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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449293/a-novel-approach-to-study-medical-decision-making-in-the-clinical-setting-the-own-point-of-view-perspective
#1
Thierry Pelaccia, Jacques Tardif, Emmanuel Triby, Bernard Charlin
BACKGROUND: Making diagnostic and therapeutic decisions is a critical activity among physicians. It relies on the ability of physicians to use cognitive processes and specific knowledge in the context of a clinical reasoning. This ability is a core competency in physicians, especially in the field of emergency medicine where the rate of diagnostic errors is high. Studies that explore medical decision-making in an authentic setting are increasing significantly. They are based on the use of qualitative methods which are applied at two separate times: 1) a video recording of the subject's actual activity in an authentic setting and 2) an interview with the subject, supported by the video recording...
April 27, 2017: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448579/il-33-receptor-st2-regulates-the-cognitive-impairments-associated-with-experimental-cerebral-malaria
#2
Flora Reverchon, Stéphane Mortaud, Maëliss Sivoyon, Isabelle Maillet, Anthony Laugeray, Jennifer Palomo, Céline Montécot, Améziane Herzine, Sandra Meme, William Meme, François Erard, Bernhard Ryffel, Arnaud Menuet, Valérie F J Quesniaux
Cerebral malaria (CM) is associated with a high mortality rate and long-term neurocognitive impairment in survivors. The murine model of experimental cerebral malaria (ECM) induced by Plasmodium berghei ANKA (PbA)-infection reproduces several of these features. We reported recently increased levels of IL-33 protein in brain undergoing ECM and the involvement of IL-33/ST2 pathway in ECM development. Here we show that PbA-infection induced early short term and spatial memory defects, prior to blood brain barrier (BBB) disruption, in wild-type mice, while ST2-deficient mice did not develop cognitive defects...
April 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447569/a-new-treatment-strategy-for-parkinson-s-disease-through-the-gut-brain-axis-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-pathway
#3
Dong Seok Kim, Ho-Il Choi, Yun Wang, Yu Luo, Barry J Hoffer, Nigel H Greig
Molecular communications in the gut-brain axis, between the central nervous system and the gastrointestinal tract, arecritical for maintaining healthy brain function particularly in aging. Epidemiological analyses indicate type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a risk factor for neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) for which aging shows a major correlative association. Common pathophysiological features exist between T2DM, AD and PD, including oxidative stress, inflammation, insulin resistance, abnormal protein processing and cognitive decline, and suggest that effective drugs for T2DM that positively impact the gut-brain axis could provide an effective treatment option for neurodegenerative diseases...
April 26, 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446944/protective-effects-of-proline-rich-peptide-in-a-rat-model-of-alzheimer-disease-an-electrophysiological-study
#4
Naser Khalaji, John Sarkissian, Vergine Chavushyan, Vaghinak Sarkisian
INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia in the elderly that slowly destroys memory and cognitive functions. The disease has no cure and leads to significant structural and functional brain abnormalities. To facilitate the treatment of this disease, we aimed to investigate proline-rich peptide (PRP-1) action of hypothalamus on hippocampal (HP) neurons and dynamics of their recovery, after intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of amyloid-β (Aβ). METHODS: Experiments were carried out on 24 adult, male Albino rats (average weight: 230±30 g)...
January 2017: Basic and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28445595/ventricular-fibrillation-cardiac-arrest-produces-a-chronic-striatal-hyperdopaminergic-state-that-is-worsened-by-methylphenidate-treatment
#5
Gerald J Nora, Rashed Harun, David F Fine, Daniel Hutchison, Adam C Grobart, Jason P Stezoski, Miranda Munoz, Patrick M Kochanek, Rehana K Leak, Tomas Drabek, Amy K Wagner
Cardiac arrest survival rates have improved with modern resuscitation techniques, but many survivors experience impairments associated with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Currently, little is understood about chronic changes in striatal dopamine (DA) systems after hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Given the common empiric clinical use of DA enhancing agents in neurorehabilitation, investigation evaluating dopaminergic alterations after cardiac arrest (CA) is necessary to optimize rehabilitation approaches. We hypothesized that striatal DA neurotransmission would be altered chronically after ventricular fibrillation cardiac arrest (VF-CA)...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444684/-evaluation-and-treatment-of-sleep-problems-in-children-diagnosed-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-an-update-of-the-evidence
#6
REVIEW
M Chamorro, J P Lara, I Insa, M Espadas, J A Alda-Diez
INTRODUCTION: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects approximately 5% of all children and adolescents, and these patients frequently suffer from sleep problems. The association between sleep disorders and ADHD, however, is multifaceted and complex. AIMS: To explore the relationship between sleep disorders and ADHD. DEVELOPMENT: Sleep problems in children with ADHD include altered sleep and specific disorders per se or that may be due to comorbid psychiatric disorders or to the stimulants they receive as treatment for their ADHD...
May 1, 2017: Revista de Neurologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444373/plasticity-of-the-right-lateralized-cognitive-reserve-network-in-ageing
#7
Méadhbh B Brosnan, Giorgia Demaria, Anders Petersen, Paul M Dockree, Ian H Robertson, Iris Wiegand
Cognitive reserve (CR) is the phenomenon where older adults with more cognitively stimulating environments show less age-related cognitive decline. The right-lateralized fronto-parietal network has been proposed to significantly contribute to CR and visual attention in ageing. In this study we tested whether plasticity of this network may be harnessed in ageing.We assessed CR and parameters of visual attention capacity in older adults. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) was employed to increase right fronto-parietal activity during a lateralized whole-report task...
April 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444345/causal-evidence-for-task-specific-involvement-of-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-in-human-social-cognition
#8
Andrew K Martin, I Ilvana Dzafic, Swathi Ramdave, Marcus Meinzer
The dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) is a key hub of the "social brain", but little is known about specific processes supported by this region. Using focal high-definition transcranial direct current stimulation (HD-tDCS) and a social cognitive battery with differing demands on self-other processing, we demonstrate specific involvement of the dmPFC in tasks placing high demands on self-other processing. Specifically, excitatory (anodal) HD-tDCS enhanced the integration of external information into the self for explicit higher-order socio-cognitive tasks across cognitive domains; i...
April 21, 2017: Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443011/the-lateral-occipito-temporal-cortex-is-involved-in-the-mental-manipulation-of-body-part-imagery
#9
Mitsuru Kikuchi, Tetsuya Takahashi, Tetsu Hirosawa, Yumi Oboshi, Etsuji Yoshikawa, Yoshio Minabe, Yasuomi Ouchi
The lateral occipito-temporal cortex (LOTC), including the extrastriate body area, is known to be involved in the perception of body parts. Although still controversial, recent studies have demonstrated the role of the LOTC in higher-level body-related cognition in humans. This study consisted of two experiments (E1 and E2). The first (E1) was an exploratory experiment to find the neural correlate of the mental manipulation of body part imagery, in which brain cerebral glucose metabolic rates and the performance of mental rotation of the hand were measured in 100 subjects who exhibited a range of symptoms of cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443008/against-strong-ethical-parity-situated-cognition-theses-and-transcranial-brain-stimulation
#10
Jan-Hendrik Heinrichs
According to a prominent suggestion in the ethics of transcranial neurostimulation the effects of such devices can be treated as ethically on par with established, pre-neurotechnological alterations of the mind. This parity allegedly is supported by situated cognition theories showing how external devices can be part of a cognitive system. This article will evaluate this suggestion. It will reject the claim, that situated cognition theories support ethical parity. It will however point out another reason, why external carriers or modifications of the mental might come to be considered ethically on par with internal carriers...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442424/thioredoxin-is-not-a-marker-for-treatment-resistance-depression-but-associated-with-cognitive-function-an-rtms-study
#11
Efruz Pirdogan Aydın, Abdullah Genc, Mihriban Dalkıran, Ece Türkyilmaz Uyar, Ömer Akil Özer, Kayıhan Oğuz Karamustafalıoğlu
Elevated oxidative stress is known to play an important role in development of depression and cognitive dysfunction. To date, thioredoxin (TRX), an antioxidant protein, has been investigated as a marker for psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder and autism but its relationship with depression is yet to be unknown. The aim of this study is to detect the TRX levels in patients with treatment-resistant depression (TRD), analyse the effect of rTMS (repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation) application on TRX levels and display the relationship of TRX with cognitive areas...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#12
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432778/cross-species-studies-of-cognition-relevant-to-drug-discovery-a-translational-approach
#13
REVIEW
T W Robbins
This Review advances the case that bidirectional, cross-species translation of findings from experimental animals to and from humans is an important strategy for drug discovery. Animal models of mental disorders require appropriate behavioural or cognitive outcome variables that can be generalized cross-species. One example is the treatment of impulsive behaviour in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with stimulant drugs. Performance on the stop signal reaction task as an index of impulsivity is improved both in healthy human volunteers and in patients with adult ADHD by stimulant drugs and also by the selective noradrenergic reuptake blocker atomoxetine...
April 22, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432136/selective-modulation-of-the-pupil-light-reflex-by-prefrontal-cortex-microstimulation
#14
R Becket Ebitz, Tirin Moore
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is thought to flexibly regulate sensorimotor responses. One way the PFC regulates sensorimotor transformations is to modulate activity in other circuits. However, the scope of that control remains unknown: it remains unclear whether the prefrontal cortex can modulate basic reflexes. One canonical example of a central reflex is the pupil light reflex (PLR): the automatic constriction of the pupil in response to luminance increments. Unlike pupil size, which depends the interaction of multiple physiological and neuromodulatory influences, the PLR reflects the action of a simple brainstem circuit...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432010/exposure-to-an-enriched-environment-facilitates-motor-recovery-and-prevents-short-term-memory-impairment-and-reduction-of-striatal-bdnf-in-a-progressive-pharmacological-model-of-parkinsonism-in-mice
#15
Clarissa L C Campêlo, José R Santos, Anatildes F Silva, Aline L Dierschnabel, André Pontes, Jeferson S Cavalcante, Alessandra M Ribeiro, Regina H Silva
Previous studies showed that the repeated administration with a low dose of reserpine (RES) induces a gradual appearance of motor signs and cognitive deficits compatible with parkinsonism in rodents. Environmental stimulation has neuroprotective effects in animal models of neurodegenerative damage, including acutely induced parkinsonism. We investigated the effects of exposure to an enriched environment (EE) on motor, cognitive and neuronal (levels of tyrosine hydroxylase, TH and brain derived neurotrophic factor, BDNF) deficits induced by a progressive model of Parkinson's disease (PD) in mice...
April 18, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430533/new-directions-in-the-rational-design-of-electrical-and-magnetic-seizure-therapies-individualized-low-amplitude-seizure-therapy-ilast-and-magnetic-seizure-therapy-mst
#16
Thomas Radman, Sarah H Lisanby
Electroconvulsive therapy remains a key treatment option for severe cases of depression, but undesirable side-effects continue to limit its use. Innovations in the design of novel seizure therapies seek to improve its risk benefit ratio through enhanced control of the focality of stimulation. The design of seizure therapies with increased spatial precision is motivated by avoiding stimulation of deep brain structures implicated in memory retention, including the hippocampus. The development of two innovations in seizure therapy-individualized low-amplitude seizure therapy (iLAST) and magnetic seizure therapy (MST), are detailed...
April 21, 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429997/attitudes-toward-cognitive-enhancer-use-among-new-zealand-tertiary-students
#17
Sanyogita Sanya Ram, Safeera Hussainy, Marcus Henning, Kay Stewart, Maree Jensen, Bruce Russell
BACKGROUND: Cognitive enhancement is the use of prescription stimulant medicines by healthy individuals for nonmedical use in academic settings. Commonly used cognitive enhancers (CEs) include methylphenidate, amphetamines, and modafinil. To understand the motivation to use CEs, it is important to look beyond prevalence and explore the extent to which attitudes, beliefs, and intentions predict the decision to use CEs. OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate what factors explain the decision to use CEs among tertiary students in New Zealand, using the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB)...
April 21, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429077/-implementation-of-the-german-s3-guidelines-on-dementia-in-clinical-practice-wish-or-reality
#18
H Lohmann, F Kulessa, H Holling, A Johnen, S Reul, G Lueg, T Duning
BACKGROUND: Published in 2009, the German S3 guidelines on dementia define a milestone in quality improvement of the diagnostics and treatment of dementia. In clinical practice patients suffering from dementia are primarily treated by physicians in private practice; therefore, this study examined how the guidelines are implemented in outpatient clinical settings. Furthermore, it aimed at the identification of behavioral determinants that govern the actual diagnostic and therapeutic approach in clinical practice...
April 20, 2017: Der Nervenarzt
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427836/adherence-to-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-in-adults-with-an-intellectual-disability
#19
Kim A Luijks, Nele L Vandenbussche, Dirk Pevernagie, Sebastiaan Overeem, Sigrid Pillen
STUDY OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study evaluated the feasibility of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy in adults with intellectual disabilities (ID). METHODS: CPAP therapy of 24 obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) patients with ID were compared to age- and sex-matched adults with normal cognitive functioning. All ID patients received an intensive in-hospital training protocol to stimulate adherence. Good adherence was defined as a use of >70% of the nights and >4 h/night...
March 30, 2017: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427299/effects-of-low-frequency-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-on-upper-extremity-motor-recovery-and-functional-outcomes-in-chronic-stroke-patients-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Ayhan Aşkın, Aliye Tosun, Ümit Seçil Demirdal
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was suggested as a preconditioning method that would increase brain plasticity and that it would be optimal to combine rTMS with intensive rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy of inhibitory rTMS on upper extremity motor recovery and functional outcomes in chronic ischemic stroke patients. METHODS: In this randomized controlled trial, experimental group received low-frequency (LF) rTMS to the primary motor cortex of the unaffected side + physical therapy (PT), and control group received PT...
April 20, 2017: Somatosensory & Motor Research
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