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Ahmad Alahabadi, Mohammad Hassan Ehrampoush, Mohammad Miri, Hamideh Ebrahimi Aval, Samira Yousefzadeh, Hamid Reza Ghaffari, Ehsan Ahmadi, Parvaneh Talebi, Zeynab Abaszadeh Fathabadi, Fatemeh Babai, Ali Nikoonahad, Kiomars Sharafi, Ahmad Hosseini-Bandegharaei
Heavy metals (HMs) in the urban environment can be bio-accumulated by plant tissues. The aim of this study was to compare fourteen different tree species in terms of their capability to accumulate four airborne and soilborne HMs including; zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd). Samplings were performed during spring, summer, and fall seasons. To compare bioaccumulation ability, bio-concentration factor (BCF), comprehensive bio-concentration index (CBCI), and metal accumulation index (MAI) were applied...
January 7, 2017: Chemosphere
Mathieu Nsenga Kumwimba, Bo Zhu, Fidèle Suanon, Diana Kavidia Muyembe, Mawuli Dzakpasu
We evaluate the long-term performance of a vegetated drainage ditch (VDD) treating domestic sewage with respect to heavy metal/metalloid (HM/M) accumulation in sediments, plants and water. VDD sediment contained significantly higher macro and trace elements compared to an agricultural ditch (AD) sediment. However, concentrations of HM/Ms in VDD sediment were below the ranges considered toxic to plants. Most HM/Ms were efficiently removed in the VDD, whereby removal efficiencies varied between 11% for Al and 89% for K...
January 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Jean-Yves Cornu, David Huguenot, Karine Jézéquel, Marc Lollier, Thierry Lebeau
Although copper (Cu) is an essential micronutrient for all living organisms, it can be toxic at low concentrations. Its beneficial effects are therefore only observed for a narrow range of concentrations. Anthropogenic activities such as fungicide spraying and mining have resulted in the Cu contamination of environmental compartments (soil, water and sediment) at levels sometimes exceeding the toxicity threshold. This review focuses on the bioremediation of copper-contaminated soils. The mechanisms by which microorganisms, and in particular bacteria, can mobilize or immobilize Cu in soils are described and the corresponding bioremediation strategies-of varying levels of maturity-are addressed: (i) bioleaching as a process for the ex situ recovery of Cu from Cu-bearing solids, (ii) bioimmobilization to limit the in situ leaching of Cu into groundwater and (iii) bioaugmentation-assisted phytoextraction as an innovative process for in situ enhancement of Cu removal from soil...
February 2017: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Shu-Xuan Liang, Yu Jin, Wei Liu, Xiliang Li, Shi-Gang Shen, Ling Ding
The effect of the combined application of nano-hydroxyapatite (NHAP) or nano-carbon black (NCB) on the phytoextraction of Pb by ryegrass was investigated as an enhanced remediation technique for soils by field-scale experiment. After the addition of 0.2% NHAP or NCB to the soil, temporal variation of the uptake of Pb in aboveground parts and roots were observed. Ryegrass shoot concentrations of Pb were lower with nano-materials application than without nano-materials for the first month. However, the shoot concentrations of Pb were significantly increased with nano-materials application, in particular NHAP groups...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
Aritz Burges, Lur Epelde, Fernando Blanco, José M Becerril, Carlos Garbisu
Mining sites shelter a characteristic biodiversity with large potential for the phytoremediation of metal contaminated soils. Endophytic plant growth-promoting bacteria were isolated from two metal-(hyper)accumulator plant species growing in a metal contaminated mine soil. After characterizing their plant growth-promoting traits, consortia of putative endophytes were used to carry out an endophyte-assisted phytoextraction experiment using Noccaea caerulescens and Rumex acetosa (singly and in combination) under controlled conditions...
December 28, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Zujun Deng, Lixiang Cao
Endophytic microorganisms (including bacteria and fungi) are likely to interact closely with their hosts and are more protected from adverse changes in the environment. The microbiota contribute to plant growth, productivity, carbon sequestration, and phytoremediation. Elevated levels of contaminants (i.e. metals) are toxic to most plants, the plant's metabolism and growth were impaired and their potential for metal phytoextraction is highly restricted. Exploiting endophytic microorganisms to reduce metal toxicity to plants have been investigated to improve phytoremediation efficiencies...
October 28, 2016: Chemosphere
M C Leroy, S Marcotte, M Legras, V Moncond'huy, F Le Derf, F Portet-Koltalo
Large-scale outdoor mesocosms were designed and co-contaminated with metals (Cd, Pb, Zn) and organic compounds to better understand the complex functioning of urban roadside swale environments. Infiltration systems were planted with macrophytes (P. arundinaceae, J. effusus and I. pseudacorus) or grassed, and natural or spiked target metals were monitored over two years. In the non-spiked mesocosms, atmospheric metal inputs were slightly higher than outputs, leading to low metal accumulation in topsoils and to very low outflow water contamination (<0...
December 23, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Wendan Xiao, Dan Li, Xuezhu Ye, Haizhou Xu, Guihua Yao, Jingwen Wang, Qi Zhang, Jing Hu, Na Gao
The combined use of organic amendment-assisted phytoextraction and electrokinetic remediation to decontaminate Cd-polluted soil was demonstrated in a laboratory-scale experiment. The plant species selected was the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii. Prior to the pot experiment, the loamy soil was treated with 15 g kg(-1) of pig manure compost, 10 g kg(-1) of humic acid, or 5 mmol kg(-1) of EDTA, and untreated soil without application of any amendment was the control. Two conditions were applied to each treatment: no voltage (without an electrical field) and a direct current (DC) electrical field (1 V cm(-1) with switching polarity every day)...
December 20, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Ping Wang, Liang Du, Zhaoyi Tan, Rongbo Su, Taowen Li
Contamination of soil with Americium ((241)Am) at nuclear sites in China poses a serious problem. We screened six plants, from five families, for their (241)Am-enrichment potential. Europium (Eu), which is morphologically and chemically similar to the highly toxic (241)Am, was used in its place. Moreover, the effects of sylvite, citric acid (CA), malic acid (MA), and humic acid (HA) on the absorption of (241)Am by the plants, and its transport within them, were evaluated along with their effect on plant biomass and (241)Am extraction volume...
December 20, 2016: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
François Courchesne, Marie-Claude Turmel, Benoît Cloutier-Hurteau, Simon Constantineau, Lara Munro, Michel Labrecque
The phytoextraction of the trace elements (TE) As, Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn by willow cultivars (Fish Creek, SV1 and SX67) was measured during a three-year field trial in a mildly contaminated soil. Biomass ranged from 2.8 to 4.4 Mg/ha/yr at 30 000 plants/ha. Shoots (62%) were the main component followed by leaves (23%) and roots (15%). Biomass was positively linked to soluble soil dissolved organic carbon (DOC), K and Mg while TE, notably Cd and Zn, had a negative effect. The TE concentration ranking was: Zn > Cu > Cd > Ni, Pb > As and distribution patterns were: i) minima in shoots (As, Ni), ii) maxima in leaves (Cd, Zn) or iii) maxima in roots (Cu, Pb)...
December 20, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Anna Kocoń, Beata Jurga
One of the cheapest, environmentally friendly methods for cleaning an environment polluted by heavy metals is phytoextraction. It builds on the uptake of pollutants from the soil by the plants, which are able to grow under conditions of high concentrations of toxic metals. The aim of this work was to assess the possibility of growing and phytoextraction potential of Miscanthus x giganteus and Sida hermaphrodita cultivated on two different soils contaminated with five heavy metals simultaneously: Cd, Cu, Ni, Pb, and Zn...
December 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
K Vijayaraghavan, Jesu Arockiaraj, Seralathan Kamala-Kannan
Finding appropriate rooftop vegetation may improve the quality of runoff from green roofs. Portulaca grandiflora was examined as possible vegetation for green roofs. Green roof substrate was found to have low bulk density (360.7 kg/m(3)), high water holding capacity (49.4%), air-filled porosity (21.1%) and hydraulic conductivity (5270 mm/h). The optimal substrate also supported the growth of P. grandiflora with biomass multiplication of 450.3% and relative growth rate of 0.038. Phytoextraction potential of P...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Xu Wang, Can Chen, Jianlong Wang
The cadmium (Cd) uptake characteristics by Sorghum bicolor cv. Nengsi 2# and Cowley from the acidic sandy loam soil (pH = 6.1) during the entire growth period (100 d) were investigated in pot outdoors in tropical district of southern China, Hainan Island. The Cd-spiked levels in soil were set as 3 mg/kg and 15 mg/kg. Correspondingly the available Cd levels in soil extracted by Mechlich III solution were 2.71 and 9.41 mg/kg, respectively. Two varieties in full growth period (100 d) basically did not show the significant difference in their growth and Cd uptake...
December 12, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
B Annicaert, S De Moor, L Van Nevel, E Michels, M De Fraeye, L Meiresonne, J Vangronsveld, F M G Tack, E Meers
Poplar clones were studied for their phytoextraction capacity in the second growth cycle (6 growth years) on a site in the Belgian Campine region which is contaminated with Cd and Zn via historic atmospheric deposition of nearby zinc smelter activities. The field trial revealed regrowth problems for some clone that could not be predicted in the first growth cycle. Four allometric relations were assessed for their capacity to predict biomass yield in the second growth cycle. A power function based on the shootdiameter best estimate the biomass production of poplar with R² values between 0...
December 8, 2016: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Mei Lei, Xiaoming Wan, Guanghui Guo, Junxing Yang, Tongbin Chen
Research on the appropriate method for evaluating phytoremediation efficiency is limited. A 2-year field experiment was conducted to investigate phytoremediation efficiency using the hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata on an arsenic (As)-contaminated site. The remediation efficiency was evaluated through the removal rate of As in soils and extraction rate of heavy metals in plants. After 2 years of remediation, the concentration of total As in soils decreased from 16.27 mg kg(-1) in 2012 to 14.58 mg kg(-1) in 2014...
December 7, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Guoyong Huang, Muhammad Shahid Rizwan, Chao Ren, Guangguang Guo, Qingling Fu, Jun Zhu, Hongqing Hu
Application of fertilizers to supply appropriate nutrients has become an essential agricultural strategy for enhancing the efficiency of phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soils. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of three types of phosphate fertilizers (i.e., oxalic acid-activated phosphate rock (APR), Ca(H2PO4)2, and NaH2PO4) in the range of 0-600 mg P kg(-1) soil, on castor bean growth, antioxidants [antioxidative enzymes and glutathione (GSH)], and Cu uptake...
November 23, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Barkat Ali, Amna, Muhammad Tariq Javed, Hazrat Ali, Muhammad Farooq Hussain Munis, Hassan Javed Chaudhary
In developing countries, soil contamination with metals is ubiquitous, which poses a serious threat to the ecosystem. The current study was designed to screen out the nested belongings of Cicer arietinum plants and Bacillus pumilus (KF 875447) in extracting copper (Cu) from contaminated soils. A pot experiment was executed by growing C. arietinum seedlings either inoculated with B. pumilus or uninoculated along with the application of 5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Plants were subjected to three different concentrations of Cu (250, 350, and 500 ppm) for 48 days...
January 2, 2017: International Journal of Phytoremediation
Xiang Shi, Shufeng Wang, Haijing Sun, Yitai Chen, Dongxue Wang, Hongwei Pan, Yazhu Zou, Jianfeng Liu, Linyu Zheng, Xiulian Zhao, Zeping Jiang
A pot experiment was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of using tree seedlings for the phytoremediation of lead/zinc (Pb/Zn) mine tailings. Seedlings of three Quercus spp. (Q. shumardii, Q. phellos, and Q. virginiana) and rooted cuttings of two Salix spp. (S. matsudana and S. integra) were transplanted into pots containing 50 and 100 % Pb/Zn mine tailings to evaluate their tolerance of heavy metals. The five species showed different tolerance levels to the Pb/Zn tailings treatments. Q. virginiana was highly tolerant to heavy metals and grew normally in the Pb/Zn tailings...
November 19, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Loganathan Praburaman, Sung-Hee Park, Min Cho, Kui-Jae Lee, Jeong-Ae Ko, Sang-Sub Han, Sang-Hyun Lee, Seralathan Kamala-Kannan, Byung-Taek Oh
Microbe-assisted phytoremediation has been considered a promising measure for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted soil. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of diazotrophic plant growth-promoting Herbaspirillum sp. GW103 on growth and lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) accumulation in Zea mays L. The strain GW103 exhibited plant growth-promoting traits such as indole-3-acetic acid, siderophores, and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic deaminase. Treatment of Z. mays L. plants with GW103 significantly increased 19, 31, and 52% of plant biomass and 10, 50, and 126% of chlorophyll a contents in Pb, Zn, and Pb + Zn-amended soils, respectively...
November 18, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Cácio Luiz Boechat, Patricia Giovanella, Magno Batista Amorim, Enilson Luiz Saccol de Sá, Flávio Anastácio de Oliveira Camargo
Phytoremediation consists of biological techniques for heavy metal remediation, which include exploring the genetic package of vegetable species to remove heavy metals from the environment. The goals of this study were to investigate heavy metal and bioaugmentation effects on growth and nutrient uptake by Mucuna deeringiana; to determine the metal translocation factor and bioconcentration factor and provide insight for using native bacteria to enhance heavy metal accumulation. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions using a 2 × 4 factorial scheme with highly and slightly contaminated soil samples and inoculating M...
November 16, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
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