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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343228/focal-brain-injury-associated-with-a-model-of-severe-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-in-nonhuman-primates
#1
Ryan M McAdams, Ronald J McPherson, Raj P Kapur, Sandra E Juul
Worldwide, hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a major cause of neonatal mortality and morbidity. To better understand the mechanisms contributing to brain injury and improve outcomes in neonates with HIE, better preclinical animal models that mimic the clinical situation following birth asphyxia in term newborns are needed. In an effort to achieve this goal, we modified our nonhuman primate model of HIE induced by in utero umbilical cord occlusion (UCO) to include postnatal hypoxic episodes, in order to simulate apneic events in human neonates with HIE...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343216/susceptibility-weighted-imaging-identifies-iron-oxide-labeled-human-neural-stem-cells-automated-computational-detection
#2
Mohsen Baghchechi, Amy Plaia, Mary Hamer, Nirmalya Ghosh, Stephen Ashwal, Andre Obenaus
Neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury (HII) can lead to devastating neurological outcomes such as cerebral palsy, epilepsy, and mental retardation. Human neural stem cell (hNSC) therapy provides new hope for the treatment of neonatal HII. These multipotent cells can aid in HII recovery by activating multiple reparative mechanisms including secretion of neurotrophic factors that enhance brain repair and plasticity. For clinical use of implanted hNSCs, methods are required to identify, quantify, track, and visualize migration and replication in an automated and reproducible fashion...
March 25, 2017: Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342897/dose-response-effect-of-acute-phencyclidine-on-functional-connectivity-and-dopamine-levels-and-their-association-with-schizophrenia-like-symptom-classes-in-rat
#3
Jaakko Paasonen, Raimo A Salo, Jouni Ihalainen, Juuso V Leikas, Katja Savolainen, Marko Lehtonen, Markus M Forsberg, Olli Gröhn
Current drug treatments for schizophrenia (SCZ) can alleviate positive symptoms, but have little effect on the negative symptoms and cognitive deficits that are difficult to translate into preclinical models for drug development. Therefore, we aimed to determine the dose-response effects of acute phencyclidine (PCP, 1.0-5.0 mg/kg) on rat brain connectivity and detect markers for different SCZ-like symptoms. Pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) and microdialysis were used to investigate PCP-induced effects on functional connectivity (FC) and dopamine levels, respectively...
March 22, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342763/serotonin-and-neuroplasticity-links-between-molecular-functional-and-structural-pathophysiology-in-depression
#4
REVIEW
Christoph Kraus, Eero Castrén, Siegfried Kasper, Rupert Lanzenberger
Serotonin modulates neuroplasticity, especially during early life, and dysfunctions in both systems likewise contribute to pathophysiology of depression. Recent findings demonstrate that serotonin reuptake inhibitors trigger reactivation of juvenile-like neuroplasticity. How these findings translate to clinical antidepressant treatment in major depressive disorder remains unclear. With this review, we link preclinical with clinical work on serotonin and neuroplasticity to bring two pathophysiologic models in clinical depression closer together...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342697/recent-publications-from-the-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-reviewing-progress-toward-improved-ad-clinical-trials
#5
REVIEW
Michael W Weiner, Dallas P Veitch, Paul S Aisen, Laurel A Beckett, Nigel J Cairns, Robert C Green, Danielle Harvey, Clifford R Jack, William Jagust, John C Morris, Ronald C Petersen, Andrew J Saykin, Leslie M Shaw, Arthur W Toga, John Q Trojanowski
INTRODUCTION: The Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) has continued development and standardization of methodologies for biomarkers and has provided an increased depth and breadth of data available to qualified researchers. This review summarizes the 450+ publications using ADNI data during 2014 and 2015. METHODS: We used standard searches to find publications using ADNI data. RESULTS: (1) Structural and functional changes, including subtle changes to hippocampal shape and texture, atrophy in areas outside of hippocampus, and disruption to functional networks, are detectable in presymptomatic subjects before hippocampal atrophy; (2) In subjects with abnormal β-amyloid deposition (Aβ+), biomarkers become abnormal in the order predicted by the amyloid cascade hypothesis; (3) Cognitive decline is more closely linked to tau than Aβ deposition; (4) Cerebrovascular risk factors may interact with Aβ to increase white-matter (WM) abnormalities which may accelerate Alzheimer's disease (AD) progression in conjunction with tau abnormalities; (5) Different patterns of atrophy are associated with impairment of memory and executive function and may underlie psychiatric symptoms; (6) Structural, functional, and metabolic network connectivities are disrupted as AD progresses...
March 22, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342654/the-role-of-the-signal-intensity-ratio-on-fluid-attenuated-inversion-recovery-in-stroke-patients-achieving-successful-recanalization-with-endovascular-treatment
#6
Taehoon Kim, Jong-Won Chung, Myung Suk Jang, Mi Hwa Yang, Sang-Hwa Lee, Beom Joon Kim, Moon-Ku Han, Jae Hyoung Kim, Cheolkyu Jung, Jae-Sung Lim, Hee-Joon Bae
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate whether fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) imaging hyperintensity can be used as a surrogate marker for the severity of ischemic insult and predict lesion growth. METHODS: Based on a prospective stroke registry database, we identified patients with ischemic stroke who were treated with endovascular treatment (EVT) within 8 hours of onset and achieved successful recanalization (modified thrombolysis in cerebral infarction ≥2B)...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342358/insight-into-highly-efficient-co-removal-of-p-nitrophenol-and-lead-by-nitrogen-functionalized-magnetic-ordered-mesoporous-carbon-performance-and-modelling
#7
Yaoyu Zhou, Xiaocheng Liu, Lin Tang, Fengfeng Zhang, Guangming Zeng, Xiangqi Peng, Lin Luo, Yaochen Deng, Ya Pang, Jiachao Zhang
Highly efficient simultaneous removal of Pb(II) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) contamination from water was accomplished by nitrogen-functionalized magnetic ordered mesoporous carbon (N-Fe/OMC). The mutual effects and inner mechanisms of their adsorption onto N-Fe/OMC were systematically investigated by sole and binary systems, and thermodynamic, sorption isotherm and adsorption kinetics models. The liquid-film diffusion step might be the rate-limiting step for PNP and Pb(II). The fitting of experimental data with Temkin model indicates that the adsorption process of PNP and Pb(II) involve physisorption and chemisorption...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339276/two-dimensional-platform-for-networks-of-majorana-bound-states
#8
Michael Hell, Martin Leijnse, Karsten Flensberg
We model theoretically a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) covered by a superconductor and demonstrate that topological superconducting channels are formed when stripes of the superconducting layer are removed. As a consequence, Majorana bound states (MBSs) are created at the ends of the stripes. We calculate the topological invariant and energy gap of a single stripe, using realistic values for an InAs 2DEG proximitized by an epitaxial Al layer. We show that the topological gap is enhanced when the structure is made asymmetric...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339271/magnetoelectric-behavior-from-s-1-2-asymmetric-square-cupolas
#9
Yasuyuki Kato, Kenta Kimura, Atsushi Miyake, Masashi Tokunaga, Akira Matsuo, Koichi Kindo, Mitsuru Akaki, Masayuki Hagiwara, Masakazu Sera, Tsuyoshi Kimura, Yukitoshi Motome
Magnetoelectric properties are studied by a combined experimental and theoretical study of a quasi-two-dimensional material composed of square cupolas, Ba(TiO)Cu_{4}(PO_{4})_{4}. The magnetization is measured up to the field above the saturation, and several anomalies are observed depending on the field directions. We propose a S=1/2 spin model with Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions, which reproduces the full magnetization curves well. Elaborating the phase diagram of the model, we show that the anomalies are explained by magnetoelectric phase transitions...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338916/violent-offenders-respond-to-provocations-with-high-amygdala-and-striatal-reactivity
#10
Sofi da Cunha-Bang, Patrick MacDonald Fisher, Liv Vadskjær Hjordt, Erik Perfalk, Anine Persson Skibsted, Camilla Bock, Anders Ohlhues Baandrup, Marie Deen Christensen, Carsten Thomsen, Dorte Sestoft, Gitte M Knudsen
The ability to successfully suppress impulses and angry affect is fundamental to control aggressive reactions following provocations. The aim of this study was to examine neural responses to provocations and aggression using a laboratory model of reactive aggression. We used a novel functional magnetic resonance imaging point-subtraction aggression paradigm in 44 men, of whom 18 were incarcerated violent offenders and 26 were control non-offenders. We measured brain activation following provocations (monetary subtractions), while the subjects had the possibility to behave aggressively or pursue monetary rewards...
March 8, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338474/kagome-like-chains-with-anisotropic-ferromagnetic-and-antiferromagnetic-interactions
#11
Dmitry Dmitriev, Valery Krivnov
We consider a spin-$\frac{1}{2}$ kagome-like chain with competing ferro- and antiferromagnetic anisotropic exchange interactions. The ground state phase diagram of this model consists of the ferromagnetic and ferrimagnetic phases. We study the ground state and the low-temperature properties on the phase boundary between these phases. The ground state on this phase boundary is macroscopically degenerate and consists of localized magnon states. We calculate the ground state degeneracy and corresponding residual entropy...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338057/the-identification-of-%C3%A1-tryptophan-as-a-bioactive-substance-for-postembryonic-ovarian-development-in-the-planarian-dugesia-ryukyuensis
#12
Kazuya Kobayashi, Takanobu Maezawa, Hiroyuki Tanaka, Hiroyuki Onuki, Yurie Horiguchi, Hiroshi Hirota, Tetsuo Ishida, Kihachiro Horiike, Yasutoshi Agata, Manabu Aoki, Motonori Hoshi, Midori Matsumoto
Many metazoans start germ cell development during embryogenesis, while some metazoans possessing pluripotent stem cells undergo postembryonic germ cell development. The latter reproduce asexually but develop germ cells from pluripotent stem cells or dormant primordial germ cells when they reproduce sexually. Sexual induction of the planarian Dugesia ryukyuensis is an important model for postembryonic germ cell development. In this experimental system, hermaphroditic reproductive organs are differentiated in presumptive gonadal regions by the administration of a crude extract from sexual planarians to asexual ones...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338056/first-order-reversal-curves-and-intrinsic-parameter-determination-for-magnetic-materials-limitations-of-hysteron-based-approaches-in-correlated-systems
#13
Sergiu Ruta, Ondrej Hovorka, Pin-Wei Huang, Kangkang Wang, Ganping Ju, Roy Chantrell
The generic problem of extracting information on intrinsic particle properties from the whole class of interacting magnetic fine particle systems is a long standing and difficult inverse problem. As an example, the Switching Field Distribution (SFD) is an important quantity in the characterization of magnetic systems, and its determination in many technological applications, such as recording media, is especially challenging. Techniques such as the first order reversal curve (FORC) methods, were developed to extract the SFD from macroscopic measurements...
March 24, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337973/crystal-growth-structure-and-magnetic-properties-of-ca-sub-10-sub-cr-sub-7-sub-o-sub-28-sub
#14
Christian Balz, Bella Lake, Manfred Reehuis, A T M Islam, Oleksandr Prokhnenko, Yogesh Singh, Philip Pattison, Sandor Toth
A detailed diffraction study of Ca<sub>10</sub>Cr<sub>7</sub>O<sub>28</sub> is presented which adds significant new insights into the structural and magnetic properties of this compound. A new crystal structure type was used where the a and b axes are doubled compared to previous models providing a more plausible structure where all crystallographic sites are fully occupied. The presence of two different valences of chromium was verified and the locations of the magnetic Cr<sup>5+</sup> and non-magnetic Cr<sup>6+</sup> ions were identified...
March 24, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337941/lesion-symptom-map-of-cognitive-postural-interference-in-multiple-sclerosis
#15
Serena Ruggieri, Fulvia Fanelli, Letizia Castelli, Nikolaos Petsas, Laura De Giglio, Luca Prosperini
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the disease-altered structure-function relationship underlying the cognitive-postural interference (CPI) phenomenon in multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: We measured postural sway of 96 patients and 48 sex-/age-matched healthy controls by force platform in quiet standing (single-task (ST)) while performing the Stroop test (dual-task (DT)) to estimate the dual-task cost (DTC) of balance. In patient group, binary T2 and T1 lesion masks and their corresponding lesion volumes were obtained from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of brain...
March 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337782/three-dimensional-oxygen-enhanced-mri-of-the-human-lung-at-1-5t-with-ultra-fast-balanced-steady-state-free-precession
#16
Orso Pusterla, Grzegorz Bauman, Oliver Bieri
PURPOSE: To assess the feasibility of 3D oxygen-enhanced (OE) MRI of the lung at 1.5T using multi-volumetric ultra-fast balanced steady-state free precession (ufSSFP) acquisitions. METHODS: Isotropic imaging of the lung for OE-MRI was performed with an adapted 3D ufSSFP sequence using five breath-hold acquisitions ranging from functional residual capacity to tidal inspiration under both normoxic (room air) and hyperoxic (100% O2 ) gas conditions. For each O2 concentration, a sponge model (which captures the parenchymal signal intensity variation as a function of the lung volume) was fitted to the acquired multi-volumetric datasets after semiautomatic lung segmentation and deformable image registration...
March 24, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337626/application-of-a-novel-magnetic-carbon-nanotube-adsorbent-for-removal-of-mercury-from-aqueous-solutions
#17
Farshid Homayoon, Hossein Faghihian, Firoozeh Torki
In this research, multiwall carbon nanotube was magnetized and subsequently functionalized by thiosemicarbazide. After characterization by FTIR, BET, SEM, EDAX, and VSM techniques, the magnetized adsorbent (multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/Fe3O4) was used for removal of Hg(2+) from aqueous solutions and the experimental conditions were optimized. The adsorption capacity of 172.83 mg g(-1) was obtained at 25 °C and pH = 3 which was superior to the value obtained for initial multiwall carbon nanotube, magnetized sample, and many previously reported values...
March 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337243/residue-specific-interactions-of-an-intrinsically-disordered-protein-with-silica-nanoparticles-and-their-quantitative-prediction
#18
Mouzhe Xie, Alexandar L Hansen, Jiaqi Yuan, Rafael Brüschweiler
Elucidation of the driving forces that govern interactions between nanoparticles and intrinsically disordered proteins (IDP) is important for the understanding of the effect of nanoparticles in living systems and for the design of new nanoparticle-based assays to monitor health and combat disease. The quantitative interaction profile of the intrinsically disordered transactivation domain of p53 and its mutants with anionic silica nanoparticles is reported at atomic resolution using nuclear magnetic spin relaxation experiments...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337129/novel-neuromodulation-techniques-to-assess-interhemispheric-communication-in-neural-injury-and-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
REVIEW
Samuel S Shin, Galit Pelled
Interhemispheric interaction has a major role in various neurobehavioral functions. Its disruption is a major contributor to the pathological changes in the setting of brain injury such as traumatic brain injury, peripheral nerve injury, and stroke, as well as neurodegenerative diseases. Because interhemispheric interaction has a crucial role in functional consequence in these neuropathological states, a review of noninvasive and state-of-the-art molecular based neuromodulation methods that focus on or have the potential to elucidate interhemispheric interaction have been performed...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28336902/magnetic-hybrid-nanosorbents-for-the-uptake-of-paraquat-from-water
#20
Tiago Fernandes, Sofia F Soares, Tito Trindade, Ana L Daniel-da-Silva
Although paraquat has been banned in European countries, this herbicide is still used all over the world, thanks to its low-cost, high-efficiency, and fast action. Because paraquat is highly toxic to humans and animals, there is interest in mitigating the consequences of its use, namely by implementing removal procedures capable of curbing its environmental and health risks. This research describes new magnetic nanosorbents composed of magnetite cores functionalized with bio-hybrid siliceous shells, that can be used to uptake paraquat from water using magnetically-assisted procedures...
March 18, 2017: Nanomaterials
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