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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786697/imaging-glutathione-depletion-in-the-rat-brain-using-ascorbate-derived-hyperpolarized-mr-and-pet-probes
#1
Hecong Qin, Valerie N Carroll, Renuka Sriram, Javier E Villanueva-Meyer, Cornelius von Morze, Zhen Jane Wang, Christopher A Mutch, Kayvan R Keshari, Robert R Flavell, John Kurhanewicz, David M Wilson
Oxidative stress is a critical feature of several common neurologic disorders. The brain is well adapted to neutralize oxidative injury by maintaining a high steady-state concentration of small-molecule intracellular antioxidants including glutathione in astrocytes and ascorbic acid in neurons. Ascorbate-derived imaging probes for hyperpolarized 13 C magnetic resonance spectroscopy and positron emission tomography have been used to study redox changes (antioxidant depletion and reactive oxygen species accumulation) in vivo...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786679/-the-rationale-for-the-application-of-photomagnetic-therapy-in-the-treatment-of-dermatitis
#2
N I Schastnaya, V S Ulashchyk
BACKGROUND: in spite of the fact that photomagnetic therapy with the use of the FotoSPOK device (Magnomed Ltd., Belarus) is already used in the medical practice, the application of this method for the management of many diseases remains to be substantiated on the scientifically sound grounds. AIM: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of photomagnetic therapy in the treatment of the local inflammatory process in the skin and to elaborate the rationale for the application of this technique in the treatment of contact dermatitis...
May 21, 2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786064/fabrication-of-aluminum-alloy-functionally-graded-material-using-directional-solidification-under-an-axial-static-magnetic-field
#3
Shaodong Hu, Annie Gagnoud, Yves Fautrelle, Rene Moreau, Xi Li
Aluminum alloy in situ functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been successfully fabricated using directional solidification under an axial static magnetic field. Al-Zn, Al-Ni and Al-Cu alloys with a hypereutectic composition were selected to produce FGMs. Experimental results show that the graded composition of the primary phases (i.e., Zn, Al3 Ni and Al2 Cu) is obvious along the longitudinal section of the sample. The graded composition of the primary phases could be controlled by the value of the magnetic field, growth rate and temperature gradient...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785863/hyperbaric-oxygen-inhibits-production-of-cd3-t-cells-in-the-thymus-and-facilitates-malignant-glioma-cell-growth
#4
Yong-Gang Wang, Jiang Long, Dong-Chuan Shao, Hai Song
Objective Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) is an emerging complementary alternative medical approach in glioma treatment. However, its mode of action is unknown, so this was investigated in the present study. Methods We constructed an intracranial glioma model of congenic C57BL/6J mice. Glioma growth under HBO stimulation was assessed by bioluminescent imaging and magnetic resonance imaging. Flow cytometry assessed direct effects of HBO on reactive oxygen species (ROS) signaling of transplanted glioma cells and organs, and quantified mature T cells and subgroups in tumors, the brain, and blood...
January 1, 2018: Journal of International Medical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785727/body-composition-profiling-in-the-uk-biobank-imaging-study
#5
Jennifer Linge, Magnus Borga, Janne West, Theresa Tuthill, Melissa R Miller, Alexandra Dumitriu, E Louise Thomas, Thobias Romu, Patrik Tunón, Jimmy D Bell, Olof Dahlqvist Leinhard
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the value of imaging-based multivariable body composition profiling by describing its association with coronary heart disease (CHD), type 2 diabetes (T2D), and metabolic health on individual and population levels. METHODS: The first 6,021 participants scanned by UK Biobank were included. Body composition profiles (BCPs) were calculated, including abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue, visceral adipose tissue (VAT), thigh muscle volume, liver fat, and muscle fat infiltration (MFI), determined using magnetic resonance imaging...
May 22, 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785624/longitudinal-neuroimaging-hippocampal-markers-for-diagnosing-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Carlos Platero, Lin Lin, M Carmen Tobar
Hippocampal atrophy measures from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are powerful tools for monitoring Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression. In this paper, we introduce a longitudinal image analysis framework based on robust registration and simultaneous hippocampal segmentation and longitudinal marker classification of brain MRI of an arbitrary number of time points. The framework comprises two innovative parts: a longitudinal segmentation and a longitudinal classification step. The results show that both steps of the longitudinal pipeline improved the reliability and the accuracy of the discrimination between clinical groups...
May 21, 2018: Neuroinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785593/a-study-of-biochemical-route-on-construction-of-waste-battery-ferrite-applying-for-nickel-removal
#7
Zhirui Niu, Shaokang Zhang, Lin Zhu
Mn-Zn ferrite (Mn1 - x Zn x Fe2 O4 , x = 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, and 0.8) nanomaterials were prepared by bioleaching and hydrothermal synthesis from waste Zn-Mn batteries. The materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, BET, VSM, CEC, and isoelectric point. It turned out when x = 0.4, synthesized Mn-Zn ferrite had best performance which was nanoferrite crystal structure with a specific surface area that reached 37.77 m2 /g, the saturation magnetization was 62.85 emu/g, and isoelectric point and the CEC value were 7...
May 21, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785469/early-detection-of-cerebral-infarction-after-focal-ischemia-using-a-new-mri-indicator
#8
Yukako Nakajo, Qiang Zhao, Jun-Ichiro Enmi, Hidehiro Iida, Jun C Takahashi, Hiroharu Kataoka, Keiko Yamato, Hiroji Yanamoto
Prolongation of the T2 relaxation time, an increase in T2-weighted signal intensity (T2-SI), and a decrease in the apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) calculated from diffusion-weighted images (DWI) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are conventional indicators of the vasogenic (interstitial) or cytotoxic (cellular) cerebral edema that develops after ischemic stroke. However, these parameters obtained on stroke imaging have not given us a precise threshold at which we can determine the viability or vulnerability of the tissue, allowing us to decide on an intervention that will help reversible tissue in the acute phase...
May 21, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784664/a-guide-to-using-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-to-study-alzheimer-s-disease-in-animal-models
#9
REVIEW
Mazen Asaad, Jin Hyung Lee
Alzheimer's disease is a leading healthcare challenge facing our society today. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the brain has played an important role in our efforts to understand how Alzheimer's disease alters brain function. Using fMRI in animal models of Alzheimer's disease has the potential to provide us with a more comprehensive understanding of the observations made in human clinical fMRI studies. However, using fMRI in animal models of Alzheimer's disease presents some unique challenges...
May 18, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784544/classifying-alzheimer-s-disease-with-brain-imaging-and-genetic-data-using-a-neural-network-framework
#10
Kaida Ning, Bo Chen, Fengzhu Sun, Zachary Hobel, Lu Zhao, Will Matloff, Arthur W Toga
A long-standing question is how to best use brain morphometric and genetic data to distinguish Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients from cognitively normal (CN) subjects and to predict those who will progress from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. Here, we use a neural network (NN) framework on both magnetic resonance imaging-derived quantitative structural brain measures and genetic data to address this question. We tested the effectiveness of NN models in classifying and predicting AD. We further performed a novel analysis of the NN model to gain insight into the most predictive imaging and genetics features and to identify possible interactions between features that affect AD risk...
April 24, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784052/the-effect-of-heart-failure-and-left-ventricular-assist-device-treatment-on-right-ventricular-mechanics-a-computational-study
#11
Jun I K Park, Aulia Khamas Heikhmakhtiar, Chang Hyun Kim, Yoo Seok Kim, Seong Wook Choi, Kwang Soup Song, Ki Moo Lim
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Although it is important to analyze the hemodynamic factors related to the right ventricle (RV) after left ventricular assist device (LVAD) implantation, previous studies have focused only on the alteration of the ventricular shape and lack quantitative analysis of the various hemodynamic parameters. Therefore, we quantitatively analyzed various hemodynamic parameters related to the RV under normal, heart failure (HF), and HF incorporated with continuous flow LVAD therapy by using a computational model...
May 22, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783842/spin-direction-controlled-electronic-band-structure-in-two-dimensional-ferromagnetic-cri-3
#12
Peiheng Jiang, Lei Li, Zhaoliang Liao, Y X Zhao, Zhicheng Zhong
Manipulating physical properties using the spin degree of freedom constitutes a major part of modern condensed matter physics and is a key aspect for spintronics devices. Using the newly discovered two-dimensional van der Waals ferromagnetic CrI3 as a prototype material, we theoretically demonstrated a giant magneto band-structure (GMB) effect whereby a change of magnetization direction significantly modifies the electronic band structure. Our density functional theory calculations and model analysis reveal that rotating the magnetic moment of CrI3 from out-of-plane to in-plane causes a direct-to-indirect bandgap transition, inducing a magnetic field controlled photoluminescence...
May 23, 2018: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783633/butyrylation-of-maize-and-potato-starches-and-characterization-of-the-products-by-nuclear-magnetic-resonance-and-in-vitro-fermentation
#13
Tina Skau Nielsen, Nuria Canibe, Flemming Hofmann Larsen
Intake of butyrylated starches may increase colonic butyrate supply, which can be of public health and clinical benefit by maintaining colonic health. The objective was to investigate if an organocatalytic method with tartaric acid as a catalyst could be applied to produce butyrylated products from different starch sources and to characterize their chemical structure and fermentation capability by using solid-state 13 C MAS NMR (magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy and an in vitro fermentation model, respectively...
May 18, 2018: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783186/-1-h-nmr-and-uplc-ms-metabolomics-functional-tools-for-exploring-chemotypic-variation-in-sceletium-tortuosum-from-two-provinces-in-south-africa
#14
Jianping Zhao, Ikhlas A Khan, Sandra Combrinck, Maxleene Sandasi, Weiyang Chen, Alvaro M Viljoen
Sceletium tortuosum (Aizoaceae) is widely recognised for the treatment of stress, anxiety and depression, as well as for obsessive compulsive disorders. A comprehensive intraspecies chemotypic variation study, using samples harvested from two distinct regions of South Africa, was done using both proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1 H-NMR) spectroscopy of methanol extracts (N = 145) and ultra performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS) of acid/base extracts (N = 289). Chemometric analysis of the 1 H-NMR data indicated two main clusters that were region-specific (Northern Cape and Western Cape provinces)...
May 17, 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783172/headspace-sorptive-extraction-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-method-to-measure-volatile-emissions-from-human-airway-cell-cultures
#15
Mei S Yamaguchi, Mitchell M McCartney, Angela L Linderholm, Susan E Ebeler, Michael Schivo, Cristina E Davis
The human respiratory tract releases volatile metabolites into exhaled breath that can be utilized for noninvasive health diagnostics. To understand the origin of this metabolic process, our group has previously analyzed the headspace above human epithelial cell cultures using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In the present work, we improve our model by employing sorbent-covered magnetic stir bars for headspace sorptive extraction (HSSE). Sorbent-coated stir bar analyte recovery increased by 52 times and captured 97 more compounds than SPME...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782993/generalized-recurrent-neural-network-accommodating-dynamic-causal-modeling-for-functional-mri-analysis
#16
Yuan Wang, Yao Wang, Yvonne W Lui
Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) is an advanced biophysical model which explicitly describes the entire process from experimental stimuli to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) signals via neural activity and cerebral hemodynamics. To conduct a DCM study, one needs to represent the experimental stimuli as a compact vector-valued function of time, which is hard in complex tasks such as book reading and natural movie watching. Deep learning provides the state-of-the-art signal representation solution, encoding complex signals into compact dense vectors while preserving the essence of the original signals...
May 18, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782818/antimicrobial-activity-profiles-of-amphiphilic-xanthone-derivatives-are-a-function-of-their-molecular-oligomerization
#17
Jun-Jie Koh, Shuimu Lin, Yang Bai, Wendy Wan Ling Sin, Thet Tun Aung, Jianguo Li, Verma Chandra, Konstantin Pervushin, Roger W Beuerman, Shouping Liu
Currently, membrane-targeting small antimicrobial peptidomimetics (SAP) are important in antibiotic development because bacteria appear to develop resistance to these surface-active compounds less readily. However, the molecular membrane-targeting action of SAPs has received little attention. In this study, we investigated the effect of oligomerization of amphiphilic xanthone, a model SAP, on its antimicrobial properties against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. First, oligomer formation by an amphiphilic xanthone, compound 2 (also coded as AM052), was investigated via solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy...
May 18, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782617/patient-specific-neurosurgical-phantom-assessment-of-visual-quality-accuracy-and-scaling-effects
#18
Felipe Wilker Grillo, Victor Hugo Souza, Renan Hiroshi Matsuda, Carlo Rondinoni, Theo Zeferino Pavan, Oswaldo Baffa, Helio Rubens Machado, Antonio Adilton Oliveira Carneiro
Background: Training in medical education depends on the availability of standardized materials that can reliably mimic the human anatomy and physiology. One alternative to using cadavers or animal bodies is to employ phantoms or mimicking devices. Styrene-ethylene/butylene-styrene (SEBS) gels are biologically inert and present tunable properties, including mechanical properties that resemble the soft tissue. Therefore, SEBS is an alternative to develop a patient-specific phantom, that provides real visual and morphological experience during simulation-based neurosurgical training...
2018: 3D printing in medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782327/relation-of-white-matter-hyperintensities-and-motor-deficits-in-chronic-stroke
#19
Jarrod M Hicks, Edward Taub, Brent Womble, Ameen Barghi, Tyler Rickards, Victor W Mark, Gitendra Uswatte
BACKGROUND: Infarct size and location account for only a relatively small portion of post-stroke motor impairment, suggesting that other less obvious factors may be involved. OBJECTIVE: Examine the relationship between white matter hyperintensity (WMH) load among other factors and upper extremity motor deficit in patients with mild to moderate chronic stroke. METHODS: The magnetic resonance images of 28 patients were studied. WMH load was assessed as total WMH volume and WMH overlap with the corticospinal tract in the centrum semiovale...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782314/a-retrospective-belgian-multi-center-mri-biomarker-study-in-alzheimer-s-disease-remember
#20
Ellis Niemantsverdriet, Annemie Ribbens, Christine Bastin, Florence Benoit, Bruno Bergmans, Jean-Christophe Bier, Roxanne Bladt, Lene Claes, Peter Paul De Deyn, Olivier Deryck, Bernard Hanseeuw, Adrian Ivanoiu, Jean-Claude Lemper, Eric Mormont, Gaëtane Picard, Eric Salmon, Kurt Segers, Anne Sieben, Dirk Smeets, Hanne Struyfs, Evert Thiery, Jos Tournoy, Eric Triau, Anne-Marie Vanbinst, Jan Versijpt, Maria Bjerke, Sebastiaan Engelborghs
BACKGROUND: Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) acquisition/processing techniques assess brain volumes to explore neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: We examined the clinical utility of MSmetrix and investigated if automated MRI volumes could discriminate between groups covering the AD continuum and could be used as a predictor for clinical progression. METHODS: The Belgian Dementia Council initiated a retrospective, multi-center study and analyzed whole brain (WB), grey matter (GM), white matter (WM), cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), cortical GM (CGM) volumes, and WM hyperintensities (WMH) using MSmetrix in the AD continuum...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
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