during meiosis, presumably in order to ensure proper segregation. Well-known exceptions to this rule are species in which one sex does not recombine and specific chromosomes lacking crossover. We review other possible exceptions, including species with chromosome maps of less than 50 cM in one or both sexes. We discuss the idea that low recombination rates may favour sex-asex transitions, or, alternatively may be a consequence of it...
December 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29104825/proteomics-research-and-related-functional-classification-of-liquid-sclerotial-exudates-of-sclerotinia-ginseng
#18
Dan Wang, Jun Fan Fu, Ru Jun Zhou, Zi Bo Li, Yu Jiao Xie
Sclerotinia ginseng is a necrotrophic soil pathogen that mainly infects the root and basal stem of ginseng, causing serious commercial losses. Sclerotia, which are important in the fungal life cycle, are hard, asexual, resting structures that can survive in soil for several years. Generally, sclerotium development is accompanied by the exudation of droplets. Here, the yellowish droplets of S. ginseng were first examined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the proteome was identified by a combination of different analytical platforms...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094698/single-cell-rna-sequencing-reveals-a-signature-of-sexual-commitment-in-malaria-parasites
#19
Asaf Poran, Christopher Nötzel, Omar Aly, Nuria Mencia-Trinchant, Chantal T Harris, Monica L Guzman, Duane C Hassane, Olivier Elemento, Björn F C Kafsack
Pathogens have to balance transmission with persistence. For Plasmodium falciparum, the most widespread and virulent malaria parasite, persistence within its human host requires continuous asexual replication within red blood cells, while its mosquito-borne transmission depends on intra-erythrocytic differentiation into non-replicating sexual stages called gametocytes. Commitment to either fate is determined during the preceding cell cycle that begins with invasion by a single, asexually committed merozoite and ends, 48 hours later, with a schizont releasing newly formed merozoites, all committed to either continued asexual replication or differentiation into gametocytes...
November 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29093527/on-the-occurrence-of-intracolonial-genotypic-variability-in-highly-clonal-populations-of-the-hydrocoral-millepora-platyphylla-at-moorea-french-polynesia
#20
Caroline E Dubé, Serge Planes, Yuxiang Zhou, Véronique Berteaux-Lecellier, Emilie Boissin
Intracolonial genotypic variability is described in many colonial organisms and arises from mosaicism (somatic mutation) and/or chimerism (allogenic fusion). Both processes provide an additional source of genotypic variation in natural populations and raise questions on the biological significance of colonies having more than one genotype. Using fifteen microsatellite markers, we screened for potential genetic heterogeneity within Millepora platyphylla colonies, a hydrocoral species known for its extensive morphological plasticity among reef habitats...
November 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
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