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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775797/functional-screening-of-selective-mitochondrial-inhibitors-of-plasmodium
#1
Maria G Gomez-Lorenzo, Ane Rodríguez-Alejandre, Sonia Moliner-Cubel, María Martínez-Hoyos, Noemí Bahamontes-Rosa, Rubén Gonzalez Del Rio, Carolina Ródenas, Jesús de la Fuente, Jose Luis Lavandera, Jose F García-Bustos, Alfonso Mendoza-Losana
Phenotypic screening has produced most of the new chemical entities currently in clinical development for malaria, plus many lead compounds active against Plasmodium falciparum asexual stages. However, lack of knowledge about the mode of action of these compounds delays and may even hamper their future development. Identifying the mode of action of the inhibitors greatly helps to prioritise compounds for further development as novel antimalarials. Here we describe a whole-cell method to detect inhibitors of the mitochondrial electron transport chain, using oxygen consumption as high throughput readout in 384-well plate format...
May 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775485/plasmodium-parasite-exploits-host-aquaporin-3-during-liver-stage-malaria-infection
#2
Dora Posfai, Kayla Sylvester, Anupama Reddy, Jack G Ganley, Johannes Wirth, Quinlan E Cullen, Tushar Dave, Nobutaka Kato, Sandeep S Dave, Emily R Derbyshire
Within the liver a single Plasmodium parasite transforms into thousands of blood-infective forms to cause malaria. Here, we use RNA-sequencing to identify host genes that are upregulated upon Plasmodium berghei infection of hepatocytes with the hypothesis that host pathways are hijacked to benefit parasite development. We found that expression of aquaporin-3 (AQP3), a water and glycerol channel, is significantly induced in Plasmodium-infected hepatocytes compared to uninfected cells. This aquaglyceroporin localizes to the parasitophorous vacuole membrane, the compartmental interface between the host and pathogen, with a temporal pattern that correlates with the parasite's expansion in the liver...
May 18, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773679/comparative-proteomic-analysis-reveals-the-regulatory-network-of-the-vea-gene-during-asexual-and-sexual-spore-development-of-aspergillus-cristatus
#3
Hui Liu, Shilei Sang, Hui Wang, Xiyi Ren, Yumei Tan, Wei Chen, Zuoyi Liu, Yongxiang Liu
Aspergillus cristatus belongs to the homothallic fungal group that undergoes a sexual stage without asexual conidiation under hypotonic conditions, while hypertonic medium induces initiation of the asexual stage and completely blocks sexual development. However, the veA deletion mutant only produces conidia in hypotonic medium after a 24 h culture, but both asexual and sexual spores are observed after 72 h. To elucidate the molecular mechanism of how VeA regulates asexual and sexual spore development in A. cristatus , two dimensional electrophoresis combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-tandem time of flight mass spectrometry analysis were applied to identify 173 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) by comparing the agamotype (24 h) and teleomorph (72 h) with wild-type A...
May 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771192/fine-scale-population-genetic-structure-and-within-tree-distribution-of-mating-types-of-venturia-effusa-cause-of-pecan-scab-in-the-u-s-a
#4
Clive Bock, Carolyn Young, Katherine Stevenson, Nikki Charlton
Scab (caused by Venturia effusa) is the major disease of pecan in the southeastern U.S.A. There is no information available on the fine scale population genetic diversity, or the occurrence of clonal types at small spatial scales that provides insight into inoculum sources and dispersal mechanisms, and potential opportunity for sexual reproduction. To investigate fine scale genetic diversity, 4 trees (cv. Wichita = populations) were sampled hierarchically: within each tree canopy, 4 approximately evenly spaced terminals (subpopulations) were selected and up to 6 leaflets (sub-subpopulations) were sampled from different compound leaves on each terminal...
May 17, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768998/tuber-lectins-with-potentially-exploitable-bioactivities
#5
Randy Chi Fai Cheung, Tzi Bun Ng, Jack Ho Wong, Ryno Naude, Krzysztof Rolka, Tak Fu Tse, Helen Chan, Ryan Tse, Stephen Cho Wing Sze
Lectins are a group of proteins or glycoproteins with various potentially exploitable bioactivities and have been capturing more interest recently. They have been isolated and reported from various tissues of a diversity of plant species. Tubers are modified and enlarged plant structures derived from stems or roots that are used for nutrient storage and asexual reproduction. A number of plants such as yam, taro and potato are grown for their edible tubers, and lectins are found to be one of the major storage proteins...
May 16, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768491/plasmodium-falciparum-dipeptidyl-aminopeptidase-3-activity-is-important-for-efficient-erythrocyte-invasion-by-the-malaria-parasite
#6
Christine Lehmann, Michele Ser Ying Tan, Laura E de Vries, Ilaria Russo, Mateo Isidrio Sanchez, Daniel E Goldberg, Edgar Deu
Parasite egress from infected erythrocytes and invasion of new red blood cells are essential processes for the exponential asexual replication of the malaria parasite. These two tightly coordinated events take place in less than a minute and are in part regulated and mediated by proteases. Dipeptidyl aminopeptidases (DPAPs) are papain-fold cysteine proteases that cleave dipeptides from the N-terminus of protein substrates. DPAP3 was previously suggested to play an essential role in parasite egress. However, little is known about its enzymatic activity, intracellular localization, or biological function...
May 16, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768135/seeing-the-light-the-roles-of-red-and-blue-light-sensing-in-plant-microbes
#7
Gwyn A Beattie, Bridget M Hatfield, Haili Dong, Regina S McGrane
Plants collect, concentrate, and conduct light throughout their tissues, thus enhancing light availability to their resident microbes. This review explores the role of photosensing in the biology of plant-associated bacteria and fungi, including the molecular mechanisms of red-light sensing by phytochromes and blue-light sensing by LOV (light-oxygen-voltage)-domain proteins in these microbes. Bacteriophytochromes function as major drivers of the bacterial transcriptome and mediate light-regulated suppression of virulence, motility, and conjugation in some phytopathogens and light-regulated induction of the photosynthetic apparatus in a stem-nodulating symbiont...
May 16, 2018: Annual Review of Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767553/mating-system-in-the-brown-rot-pathogens-monilinia-fructicola-monilinia-laxa-and-monilinia-fructigena
#8
Domenico Abate, Rita Milvia De Miccolis Angelini, Caterina Rotolo, Stefania Pollastro, Francesco Faretra
Monilinia fructicola, Monilinia laxa and Monilinia fructigena are the most important pathogens responsible for brown rot disease of stone and pome fruits. Information on their mating system and sexual behaviour is scant. A mating-type specific PCR-based assay was developed and applied to 155 Monilinia isolates from ten countries and ten different host plants. We showed that single isolates carry only one of two opposite idiomorphs at the MAT1 locus consistent with a heterothallic mating system for all three species...
May 16, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764648/rapid-evolution-to-host-plant-resistance-by-an-invasive-herbivore-soybean-aphid-aphis-glycines-virulence-in-north-america-to-aphid-resistant-cultivars
#9
REVIEW
Matthew E O'Neal, Adam J Varenhorst, Matthew C Kaiser
Preventing rapid evolution of herbivores to plant traits that confer resistance is an area of active research for applied entomologists. The subfield of insect resistance management (IRM) uses elements of population genetics and ecology to prevent increases in the frequency of virulent (i.e. resistant) sub-populations of an insect pest. Efforts to delay such an increase include using highly lethal toxins (i.e., a high dose), combining multiple resistance traits in one cultivar (i.e., pyramids), and using susceptible plants (i...
April 2018: Current Opinion in Insect Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760888/adaptive-phenotypic-plasticity-in-a-clonal-invader
#10
Gerlien Verhaegen, Kyle E McElroy, Laura Bankers, Maurine Neiman, Martin Haase
Organisms featuring wide trait variability and occurring in a wide range of habitats, such as the ovoviviparous New Zealand freshwater snail Potamopyrgus antipodarum , are ideal models to study adaptation. Since the mid-19th century, P. antipodarum , characterized by extremely variable shell morphology, has successfully invaded aquatic areas on four continents. Because these obligately and wholly asexual invasive populations harbor low genetic diversity compared to mixed sexual/asexual populations in the native range, we hypothesized that (1) this phenotypic variation in the invasive range might be adaptive with respect to colonization of novel habitats, and (2) that at least some of the variation might be caused by phenotypic plasticity...
May 2018: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741213/alpha-linolenic-acid-but-not-palmitic-acid-negatively-impacts-survival-asexual-reproductive-rate-and-clonal-offspring-size-in-hydra-oligactis
#11
Anita Kaliszewicz, Karolina Jarząbek, Justyna Szymańska, Kamil Karaban, Maciej Sierakowski
Hydra, as sit-and-wait predators with limited food selectivity, could serve as model organisms for the analysis of the effect of a particular dietary component on growth and reproduction. We investigated the effect of food quality and of diets enriched with palmitic (PAM) or α-linolenic acid (ALA) on the life history traits of two hydra species: Hydra oligactis and Hydra vulgaris. We tested the hypothesis that a diet enriched with polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) can stimulate growth and reproduction in simple metazoans with a sit-and-wait type of predatory strategy...
May 9, 2018: Lipids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739900/bone-marrow-is-a-major-parasite-reservoir-in-plasmodium-vivax-infection
#12
Nicanor Obaldia, Elamaran Meibalan, Juliana M Sa, Siyuan Ma, Martha A Clark, Pedro Mejia, Roberto R Moraes Barros, William Otero, Marcelo U Ferreira, James R Mitchell, Danny A Milner, Curtis Huttenhower, Dyann F Wirth, Manoj T Duraisingh, Thomas E Wellems, Matthias Marti
Plasmodium vivax causes heavy burdens of disease across malarious regions worldwide. Mature P. vivax asexual and transmissive gametocyte stages occur in the blood circulation, and it is often assumed that accumulation/sequestration in tissues is not an important phase in their development. Here, we present a systematic study of P. vivax stage distributions in infected tissues of nonhuman primate (NHP) malaria models as well as in blood from human infections. In a comparative analysis of the transcriptomes of P...
May 8, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29737398/the-recovery-of-a-recessive-allele-in-a-mendelian-diploid-model
#13
Anton Bovier, Loren Coquille, Rebecca Neukirch
We study the large population limit of a stochastic individual-based model which describes the time evolution of a diploid hermaphroditic population reproducing according to Mendelian rules. Neukirch and Bovier (J Math Biol 75:145-198, 2017) proved that sexual reproduction allows unfit alleles to survive in individuals with mixed genotype much longer than they would in populations reproducing asexually. In the present paper we prove that this indeed opens the possibility that individuals with a pure genotype can reinvade in the population after the appearance of further mutations...
May 8, 2018: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729060/identification-of-an-asexual-reproduction-inducer-of-phytopathogenic-and-toxigenic-fusarium
#14
Jianhua Qi, Lihong Cheng, Yujuan Sun, Yushi Hirata, Naoki Ushida, Zhonghua Ma, Hiroyuki Osada, Toshio Nishikawa, Lan Xiang
Asexual and sexual reproductions are the most important biological events in the lifecycle of phytopathogenic and toxigenic Fusarium and are responsible for disease epidemics. However, the signaling molecules which induce the asexual reproduction of Fusarium are unknown. Here we describe the structure elucidation including the absolute stereochemistry of Fusarium asexual reproduction inducer (FARI), a new sesquiterpene derivative, which was determined by spectroscopic analysis, total synthesis, and conidium-inducing assays of synthetic isomers...
May 5, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726889/immediate-vs-evolutionary-consequences-of-polyploidy-on-clonal-reproduction-in-an-autopolyploid-plant
#15
Wendy E Van Drunen, Brian C Husband
Background and Aims: Clonal reproduction in polyploids is expected to exceed that in diploids, due to either the immediate direct effects of whole-genome duplication (WGD) or selection during establishment. The timing of polyploidy effects on clonality are largely unknown despite its hypothesized influence on polyploid success. This study tests the direction and timing of divergence in clonal traits in diploid and polyploid Chamerion angustifolium. Methods: Root bud production and biomass allocation patterns were compared between diploids and synthesized tetraploids (neotetraploids), and between neotetraploids and naturally occurring tetraploids grown in a common environment...
May 2, 2018: Annals of Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725103/gene-retention-fractionation-and-subgenome-differences-in-polyploid-plants
#16
REVIEW
Feng Cheng, Jian Wu, Xu Cai, Jianli Liang, Michael Freeling, Xiaowu Wang
All natural plant species are evolved from ancient polyploids. Polyloidization plays an important role in plant genome evolution, species divergence and crop domestication. We review how the pattern of polyploidy within the plant phylogenetic tree has engendered hypotheses involving mass extinctions, lag-times following polyploidy, and epochs of asexuality. Polyploidization has happened repeatedly in plant evolution and, we conclude, is important for crop domestication. Once duplicated, the effect of purifying selection on any one duplicated gene is relaxed, permitting duplicate gene and regulatory element loss (fractionation)...
May 2018: Nature Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724925/uncovering-the-essential-genes-of-the-human-malaria-parasite-plasmodium-falciparum-by-saturation-mutagenesis
#17
Min Zhang, Chengqi Wang, Thomas D Otto, Jenna Oberstaller, Xiangyun Liao, Swamy R Adapa, Kenneth Udenze, Iraad F Bronner, Deborah Casandra, Matthew Mayho, Jacqueline Brown, Suzanne Li, Justin Swanson, Julian C Rayner, Rays H Y Jiang, John H Adams
Severe malaria is caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Despite decades of research, the distinct biology of these parasites has made it challenging to establish high-throughput genetic approaches to identify and prioritize therapeutic targets. Using transposon mutagenesis of P. falciparum in an approach that exploited its AT-rich genome, we generated more than 38,000 mutants, saturating the genome and defining mutability and fitness costs for over 87% of genes. Of 5399 genes, our study defined 2680 genes as essential for optimal growth of asexual blood stages in vitro...
May 4, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29724186/genome-wide-expert-annotation-of-the-epigenetic-machinery-of-the-plant-parasitic-nematodes-meloidogyne-spp-with-a-focus-on-the-asexually-reproducing-species
#18
Loris Pratx, Corinne Rancurel, Martine Da Rocha, Etienne G J Danchin, Philippe Castagnone-Sereno, Pierre Abad, Laetitia Perfus-Barbeoch
BACKGROUND: The renewed interest in epigenetics has led to the understanding that both the environment and individual lifestyle can directly interact with the epigenome to influence its dynamics. Epigenetic phenomena are mediated by DNA methylation, stable chromatin modifications and non-coding RNA-associated gene silencing involving specific proteins called epigenetic factors. Multiple organisms, ranging from plants to yeast and mammals, have been used as model systems to study epigenetics...
May 3, 2018: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723510/infection-of-mosquitoes-from-in-vitro-cultivated-plasmodium-knowlesi-h-strain
#19
Jennifer S Armistead, Roberto R Moraes Barros, Tyler J Gibson, Whitney A Kite, J Patrick Mershon, Lynn E Lambert, Sachy E Orr-Gonzalez, Juliana M Sá, John H Adams, Thomas E Wellems
In vitro studies of sexual blood stages of the most fatal malaria species, Plasmodium falciparum, have revealed key processes by which gametocytes develop and transmit infection from humans to anopheline mosquitoes. However, most malaria cases outside sub-Saharan Africa are caused by other Plasmodium spp., frequently Plasmodium vivax and Plasmodium knowlesi, a zoonotic parasite of macaque monkeys. Gametocytes of P. vivax and P. knowlesi exhibit distinct morphology, faster development, and a shorter life span compared with gametocytes of P...
April 30, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722880/extensive-differential-splicing-underlies-phenotypically-plastic-aphid-morphs
#20
Mary E Grantham, Jennifer A Brisson
Phenotypic plasticity results in a diversity of phenotypes from a single genotype in response to environmental cues. To understand the molecular basis of phenotypic plasticity, studies have focused on differential gene expression levels between environmentally-determined phenotypes. The extent of alternative splicing differences among environmentally-determined phenotypes has largely been understudied. Here we study alternative splicing differences among plastically-produced morphs of the pea aphid using RNA-sequence data...
May 2, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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