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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437167/the-fgvps39-fgvam7-fgsso1-complex-mediates-vesicle-trafficking-and-is-important-for-the-development-and-virulence-of-fusarium-graminearum
#1
Bing Li, Luping Liu, Ying Li, Xin Dong, Haifeng Zhang, Huaigu Chen, Xiaobo Zheng, Zhengguang Zhang
Vesicle trafficking is an important event in eukaryotic organisms. Many proteins and lipids transported between different organelles or compartments are essential for survival. These processes are mediated by soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor (SNARE) proteins, Rab-GTPases, and multisubunit tethering complexes such as class C core vacuole or endosome tethering and homotypic fusion or vacuole protein sorting (HOPS). Our previous study has demonstrated that FgVam7, which encodes a SNARE protein involving in vesicle trafficking, plays crucial roles in growth, asexual or sexual development, deoxynivalenol production, and pathogenicity in Fusarium graminearum...
April 24, 2017: Molecular Plant-microbe Interactions: MPMI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437138/epidemiology-of-basil-downy-mildew
#2
Yigal Cohen, Yariv Ben-Naim, Lidan Falach, Evgenia Rubin
Basil downy mildew (BDM) caused by the oomycete Peronospora belbahrii is a destructive disease of sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) worldwide. It has originated in Uganda in the 1930's and recently spread to Europe, Middle East, Americas and the Far East. Seed transmission may be responsible to its quick global spread. The pathogen attacks leaf blades, producing chlorotic lesions with ample dark asexual spores on the lower leaf surface. Oospores may occur in the mesophyll of infected leaves. The asexual spores germinate on a wet leaf surface within 2h and penetrate into the epidermis within 4h...
April 24, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430404/understanding-asexual-identity-as-a-means-to-facilitate-culturally-competent-care-a-systematic-literature-review
#3
REVIEW
Catriona Jones, Mark Hayter, Julie Jomeen
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This paper aims to provide a contemporary overview of asexuality and the implications this has for health care practice. BACKGROUND: Individuals belonging to sexual minority groups face many barriers in accessing appropriate health care. The term 'sexual minority group' is usually used to refer to Lesbian Gay Bisexual and Transgender (LGBT) individuals. Anecdotal and research evidence suggests that those who identify as asexual have similar poor experiences...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430103/genomic-characterization-of-recrudescent-plasmodium-malariae-after-treatment-with-artemether-lumefantrine
#4
Gavin G Rutledge, Ian Marr, G Khai Lin Huang, Sarah Auburn, Jutta Marfurt, Mandy Sanders, Nicholas J White, Matthew Berriman, Chris I Newbold, Nicholas M Anstey, Thomas D Otto, Ric N Price
Plasmodium malariae is the only human malaria parasite species with a 72-hour intraerythrocytic cycle and the ability to persist in the host for life. We present a case of a P. malariae infection with clinical recrudescence after directly observed administration of artemether/lumefantrine. By using whole-genome sequencing, we show that the initial infection was polyclonal and the recrudescent isolate was a single clone present at low density in the initial infection. Haplotypic analysis of the clones in the initial infection revealed that they were all closely related and were presumably recombinant progeny originating from the same infective mosquito bite...
August 15, 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427940/characterization-of-the-rax1-gene-encoding-a-putative-regulator-of-g-protein-signaling-in-aspergillus-fumigatus
#5
Olumuyiwa Ayokunle Igbalajobi, Jae-Hyuk Yu, Kwang-Soo Shin
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus fumigatus is the major cause of life threatening invasive aspergillosis, and its small hydrophobic asexual spores (conidia) are the major infection agent. To better understand biology of A. fumigatus, we have characterized the rax1 gene encoding a putative regulator of G protein signaling (RGS). The deletion (Δ) of rax1 results in restricted colony growth and highly reduced number of conidia in A. fumigatus. Transcript levels of the three central activators of asexual development abaA, brlA, and wetA are significantly reduced in the Δrax1 mutant...
April 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427455/comparison-of-methods-for-detecting-asymptomatic-malaria-infections-in-the-china-myanmar-border-area
#6
Yonghong Zhao, Yan Zhao, Yanmin Lv, Fei Liu, Qinghui Wang, Peipei Li, Zhenjun Zhao, Yingjie Liu, Liwang Cui, Qi Fan, Yaming Cao
BACKGROUND: Sensitive methods for detecting asymptomatic malaria infections are essential for identifying potential transmission reservoirs and obtaining an accurate assessment of malaria epidemiology in low-endemicity areas aiming to eliminate malaria. PCR techniques to detect parasite nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) are among the most commonly used molecular methods. However, most of these methods are of low throughput and cannot be used for large-scale molecular epidemiological studies...
April 20, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423024/interrelationships-of-vel1-and-env1-in-light-response-and-development-in-trichoderma-reesei
#7
Hoda Bazafkan, Christoph Dattenböck, Eva Stappler, Sabrina Beier, Monika Schmoll
Sexual development is regulated by a complex regulatory mechanism in fungi. For Trichoderma reesei, the light response pathway was shown to impact sexual development, particularly through the photoreceptor ENVOY. Moreover, T. reesei communicates chemically with a potential mating partner in its vicinity, a response which is mediated by the velvet family protein VEL1 and its impact on secondary metabolism. We therefore studied the regulatory interactions of ENV1 and VEL1 with a focus on sexual development. Although individual mutants in both genes are female sterile under standard crossing conditions (light-dark cycles), an altered light regime enabled sexual development, which we found to be due to conditional female sterility of Δenv1, but not Δvel1...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422127/differential-control-of-asexual-development-and-sterigmatocystin-biosynthesis-by-a-novel-regulator-in-aspergillus-nidulans
#8
Yong Jin Kim, Yu Yeong Man, Pil Jae Maeng
The filamentous fungus Aspergillus nidulans primarily reproduces by forming asexual spores called conidia and produces the mycotoxin sterigmatocystin (ST), the penultimate precursor of aflatoxins. It has been known that asexual development and ST production are tightly co-regulated by various regulatory inputs. Here, we report that the novel regulator AslA with a C2H2 domain oppositely regulates development and ST biosynthesis. Nullifying aslA resulted in defective conidiation and reduced expression of brlA encoding a key activator of asexual development, which indicates that AslA functions as an upstream activator of brlA expression...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419342/future-generations-and-the-justifiability-of-germline-engineering
#9
Ioana Petre
The possibility of performing germline modifications on currently living individuals targets future generations' health and well-being by reducing the diversity of the human gene pool. This can have two negative repercussions: (1) reduction of heterozygosity, the latter being associated with a health or performance advantage; (2) uniformization of the genes involved in reproductive recombination, which may lead to the health risks involved in asexual reproduction. I argue that germline interventions aimed at modifying the genomes of future people cannot be ethically justifiable if there is no possibility of controlling the intervention either by reversing or altering it, whenever need demands it...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Medicine and Philosophy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419145/apomixis-frequency-under-stress-conditions-in-weeping-lovegrass-eragrostis-curvula
#10
Juan Manuel Rodrigo, Diego Carlos Zappacosta, Juan Pablo Selva, Ingrid Garbus, Emidio Albertini, Viviana Echenique
To overcome environmental stress, plants develop physiological responses that are triggered by genetic or epigenetic changes, some of which involve DNA methylation. It has been proposed that apomixis, the formation of asexual seeds without meiosis, occurs through the temporal or spatial deregulation of the sexual process mediated by genetic and epigenetic factors influenced by the environment. Here, we explored whether there was a link between the occurrence of apomixis and various factors that generate stress, including drought stress, in vitro culture, and intraspecific hybridization...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418787/lulworthia-atlantica-a-new-species-supported-by-molecular-phylogeny-and-morphological-analysis
#11
Egídia Azevedo, Margarida Barata, Maria Isabel Marques, Maria Filomena Caeiro
This study presents morphological and molecular evidence for the establishment of a new species of Lulworthia based on the evaluation of 11 isolates of Lulworthiales collected in two marinas on the west coast of Portugal initially classified as Lulworthia sp. Maximum likelihood and Bayesian methods were applied to obtain phylogenetic trees for 18S-28S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 = internal transcribed spacer [ITS]) nuc rDNA. The isolates consistently grouped together in a distinct and highly supported clade; all other Lulworthiales analyzed, including the available sequences of Lulworthia spp...
March 9, 2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417346/-role-of-primaquine-in-malaria-control-and-elimination-in-french-speaking-africa
#12
S Briolant, B Pradines, L K Basco
Primaquine, an 8-aminoquinoline, is a relatively unknown and underutilized drug in French-speaking African countries. It acts against the liver stage parasites of all human malaria species, asexual blood stages of Plasmodium vivax and, to a lesser degree, Plasmodium falciparum; P. falciparum mature gametocytes, and P. vivax and Plasmodium ovale hypnozoites. Gastrointestinal disturbances are its most common side effects. The clinical utility of primaquine is limited due to its hematological side effects in individuals with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency and other contraindications (pregnant woman, breastfeeding woman, infants less than 6 months old)...
April 17, 2017: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417188/comparative-transcriptome-sequence-analysis-of-sporulation-related-genes-of-aspergillus-cristatus-in-response-to-low-and-high-osmolarity
#13
Yongyi Ge, Fengming Yu, Yumei Tan, Xiaoling Zhang, Zuoyi Liu
Aspergillus cristatus undergoes sexual and asexual development under conditions of low and high osmotic pressure, respectively. In this study, the expression levels of 107 genes associated with sexual and asexual development were analysed under conditions of low and high osmotic pressure by RNA sequencing. The results showed that 37 genes were up-regulated and other genes were down-regulated under conditions of high osmotic pressure, with most of the up-regulated genes associated with asexual development and most down-regulated genes associated with sexual development...
April 17, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412478/mitochondrial-and-peroxisomal-lon-proteases-play-opposing-roles-in-reproduction-and-growth-but-co-function-in-the-normal-development-stress-resistance-and-longevity-of-thermomyces-lanuginosus
#14
Xiao Cui, Yi Wei, Xiang-Li Xie, Li-Na Chen, Shi-Hong Zhang
The ATP-dependent Lon enzyme is a highly conserved protease with multiple roles in diverse species such as fungi; however, there are few reports on Lon enzymes in filamentous fungi. Thermomyces lanuginosus, a typical thermophilic fungus, has been widely studied in physiology and cell biology; thus, studies on Thermomyces Lons are important. Two Lons were bioinformatically deduced in T. lanuginosus. Subcellular localization analysis showed that one is present in mitochondria (MLon), while the other is found in peroxisomes (PLon)...
April 12, 2017: Fungal Genetics and Biology: FG & B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28411398/bud-detachment-in-hydra-requires-activation-of-fgfr-and-a-rho-rock-myosin-ii-signaling-pathway-to-ensure-formation-of-a-basal-constriction
#15
Oliver Holz, David Apel, Patrick Steinmetz, Ellen Lange, Simon Hopfenmüller, Kerstin Ohler, Stefanie Sudhop, Monika Hassel
BACKGROUND: Hydra propagates asexually by exporting tissue into a bud, which detaches four days later as a fully differentiated young polyp. Prerequisite for detachment is activation of fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) signaling. The mechanism which enables constriction and tissue separation within the monolayered ecto- and endodermal epithelia is unknown. RESULTS: Histological sections and staining of F-actin by phalloidin revealed conspicuous cell shape changes at the bud detachment site indicating a localized generation of mechanical forces and the potential enhancement of secretory functions in ectodermal cells...
April 15, 2017: Developmental Dynamics: An Official Publication of the American Association of Anatomists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407766/novel-lead-structures-with-both-plasmodium-falciparum-gametocytocidal-and-asexual-blood-stage-activity-identified-from-high-throughput-compound-screening
#16
Wei Sun, Xiuli Huang, Hao Li, Gregory Tawa, Ethan Fisher, Takeshi Q Tanaka, Paul Shinn, Wenwei Huang, Kim C Williamson, Wei Zheng
BACKGROUND: Blocking malaria transmission is an important step in eradicating malaria. In the field, transmission requires the production of sexual stage Plasmodium parasites, called gametocytes, which are not effectively killed by the commonly used anti-malarials allowing individuals to remain infectious after clearance of asexual parasites. METHODS: To identify new gametocytocidal compounds, a library of 45,056 compounds with diverse structures was screened using a high throughput gametocyte viability assay...
April 13, 2017: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404772/known-mutator-alleles-do-not-markedly-increase-mutation-rate-in-clinical-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-strains
#17
Daniel A Skelly, Paul M Magwene, Brianna Meeks, Helen A Murphy
Natural selection has the potential to act on all phenotypes, including genomic mutation rate. Classic evolutionary theory predicts that in asexual populations, mutator alleles, which cause high mutation rates, can fix due to linkage with beneficial mutations. This phenomenon has been demonstrated experimentally and may explain the frequency of mutators found in bacterial pathogens. By contrast, in sexual populations, recombination decouples mutator alleles from beneficial mutations, preventing mutator fixation...
April 12, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402784/defining-the-pathways-of-symbiotic-epichlo%C3%A3-colonization-in-grass-embryos-with-confocal-microscopy
#18
Wei Zhang, Stuart D Card, Wade J Mace, Michael J Christensen, Craig R McGill, Cory Matthew
Asexual cool-season grass endophytes of the genus Epichloë (Ascomycota: Clavicipitaceae) are strictly vertically disseminated. The hosts of these mutualistic fungi express no symptoms during the fungal lifecycle that takes place entirely within the plant, while their hosts receive beneficial outcomes. These fungi are distributed in two major locations within the mature seeds of their hosts; namely, within the embryo (including the scutellum, coleoptile, plumule, radicle, and coleorhiza tissues) and between the aleurone and pericarp layers, with the latter hyphae playing no role in transmission of the fungus to the next plant generation...
2017: Mycologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400771/signaling-strategies-of-malaria-parasite-for-its-survival-proliferation-and-infection-during-erythrocytic-stage
#19
REVIEW
Rani Soni, Drista Sharma, Praveen Rai, Bhaskar Sharma, Tarun K Bhatt
Irrespective of various efforts, malaria persist the most debilitating effect in terms of morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the existing drugs are also vulnerable to the emergence of drug resistance. To explore the potential targets for designing the most effective antimalarial therapies, it is required to focus on the facts of biochemical mechanism underlying the process of parasite survival and disease pathogenesis. This review is intended to bring out the existing knowledge about the functions and components of the major signaling pathways such as kinase signaling, calcium signaling, and cyclic nucleotide-based signaling, serving the various aspects of the parasitic asexual stage and highlighted the Toll-like receptors, glycosylphosphatidylinositol-mediated signaling, and molecular events in cytoadhesion, which elicit the host immune response...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400526/plasmodium-falciparum-k13-mutations-differentially-impact-ozonide-susceptibility-and-parasite-fitness-in-vitro
#20
Judith Straimer, Nina F Gnädig, Barbara H Stokes, Michelle Ehrenberger, Audrey A Crane, David A Fidock
The emergence and spread in Southeast Asia of Plasmodium falciparum resistance to artemisinin (ART) derivatives, the cornerstone of first-line artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs), underscore the urgent need to identify suitable replacement drugs. Discovery and development efforts have identified a series of ozonides with attractive chemical and pharmacological properties that are being touted as suitable replacements. Partial resistance to ART, defined as delayed parasite clearance in malaria patients treated with an ART derivative or an ACT, has been associated with mutations in the P...
April 11, 2017: MBio
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