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Matteo Paganelli, Giuseppe De Palma, Pietro Apostoli
OBJECTIVES: As Genomics aims at the collective characterization and quantification of genes, exposomics refers to the totality of lifetime environmental exposures, consisting in a novel approach to studying the role of the environment in human disease. The aim is to assess all human environmental and occupational exposures in order to better understand their contribution to human diseases. The "omics" revolution infact mostly regards the underlying method: scientific knowledge is expected to come from the analysis of increasingly extensive databases...
November 2017: Giornale Italiano di Medicina del Lavoro Ed Ergonomia
Hallysson Douglas Andrade de Araújo, Luanna Ribeiro Dos Santos Silva, Williams Nascimento de Siqueira, Caíque Silveira Martins da Fonseca, Nicácio Henrique da Silva, Ana Maria Mendonça de Albuquerque Melo, Mônica Cristina Barroso Martins, Vera Lúcia de Menezes Lima
This text presents complementary data corresponding to schistosomiasis mansoni's vector control and enviromental toxicity using usnic acid. These informations support our research article "Toxicity of Usnic Acid from Cladonia substellata (Lichen) to embryos and adults of Biomphalaria glabrata " by Araújo et al. [1], and focuses on the analysis of the detailed data regarding the different concentrations of Usnic Acid and their efficiency to B. glabrata mortality and non-viability, as also to environmental toxicity, evaluated by A...
April 2018: Data in Brief
Richard W Stephens, Lidia Arhire, Mihai Covasa
OBJECTIVE: This review summarizes the current understanding of the relationship between gut microbiota and the host as it pertains to the regulation of energy balance and obesity. METHODS: The paper begins with a brief description of the gut microbiota environment, distribution, and its unique symbiotic relationship with the host. The way that enviromental factors influence microbiota composition and subsequent impact on the host are then described. Next, the mechanisms linking gut dysbiosis with obesity are discussed, and finally current challenges and limitations in understanding the role of gut microbiota in control of obesity are presented...
May 2018: Obesity
Zhilin Yang, Junxian Chen, Yang Zhou, Hui Huang, Dingguo Xu, Chaoyang Zhang
The explosive 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a highly toxic pollutant. Biodegradation is inevitably one of the most cost-effective and enviromentally friendly means of removing TNT pollution. However, the aromatic derivatives from the reduction of nitro groups by several classic enzymes are still toxic. Besides the reduction of nitro groups, pentaerythritol tetranitrate reductase (PETNR) offers a potential route to ring fission and complete degradation of TNT through the pathway of the Meisenheimer complex...
May 3, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ya-Meng Chen, Yang Zhou, Qing Zhao, Jun-Ying Zhang, Ju-Ping Ma, Tong-Tong Xuan, Shao-Qiang Guo, Zi-Jun Yong, Jing Wang, Yoshihiro Kuroiwa, Chikako Moriyoshi, Hong-Tao Sun
All-inorganic perovskites have emerged as a new class of phosphor materials owing to their outstanding optical properties. Zero-dimensional inorganic perovskites, in particular the Cs4 PbBr6 -related systems, are inspiring intensive research owing to the high photoluminescence quantum yield (PLQY) and good stability. However, synthesizing such perovskites with high PLQYs through an environment-friendly, cost-effective, scalable, and high-yield approach remains challenging, and their luminescence mechanisms has been elusive...
May 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
G Benito, J C Sáez, J B Blázquez, J Quiñones
The objective of this study is the verification of the operation of a radiation monitoring network conformed by several sensors. The malfunction of a surveillance network has security and economic consequences, which derive from its maintenance and could be avoided with an early detection. The proposed method is based on a kind of multivariate distance, and the verification for the methodology has been tested at CIEMAT's local radiological early warning network.
December 11, 2017: Radiation Protection Dosimetry
Mudasir Ahmad, Bisma Ashraf, Asir Gani, Adil Gani
In the present study, the saffron anthocyanins were encapsulated in β-glucan and β-cyclodextrin by spray drying technique to achieve their stability under adverse gastro-environmental conditions. The microcapsules were subjected to simulated gastric conditions and release behavior of monomeric anthocyanins, antioxidants and phenols were studied. The structural properties of microcapsules were analyzed by SEM and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. The particle size distribution, density, color, encapsulation efficiency and powder yield of samples were also evaluated...
April 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Jamie E Coborn, Monica M Houser, Claudio E Perez-Leighton, Jennifer A Teske
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The growing prevalence of obesity, inadequate sleep and sleep disorders together with the negative impact of lack of sleep on overall health highlights the need for therapies targeted towards weight gain due to sleep loss. RECENT FINDINGS: Sex disparities in obesity and sleep disorders are present; yet, the role of sex is inadequately addressed and thus it is unclear whether sensitivity to sleep disruption differs between men and women. Like sex, environmental factors contribute to the development of obesity and poor sleep...
December 2017: Current Obesity Reports
Laura Camacho-Jiménez, Edna Sánchez-Castrejón, Fernando Díaz, Manuel B Aguilar, Ma Enriqueta Muñoz-Márquez, Elizabeth Ponce-Rivas
Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are multifunctional neuropeptides ubiquitous in crustaceans. In Litopenaeus vannamei, CHH-B2 is a CHH eyestalk isoform whose expression has been shown to vary with enviromental conditions, suggesting its relevance for ecophysiological performance of shrimp, controlling processes related to metabolism and osmo-ionic regulation. To study the involvement of CHH-B2 in these processes, we cloned and expressed a recombinant version with a free C-terminal glycine (rCHH-B2-Gly) in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris...
November 1, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Linya Liu, Yacheng Huang, Xiaolong Huang, Jianghua Yang, Wenqiang Wu, Yun Xu, Ziwen Cong, Jun Xie, Wei Xia, Dongyi Huang
Dioscorin is one of the major soluble proteins in yam tubers. Unlike other well-known plant storage proteins, such as patatin and sporamin, dioscorin is argued for its function as storage proteins, and the molecular mechanisms underlying its expressional complexity are little understood. In this study, we isolated five dioscorin genes from Dioscorea alata L., comprising three class A ( Da-dio1 , - 3 and - 4 ) and two class B ( Da-dio2 and - 5 ) isoforms. Expressions of all dioscorin genes gradually decreased in mother tubers during yam sprouting and regrowth...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Saganuwan Alhaji Saganuwan
Central nervous system (CNS) disorders are on increase perhaps due to genetic, enviromental, social and dietetic factors. Unfortunately, a large number of CNS drugs have adverse effects such as addiction, tolerance, psychological and physical dependence. In view of this, literature search was carried out with a view to identifying functional chemical groups that may serve as lead molecule for synthesis of compounds that may have CNS activity. The search revealed that heterocycles that have heteroatoms such as nitrogen (N), sulphur (S) and oxygen (O) form the largest class of organic compounds...
May 2, 2017: Central Nervous System Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Guoming Cao, Fujian Xu, Shanling Wang, Kailai Xu, Xiandeng Hou, Peng Wu
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based colorimetric assays are of particular interest since molecular events can be easily read out with the color changes of AuNPs by the naked eye. However, the molecular recognitions occur almost exclusively in the liquid phase (i.e., the interaction between target analytes and AuNPs is always proceeded in the presence of the sample matrix). Since the aggregation of the unmodified AuNPs is prone to be influenced by the ionic strength of the solution, sample matrix will cause undesirable interference...
March 31, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Xuemei Wang, Pengfei Huang, Xiaomin Ma, Huan Wang, Xiaoquan Lu, Xinzhen Du
Novel magnetic mesoporous molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) with core-shell structure were prepared by simple surface molecular imprinting polymerization using tetrabromobisphenol-S (TBBPS) as the template. The MMIPs-TBBPS were characterized by fourier-transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), N2 adsorption-desorption transmission, and vibrating sample magnetometry. The resultant MMIPs-TBBPS were successfully applied magnetic solid-phase extraction (MSPE) coupled with HPLC determination of TBBPS in spiked real water samples with recoveries of 77...
May 1, 2017: Talanta
Rachele Tamburino, Monica Vitale, Alessandra Ruggiero, Mauro Sassi, Lorenza Sannino, Simona Arena, Antonello Costa, Giorgia Batelli, Nicola Zambrano, Andrea Scaloni, Stefania Grillo, Nunzia Scotti
BACKGROUND: Drought is a major constraint for plant growth and crop productivity that is receiving an increased attention due to global climate changes. Chloroplasts act as environmental sensors, however, only partial information is available on stress-induced mechanisms within plastids. Here, we investigated the chloroplast response to a severe drought treatment and a subsequent recovery cycle in tomato through physiological, metabolite and proteomic analyses. RESULTS: Under stress conditions, tomato plants showed stunted growth, and elevated levels of proline, abscisic acid (ABA) and late embryogenesis abundant gene transcript...
February 10, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
Liyan Zhang, Shuai Li, Minmin Dong, Yao Jiang, Ru Li, Shuo Zhang, Xiaoxia Lv, Lijun Chen, Hua Wang
A facile and efficient enzymatic reconstitution methodology has been proposed for high-catalysis peroxidase mimics by remolding the redox active centers of heme-containing proteins with the in-site biomineralized gold using hemoglobin (Hb) as a model. Catalytic hemin (Hem) was extracted from the active centers of Hb for the gold biomineralization and then reconstituted into apoHb to yield the Hem-Au@apoHb nanocomposites showing dramatically improved intrinsic catalysis and electrocatalysis over natural Hb and Hem...
January 15, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Mohammad Hossein Khosropanah, Amin Dinarvand, Afsaneh Nezhadhosseini, Alireza Haghighi, Sima Hashemi, Fereidon Nirouzad, Sepideh Khatamsaz, Maliheh Entezari, Mehrdad Hashemi, Hossein Dehghani
Cancer is one of the main causes of mortality in the world which appears by the effect of enviromental physico-chemical mutagen and carcinogen agents. The identification of new cytotoxic drug with low sid effects on immune system has developed as important area in new studies of immunopharmacology. Curcumin is a natural polyphenol with anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. Its therapeutic potential is substantially hindered by the rather low water solubility and bioavailability, hence the need for suitable carriers...
2016: Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research: IJPR
Manuel Luque-Ramírez, Héctor F Escobar-Morreale
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of adrenal hyperandrogenism (AH), as defined by increased circulating dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate (DHEAS) levels, ranges from 15 to 45% in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). METHODS: The aim of this review is to update the pathogenesis and consequences of AH in PCOS, from molecular genetics to the clinical setting. RESULTS: Mounting evidence derived from animal models suggests that genetically or enviromentally determined prenatal androgen excess, by influencing the hormonal and metabolic phenotype of susceptible female fetuses later in life, may be the capital event for the development of AH in PCOS...
2016: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Burcu Artunc-Ulkumen, Safiye Ulucay, Halil Gursoy Pala, Sirri Cam
OBJECTIVE: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is characterized with insulin resistance which is diagnosed during pregnancy. Although pregnancy is a diabetogenic state, not all women develop GDM. Genetic factors together with enviromental factors cause the maladaptation of maternal pancreas to this diabetogenic state and GDM develops. ADAMTS-9 is a recently recognized molecule whose genetic variants have risk of GDM. Decreased levels have already been shown in fetal membranes. Maternal serum levels of this protein have not been studied yet...
June 2017: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Muharrem Burak Baytunca, Tuğba Donuk, Serpil Erermiş
PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections) syndrome is a disorder seen before adolescence that possesses an abrupt onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder symptoms and/or tics. Swedo and colleagues defined this disorder in 1998 as a syndrome related to Group A streptoccoccus (GAS) infection with neurological issues, such as motor hyperactivation and choreiform movements. The progress of the disorder may be described as wax-and-waning, apart from abrupt onset, and this relapse and remission course is associated with exacerbating infections, according to the creators of PANDAS syndrome...
2016: Türk Psikiyatri Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Psychiatry
John J Kilbane, Benjamin Stark
Biological desulfurization (biodesulfurization) of dibenzothiophene (DBT) by the 4S pathway is a model system for an enviromentally benign way to lower the sulfur content of petroleum. Despite a large amount of effort the efficiency of the 4S pathway is still too low for a commercial oil biodesulfurization process, but the 4S pathway could potentially be used now for commercial processes to produce surfactants, antibiotics, polythioesters and other chemicals and for the detoxification of some chemical warfare agents...
August 2016: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
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