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Cognitive stimulation in dementia

Maria Anderson, Feng Xu, Ming-Hsuan Ou-Yang, Judianne Davis, William E Van Nostrand, John K Robinson
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is the leading cause of dementia in the elderly. Amyloid-β protein (Aβ) depositions in both the brain parenchyma and the cerebral vasculature are recognized as important pathological components that contribute to the cognitive impairments found in individuals with AD. Because pharmacological options have been minimally effective in treating cognitive impairment to date, interest in the development of preventative lifestyle intervention strategies has increased in the field...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Michael R Hamblin
Photobiomodulation (PBM) describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate, heal, regenerate, and protect tissue that has either been injured, is degenerating, or else is at risk of dying. One of the organ systems of the human body that is most necessary to life, and whose optimum functioning is most worried about by humankind in general, is the brain. The brain suffers from many different disorders that can be classified into three broad groupings: traumatic events (stroke, traumatic brain injury, and global ischemia), degenerative diseases (dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's), and psychiatric disorders (depression, anxiety, post traumatic stress disorder)...
December 2016: BBA Clinical
Amado Rivero-Santana, Daniel Ferreira, Lilisbeth Perestelo-Pérez, Eric Westman, Lars-Olof Wahlund, Antonio Sarría, Pedro Serrano-Aguilar
BACKGROUND: Differential diagnosis in dementia is at present one of the main challenges both in clinical practice and research. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are included in the current diagnostic criteria of Alzheimer's disease (AD) but their clinical utility is still unclear. OBJECTIVE: We performed a systematic review of studies analyzing the diagnostic performance of CSF Aβ42, total tau (t-tau), and phosphorylated tau (p-tau) in the discrimination between AD and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) dementias...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Daniel Radzicki, Erdong Liu, Han-Xiang Deng, Teepu Siddique, Marco Martina
Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are believed to represent the different outcomes of a common pathogenic mechanism. However, while researchers have intensely studied the involvement of motor neurons in the ALS/FTD syndrome, very little is known about the function of hippocampal neurons, although this area is critical for memory and other cognitive functions. We investigated the electrophysiological properties of CA1 pyramidal cells in slices from 1 month-old UBQLN2(P497H) mice, a recently generated model of ALS/FTD that shows heavy depositions of ubiquilin2-positive aggregates in this brain region...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Judith A Boel, Vincent J J Odekerken, Ben A Schmand, Gert J Geurtsen, Danielle C Cath, Martijn Figee, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rob J de Haan, P Richard Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Effects on non-motor symptoms, mainly cognitive and psychiatric side effects, could influence the decision for either globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: 1) To compare cognitive and psychiatric outcomes 3 years after GPi DBS versus STN DBS, and 2) to report on occurrence of suicidal ideation, psychiatric diagnoses, social functioning, and marital satisfaction 3 years after DBS...
September 19, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Layal Chaker, Frank J Wolters, Daniel Bos, Tim I M Korevaar, Albert Hofman, Aad van der Lugt, Peter J Koudstaal, Oscar H Franco, Abbas Dehghan, Meike W Vernooij, Robin P Peeters, M Arfan Ikram
OBJECTIVE: To study the role of thyroid function in dementia, cognitive function, and subclinical vascular brain disease with MRI. METHODS: Analyses were performed within the Rotterdam Study (baseline 1997), a prospective, population-based cohort. We evaluated the association of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine with incident dementia using Cox models adjusted for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and education. Absolute risks were calculated accounting for death as a competing risk factor...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Jose Martin Rabey, Evgenia Dobronevsky
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia among the elderly. Common treatments available and non-pharmacological interventions have their limitations, and new therapeutic approaches are critically needed. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique that generates an electric current-inducing modulation in cortical excitability. The previous clinical trials showed that combinations of rTMS and cognitive training (rTMS-COG), as provided by the NeuroAD medical device system, offer a novel, safe, and effective method improving mild-to-moderate AD patients...
September 8, 2016: Journal of Neural Transmission
Frances Corrigan, Alina Arulsamy, Jason Teng, Lyndsey E Collins-Praino
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is the leading cause of disability and death worldwide, affecting as many as 54,000,000-60,000,000 people annually. TBI is associated with significant impairments in brain function, impacting cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and physical functioning. Although much previous research has focused on the impairment immediately following injury, TBI may have much longer-lasting consequences, including neuropsychiatric disorders and cognitive impairment. TBI, even mild brain injury, has also been recognized as a significant risk factor for the later development of dementia and Alzheimer's disease...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Neurotrauma
Andres M Lozano, Lisa Fosdick, M Mallar Chakravarty, Jeannie-Marie Leoutsakos, Cynthia Munro, Esther Oh, Kristen E Drake, Christopher H Lyman, Paul B Rosenberg, William S Anderson, David F Tang-Wai, Jo Cara Pendergrass, Stephen Salloway, Wael F Asaad, Francisco A Ponce, Anna Burke, Marwan Sabbagh, David A Wolk, Gordon Baltuch, Michael S Okun, Kelly D Foote, Mary Pat McAndrews, Peter Giacobbe, Steven D Targum, Constantine G Lyketsos, Gwenn S Smith
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to modulate the activity of dysfunctional brain circuits. The safety and efficacy of DBS in dementia is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To assess DBS of memory circuits as a treatment for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: We evaluated active "on" versus sham "off" bilateral DBS directed at the fornix-a major fiber bundle in the brain's memory circuit-in a randomized, double-blind trial (ClinicalTrials...
September 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Kristin Prehn, Helena Stengl, Ulrike Grittner, René Kosiolek, Anja Ölschläger, Alexandra Weidemann, Agnes Flöel
In the absence of effective therapies for dementia and its precursors, enhancing neuroplasticity by means of non-invasive brain stimulation such as anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (atDCS) might be a promising approach to counteract or delay the onset of cognitive decline, but effect sizes have been moderate so far. Previous reports indicate that increasing serotonin levels may enhance atDCS-induced neuroplasticity. However, evidence for serotonergic modulation of atDCS effects on memory is still lacking...
September 21, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Tyler R Reese, Derrick J Thiel, Katherine E Cocker
Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia pose management challenges for caregivers and clinicians. Firstline nonpharmacologic treatments include eliminating physical and emotional stressors, modifying the patient's environment, and establishing daily routines. Family members and caregivers benefit from education about dementia symptoms and reminders that the behaviors are normal and unintentional. Cognitive and emotion-oriented interventions, sensory stimulation interventions, behavior management techniques, and other psychosocial interventions are modestly effective...
August 15, 2016: American Family Physician
Paolo Maria Rossini, Riccardo Di Iorio, Giuseppe Granata, Francesca Miraglia, Fabrizio Vecchio
In a recent study, analyzing the modulation of γ-band oscillations, Naro and colleagues demonstrated that transcranial alternating current stimulation could drive the gamma rhythms in the human EEG in cognitive healthy elderly subjects but not in mild cognitive impairment (MCI) prodromal to Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in early AD patients. Therefore, this method is proposed to intercept early in the disease course those MCI subjects who are in a pre-symptomatic stage of an already established AD. This prediction index may help the clinician to adopt a better prevention/follow-up strategy...
July 14, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Siddhartha Mondragón-Rodríguez, George Perry, Fernando Peña-Ortega, Sylvain Williams
The last two decades have seen a great advance in the data that supports the two current hypotheses in Alzheimer's disease (AD) field, the amyloid beta (Aβ) hypothesis and the tau hypothesis. Not surprisingly, Aβ and tau proteins are currently the major therapeutic research targets for AD treatment. Unfortunately, nothing but moderate success has emerged from such therapeutic approaches. With this in mind, we will discuss deep brain stimulation (DBS) as a promising therapeutic strategy that aims to restore brain activity...
August 19, 2016: Current Alzheimer Research
Manuela Pennisi, Giuseppe Lanza, Mariagiovanna Cantone, Riccardo Ricceri, Concetto Spampinato, Giovanni Pennisi, Vincenzo Di Lazzaro, Rita Bella
Background. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) highlighted functional changes in dementia, whereas there are few data in patients with vascular cognitive impairment-no dementia (VCI-ND). Similarly, little is known about the neurophysiological impact of vascular depression (VD) on deterioration of cognitive functions. We test whether depression might affect not only cognition but also specific cortical circuits in subcortical vascular disease. Methods. Sixteen VCI-ND and 11 VD patients, age-matched with 15 controls, underwent a clinical-cognitive, neuroimaging, and TMS assessment...
2016: Neural Plasticity
P Van Bogaert, D Tolson, R Eerlingen, D Carvers, K Wouters, K Paque, O Timmermans, T Dilles, S Engelborghs
: WHAT IS KNOWN ON THE SUBJECT?: To stimulate reminiscence of older adults with dementia performed individually or through group sessions is a well-known practice in nursing homes resulting in effects on behaviour and well-being as an alternative for medication. Robust scientific proof of the effectiveness of individual reminiscence therapy performed in nursing homes is sparse. WHAT THIS PAPER ADDS TO EXISTING KNOWLEDGE?: We have provided individual standardized reminiscence therapy to residents with dementia...
August 10, 2016: Journal of Psychiatric and Mental Health Nursing
Mar Martínez-Moreno, Noemí Cerulla, Gloria Chico, María Quintana, Maite Garolera
BACKGROUND: The benefit of cognitive stimulation (CS) treatments in dementia is unequal. This study has sought to identify cognitive and functional measurements before and after the treatment which are indicative of a better response to a one-year CS program. METHOD: A retrospective observational study was conducted between 2004 and 2012 in a sample of 60 users diagnosed with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) who followed a one-year CS program and underwent a cognitive and functional assessment before and after the intervention...
August 9, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Lauren A Yates, Shier Ziser, Aimee Spector, Martin Orrell
BACKGROUND: As life expectancies continue to rise, modifiable lifestyle factors that may prevent cognitive decline and dementia in later life become increasingly important in order to maintain quality of life in old age. METHOD: Five meta-analyses were conducted on data from papers identified in a systematic review. Studies were grouped according to outcomes (dementia, cognitive impairment including amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and cognitive decline) and output (risk (RR), odds (OR), or hazard ratios (HR))...
August 9, 2016: International Psychogeriatrics
Jennifer Middelstädt, Ann-Kristin Folkerts, Sabrina Blawath, Elke Kalbe
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence demonstrates the efficacy of cognitive stimulation (CS) in individuals with dementia. However, conducting studies in nursing homes engenders specific challenges that have limited the data gathered on this topic so far. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this randomized controlled trial was to investigate the effects of CS on cognition, quality of life (QoL), behavioral symptoms, and activities of daily life in persons with dementia living in nursing homes...
August 4, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Federico Licastro, Elisa Porcellini
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. Classical hallmarks of AD such as amyloid deposition and neurofibrillary tangles do not completely explain AD pathogenesis. Recent investigations proposed Aβ peptide as an anti-microbial factor. Our previous works suggested that the concomitant presence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from AD genetic studies might impair antiviral defenses and increase the individual susceptibility to herpes virus infection...
2016: Oncoscience
Johanna A Gutiérrez-Vargas, Herman Moreno, Gloria P Cardona-Gómez
Post-stroke cognitive impairment is a major cause of long-term neurological disability. The prevalence of post-stroke cognitive deficits varies between 20% and 80% depending on brain region, country, and diagnostic criteria. The biochemical mechanisms underlying post-stroke cognitive impairment are not known in detail. Cyclin-dependent kinase 5 is involved in neurodegeneration, and its dysregulation contributes to cognitive disorders and dementia. Here, we administered cyclin-dependent kinase 5-targeting gene therapy to the right hippocampus of ischemic rats after transient right middle cerebral artery occlusion...
August 2, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
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