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Syed Haris Omar, Christopher J Scott, Adam S Hamlin, Hassan K Obied
The focus of this study was on inhibition of enzymes involved in the pathogenesis Alzheimer's disease (AD) including prime amyloid beta (Aβ) producing enzyme (β-secretase: BACE-1) and disease progression enzymes including acetylcholinesterase (AChE), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE), histone deacetylase (HDAC), and tyrosinase along with the catecholamine L-DOPA, by using olive biophenols. Here we report the strongest inhibition of BACE-1 from rutin (IC50 : 3.8 nM) followed by verbascoside (IC50 : 6.3 nM) and olive fruit extract (IC50 : 18 ng), respectively...
May 14, 2018: Fitoterapia
Zhimei Li, Yiyuan Zhang, Lixia Chen, Hua Li
Overexpression of the prosurvival protein BCL-2 contributes to malignant cell initiation, progression and resistance to treatment. Agents that function as its natural antagonists targeting BCL-2 must provide therapeutic benefit. In SW1990 pancreatic cancer cells, amplified BCL-2 was observed, which was believed to offer advantages for malignant cell survival and lead to poor patient outcome. Using structure-based virtual ligand screening, luteolin was found to be a natural small-molecule inhibitor of BCL-2, which exhibited dose-response proapoptosis activity in a BCL-2 dependent manner in vitro...
May 17, 2018: Food & Function
Hye Jeong Yang, Min Jung Kim, Eun Seon Kang, Da Sol Kim, Sunmin Park
Red mulberry (Morus alba) fruit is rich in anthocyanins, and mulberry leaves are used by silk worms to make silk protein. We determined that the water and ethanol extract of mulberry fruit and silk amino acids accelerated ethanol degradation and suppressed temporal cognitive dysfunction in acute alcohol administered rats. The mechanism was explored in rats with acute oral administration of silk protein and mulberry fruit extracts. Rats were given 0.3 g of dextrin (control) and water extract (WMB) and ethanol extract of mulberry (EMB), silk protein hydrolysates (SKA), and a commercial product (positive‑control) based on body weight...
May 14, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Yukuo Li, Jinbao Fang, Xiujuan Qi, Miaomiao Lin, Yunpeng Zhong, Leiming Sun, Wen Cui
To assess the interrelation between the change of metabolites and the change of fruit color, we performed a combined metabolome and transcriptome analysis of the flesh in two different Actinidia arguta cultivars: "HB" ("Hongbaoshixing") and "YF" ("Yongfengyihao") at two different fruit developmental stages: 70d (days after full bloom) and 100d (days after full bloom). Metabolite and transcript profiling was obtained by ultra-performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometer and high-throughput RNA sequencing, respectively...
May 15, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mirza Bojić, Andrea Antolić, Maja Tomičić, Željko Debeljak, Željan Maleš
BACKGROUND: Propolis is a well-known bee product containing more than 2000 identified compounds. It has many beneficial effects on human health that include antibacterial, antiviral, anticancer and hepatoprotective justifying its use as a dietary supplement. Platelet aggregation plays crucial role in thrombus formation that can cause stroke or heart attacks. As cardiovascular diseases, including those caused by thrombus formation, are related to 50% of deaths of Western population, the objective of this study was to determine antiaggregatory activity of propolis on platelet aggregation on the whole blood samples...
May 14, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Pamela Soledad Bustos, Romina Deza-Ponzio, Paulina Laura Páez, José Luis Cabrera, Miriam Beatriz Virgolini, María Gabriela Ortega
The flavonoids effect on gentamicin (GEN)-induced oxidative stress (OS) in systemic circulation was evaluated in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, enzymatic antioxidant defenses superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and lipid peroxidation (LP) in vitro on human leukocytes and in vivo on rat whole blood. The inhibitory activity of ROS was ATS < QTS < isovitexin < vitexin < luteolin. Luteolin, the most active, showed more inhibition in ROS production than vitamin C (reference inhibitor) in mononuclear cells and a slightly lower protective behavior compared to this inhibitor in polymorphonuclear cells...
May 11, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Abere Habtamu, Yadessa Melaku
Vernonia amygdalina is traditionally used in Ethiopia to treat various diseases. This prompted us to isolate bioactive compounds from the flowers of this plant. The CHCl3 extract after silica gel column chromatography has led to the isolation of two compounds identified as tricosane (1) and vernolide (2) , while the acetone extract furnished isorhamnetin (3) and luteolin (4) . The acetone extract and isorhamnetin significantly scavenged the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical by 91.6 and 94%, respectively...
2018: Advances in Pharmacological Sciences
José Luiz Carneiro da Rocha, Danielle Figuerêdo da Silva, Anne Ramos de Santana, Diego Mota da Costa, José Floriano Barêa Pastore, Clayton Queiroz Alves, Manoelito Coelho Santos Santos Junior, Hugo Neves Brandão
BACKGROUND: In Brazil, the Asemeia genus has 19 species (12 endemic) and 2 varieties (both endemic) and some of them are found in semi-arid Bahia. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to quantitatively determine identified substances by HPLC-DAD in Asemeia ovata extracts and to predict their biological activities in silico. METHOD: The quantification method by HPLC-DAD has been validated according to the guidelines of the International Conference of Harmonization...
April 30, 2018: Computational Biology and Chemistry
Dhekra Mhalla, Karama Zouari Bouassida, Rachid Chawech, Amira Bouaziz, Samar Makni, Lobna Jlaiel, Slim Tounsi, Raoudha Mezghani Jarraya, Mohamed Trigui
Over the last few decades, Rumex species have been recognized as a promising source of new compounds with numerous pharmacological activities. Therefore, the antioxidant activity of Rumex tingitanus (R. tingitanus) leaves extracts was evaluated in vitro and then confirmed in vivo as well as the antidepressant-like and toxicological effects of the extracts. The ethyl acetate fraction (Rt EtOAcF) followed by hydroalcoholic extract (Rt EtOH-H2 O) showed a remarkable in vitro antioxidant activity. The hydroalcoholic extract (Rt EtOH-H2 O) showed significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride- (CCl4 -) induced liver toxicity which is seen from inhibition of the malondialdehyde (MDA) accumulation and enhancement of the liver antioxidant enzymes activities...
2018: BioMed Research International
Gaurav Gupta, Juhi Tiwari, Rajiv Dahiya, Rakesh Kumar Sharma, Anurag Mishra, Kamal Dua
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2018: EXCLI Journal
Priscila Oliveira de Souza, Sara Elis Bianchi, Fabrício Figueiró, Luana Heimfarth, Karla Suzana Moresco, Rosângela Mayer Gonçalves, Juliana Bender Hoppe, Caroline Peres Klein, Christianne Gazzana Salbego, Daniel Pens Gelain, Valquíria Linck Bassani, Alfeu Zanotto Filho, José Claudio Fonseca Moreira
Achyrocline satureioides, popularly known as "marcela", is a medicinal plant found in South America. This plant is rich in flavonoids, which have been reported to exert numerous biological activities. The aim of this study was to purify, identify and evaluate the mechanisms underlining anticancer activity of A. satureioides flavonoids in glioma cell lines (U87, U251 and C6) as well as their comparative toxicity in normal brain cells (primary astrocytes, neurons and organotypic hippocampal cultures)...
May 3, 2018: Toxicology in Vitro: An International Journal Published in Association with BIBRA
S S Kulabas, H Ipek, A R Tufekci, S Arslan, I Demirtas, R Ekren, U Sezerman, T B Tumer
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL IMPORTANCE: Decoction and infusion prepared from aerial parts of Lavandula stoechas L. (L. stoechas) have been traditionally used as remedy against several components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and associated disorders including type II diabetes and cardiovascular diseases by Anatolian people. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim is to elucidate the potential ameliorative effects of L. stoechas aqueous extracts on insulin resistance and inflammation models through multitarget in vitro approaches and also to elucidate mechanism of action by analyzing transcriptional and metabolic responses...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Han Gyung Kim, Subin Choi, Jongsung Lee, Yo Han Hong, Deok Jeong, Keejung Yoon, Deok Hyo Yoon, Gi-Ho Sung, Seungihm Lee, Suntaek Hong, Young-Su Yi, Jong-Hoon Kim, Jae Youl Cho
Celtis choseniana is the traditional plant used at Korea as a herbal medicine to ameliorate inflammatory responses. Although Celtis choseniana has been traditionally used as a herbal medicine at Korea, no systemic research has been conducted on its anti-inflammatory activity. Therefore, the present study explored an anti-inflammatory effect and its underlying molecular mechanism using Celtis choseniana methanol extract (Cc-ME) in macrophage-mediated inflammatory responses. In vitro anti-inflammatory activity of Cc-ME was evaluated using RAW264...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Nelly Rivera-Yañez, Mario Rodriguez-Canales, Oscar Nieto-Yañez, Manuel Jimenez-Estrada, Maximiliano Ibarra-Barajas, M M Canales-Martinez, M A Rodriguez-Monroy
Propolis is a bee-collected natural product that has been proven to have various bioactivities. This study tested the effects of a Mexican propolis on streptozotocin-induced diabetes mellitus in a murine model. The results showed that an ethanolic extract of propolis of Chihuahua (EEPCh) significantly inhibited increases in blood glucose and the loss of body weight in diabetic mice. EEPCh increased plasma insulin levels in STZ-diabetic mice, whereas, in untreated diabetic mice, there was no detection of insulin...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Catarina L Lopes, Eliana Pereira, Marina Soković, Ana Maria Carvalho, Ana Maria Barata, Violeta Lopes, Filomena Rocha, Ricardo C Calhelha, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
The aim of this study was to characterize the phenolic composition and evaluate the bioactivity of several samples of Lavandula pedunculata (Mill.) Cav, and to compare aqueous and hydroethanolic extracts. Plant materials were obtained by growing some accessions (seed samples) of various wild populations from different regions of Portugal conserved at the Portuguese Genebank in Braga. Phenolic compounds were analised by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn, antioxidant potential through in vitro assays (DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power and inhibition of lipid peroxidation), cytotoxicity on tumor cells (MCF-7, NCI-H460, HeLa and HepG2) and non-tumor (PLP2) cells, anti-inflammatory activity in rat RAW 264...
April 28, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Anna Berim, David R Gang
Numerous methoxylated flavonoids exhibit pronounced bioactivities. Their biotechnological production and diversification are therefore of interest to pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries. We used a set of enzymes from sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum) to construct five strains of Saccharomyces cerevisiae producing 8- and/or 6-substituted, methoxylated flavones from their natural precursor apigenin. After identifying several growth parameters affecting the overall yields and flux, we applied optimized conditions and explored the ability of the generated strains to utilize alternative substrates...
April 28, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Maribel Ovando-Martínez, Nohemí Gámez-Meza, Claudia Celeste Molina-Domínguez, Corina Hayano-Kanashiro, Luis Angel Medina-Juárez
Chiltepin, a wild chili mostly used in different traditional foods and traditional medicine in Northwest Mexico, represents a source of polyphenols. However, studies about the bioaccessibility of polyphenols as a parameter to measure the nutritional quality and bioefficacy of them in the fruit after consumption are scarce. Chiltepin showed phenolic acids and flavonoids contents between 387 and 65 μg/g, respectively. Nevertheless, these values decreased after the digestion process. Before digestion, gallic acid, 4-hydroxibenzoinc acid, chlorogenic acid, caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, quercetin and luteolin were the main polyphenols found in chiltepin by HPLC-DAD and confirmed by FIA-ESI-IT-MS/MS...
April 26, 2018: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
Enayatollah Seydi, Ahmad Salimi, Hamid Reza Rasekh, Zhaleh Mohsenifar, Jalal Pourahmad
To evaluate the cytotoxicity effects of luteolin (LUT) and kaempferol (KAE) via reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediated mitochondrial targeting on hepatocytes obtained from the liver of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) rats. In this study, HCC induced by diethylnitrosamine (DEN) and 2-acetylaminofluorene (2-AAF). In the following, rat liver hepatocytes and mitochondria were isolated and tested for every eventual apoptotic and anti-HCC effects of LUT and KAE. The results of MTT assay showed that LUT and KAE were able to induce selective cytotoxicity in hepatocytes of HCC group in a dose- and time-dependent manner...
May 2018: Nutrition and Cancer
Huanjun Xu, Hong Lu, Xiaocui Zhu, Wei Wang, Zhoumiao Zhang, Huizheng Fu, Shuangcheng Ma, Yuehua Luo, Jianjiang Fu
Platelet activation and subsequent accumulation at sites of vascular injury are central to thrombus formation, which is considered to be a trigger of several cardiovascular diseases. Callicarpa nudiflora (C. nudiflora) Hook is a traditional Chinese medicinal herb for promoting blood circulation by removing blood stasis. In our previous study, several compounds extracted from this herb, including luteolin‑4'‑O‑β‑D‑glucopyranoside (LGP), were revealed to exert inhibitory effects on adenosine diphosphate (ADP)‑induced platelet aggregation...
April 19, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Spyridon A Petropoulos, Carla Pereira, Nikolaos Tzortzakis, Lillian Barros, Isabel C F R Ferreira
In the present study, the nutritional value of the edible parts (immature capitula) of cardoon plants was evaluated, while further analyses were carried out in order to assess antioxidant properties and phenolic compounds composition of the various plant parts and seed oils. Cardoon capitula (heads) were a rich source of carbohydrates, with the main detected free sugar being sucrose, as well as of macro- and micro-minerals (K, Ca, Mg, and Fe). Heads were also abundant in saturated fatty acids (palmitic, behenic, linoleic, stearic, caproic, and oleic acid), whereas seed oils in unsaturated fatty acids (linoleic, oleic, palmitic, and stearic acid)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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