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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693214/transcutaneous-vagus-nerve-stimulation-tvns-enhances-conflict-triggered-adjustment-of-cognitive-control
#1
Rico Fischer, Carlos Ventura-Bort, Alfons Hamm, Mathias Weymar
Response conflicts play a prominent role in the flexible adaptation of behavior as they represent context-signals that indicate the necessity for the recruitment of cognitive control. Previous studies have highlighted the functional roles of the affectively aversive and arousing quality of the conflict signal in triggering the adaptation process. To further test this potential link with arousal, participants performed a response conflict task in two separate sessions with either transcutaneous vagus nerve stimulation (tVNS), which is assumed to activate the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NE) system, or with neutral sham stimulation...
April 24, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692640/cognitive-bias-in-clinical-practice-nurturing-healthy-skepticism-among-medical-students
#2
EDITORIAL
Alysha Bhatti
Errors in clinical reasoning, known as cognitive biases, are implicated in a significant proportion of diagnostic errors. Despite this knowledge, little emphasis is currently placed on teaching cognitive psychology in the undergraduate medical curriculum. Understanding the origin of these biases and their impact on clinical decision making helps stimulate reflective practice. This article outlines some of the common types of cognitive biases encountered in the clinical setting as well as cognitive debiasing strategies...
2018: Advances in Medical Education and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690927/effects-of-transcranial-led-therapy-on-the-cognitive-rehabilitation-for-diffuse-axonal-injury-due-to-severe-acute-traumatic-brain-injury-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#3
João Gustavo Rocha Peixoto Dos Santos, Ana Luiza Costa Zaninotto, Renato Amaro Zângaro, Ana Maria Costa Carneiro, Iuri Santana Neville, Almir Ferreira de Andrade, Manoel Jacobsen Teixeira, Wellingson Silva Paiva
BACKGROUND: Photobiomodulation describes the use of red or near-infrared light to stimulate or regenerate tissue. It was discovered that near-infrared wavelengths (800-900 nm) and red (600 nm) light-emitting diodes (LED) are able to penetrate through the scalp and skull and have the potential to improve the subnormal cellular activity of compromised brain tissue. Different experimental and clinical studies were performed to test LED therapy for traumatic brain injury (TBI) with promising results...
April 24, 2018: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29690546/a-rationale-for-music-training-to-enhance-executive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-an-overview-of-the-problem
#4
Teresa Lesiuk, Jennifer A Bugos, Brea Murakami
Music listening interventions such as Rhythmic Auditory Stimulation can improve mobility, balance, and gait in Parkinson’s Disease (PD). Yet, the impact of music training on executive functions is not yet known. Deficits in executive functions (e.g., attention, processing speed) in patients with PD result in gait interference, deficits in emotional processing, loss of functional capacity (e.g., intellectual activity, social participation), and reduced quality of life. The model of temporal prediction and timing suggests two networks collectively contribute to movement generation and execution: the basal ganglia-thalamocortical network (BGTC) and the cerebellar-thalamocortical network (CTC)...
April 22, 2018: Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689057/impacts-2-years-after-a-scalable-early-childhood-development-intervention-to-increase-psychosocial-stimulation-in-the-home-a-follow-up-of-a-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-in-colombia
#5
Alison Andrew, Orazio Attanasio, Emla Fitzsimons, Sally Grantham-McGregor, Costas Meghir, Marta Rubio-Codina
BACKGROUND: Poor early childhood development (ECD) in low- and middle-income countries is a major concern. There are calls to universalise access to ECD interventions through integrating them into existing government services but little evidence on the medium- or long-term effects of such scalable models. We previously showed that a psychosocial stimulation (PS) intervention integrated into a cash transfer programme improved Colombian children's cognition, receptive language, and home stimulation...
April 2018: PLoS Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688639/-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-clinical-activity-in-israel
#6
Yuval Bloch
This editorial relates to the study published in the current issue on how our current knowledge is practiced in screening, diagnosing and treating children suffering from ADHD in Israel. It seems that there is an awareness of the disorder by parents and teachers, thus there is no need for community screening. The roles of the different medical professions: pediatricians (after receiving training on ADHD), child neurologists and child psychiatrists are not clear enough and thus services are not utilized properly...
April 2018: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29688392/challenge-to-unity-relationship-between-hemispheric-asymmetry-of-the-default-mode-network-and-mind-wandering
#7
Shogo Kajimura, Takanori Kochiyama, Nobuhito Abe, Michio Nomura
The default mode network (DMN) is considered a unified core brain function for generating subjective mental experiences, such as mind wandering. We propose a novel cognitive framework for understanding the unity of the DMN from the perspective of hemispheric asymmetry. Using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), effective connectivity estimation, and machine learning, we show that the bilateral angular gyri (AG), which are core regions of the DMN, exhibit heterogeneity in both inherent network organization and mind wandering regulation...
April 21, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686644/technological-approaches-for-neurorehabilitation-from-robotic-devices-to-brain-stimulation-and-beyond
#8
Marianna Semprini, Matteo Laffranchi, Vittorio Sanguineti, Laura Avanzino, Roberto De Icco, Lorenzo De Michieli, Michela Chiappalone
Neurological diseases causing motor/cognitive impairments are among the most common causes of adult-onset disability. More than one billion of people are affected worldwide, and this number is expected to increase in upcoming years, because of the rapidly aging population. The frequent lack of complete recovery makes it desirable to develop novel neurorehabilitative treatments, suited to the patients, and better targeting the specific disability. To date, rehabilitation therapy can be aided by the technological support of robotic-based therapy, non-invasive brain stimulation, and neural interfaces...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29686609/cerebellar-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-modulates-corticospinal-excitability-during-motor-training
#9
Rebekah L S Summers, Mo Chen, Andrea Hatch, Teresa J Kimberley
Background : Cerebellar activity can be modulated using cerebellar transcranial direct current stimulation (ctDCS) and, when applied concurrently with task training, has been shown to facilitate cognitive and motor performance. However, how ctDCS facilitates motor performance is not fully understood. Objective/Hypothesis : To assess the electrophysiological and motor performance effects of ctDCS applied during motor training. Methods : Fourteen healthy adults (age 28.8 ± 10.5 years) were randomly assigned to complete one session of finger tracking training with either simultaneous bilateral anodal or sham ctDCS...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684752/dynamic-semantic-cognition-characterising-coherent-and-controlled-conceptual-retrieval-through-time-using-magnetoencephalography-and-chronometric-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation
#10
Catarina Teige, Giovanna Mollo, Rebecca Millman, Nicola Savill, Jonathan Smallwood, Piers L Cornelissen, Elizabeth Jefferies
Distinct neural processes are thought to support the retrieval of semantic information that is (i) coherent with strongly-encoded aspects of knowledge, and (ii) non-dominant yet relevant for the current task or context. While the brain regions that support readily coherent and more controlled patterns of semantic retrieval are relatively well-characterised, the temporal dynamics of these processes are not well-understood. This study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) and dual-pulse chronometric transcranial magnetic stimulation (cTMS) in two separate experiments to examine temporal dynamics during the retrieval of strong and weak associations...
March 30, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681876/null-tdcs-effects-in-a-sustained-attention-task-the-modulating-role-of-learning
#11
Noa Jacoby, Michal Lavidor
The purpose of this study was to investigate sustained attention through modulation of the fronto-cerebral network with transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and control participants. Thirty-seven participants (21 with ADHD) underwent three separate sessions (baseline, active tDCS, and sham) and performed the MOXO Continuous Performance Test (CPT). We applied double anodal stimulation of 1.8 mA tDCS for 20 min over the left and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), with the cathode over the cerebellum...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680658/deficiency-of-unc-51-like-kinase-1-ulk1-protects-against-mice-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-by-suppression-of-p38-and-jnk-pathway
#12
Hao-Lan Wei, Su-Qing Ma, Chun-Xia Li
Unc-51 like autophagy activating kinase 1 (Ulk1) is a serine/threonine kinase that plays a key role in regulating autophagy processes. We attempted to investigate the effects of Ulk1 on traumatic brain injury (TBI) progression by using wild type (WT) mice and Ulk1-knockout (KO) mice suffered with or not TBI. The results were verified using LPS-treated primary astrocyte (AST). Here, Ulk1 was over-expressed in hippocampus of WT mice after TBI, as well as in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated AST. Ulk1-deletion improved cognitive ability and hippocampus histological changes in TBI mice...
April 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679670/mindfulness-based-relapse-prevention-combined-with-virtual-reality-cue-exposure-for-methamphetamine-addiction-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#13
XiJing Chen, Dongmei Wang, Lidan Zhou, Markus Winkler, Paul Pauli, Nan Sui, Yonghui Li
BACKGROUND: Mindfulness-based relapse prevention (MBRP) is a method that combines cognitive behavioral relapse prevention with mindfulness practice. Research shows that MBRP can effectively reduce negative emotions and craving in people with substance use disorders (SUDs). An important part of MBRP is to practice mindfulness meditation to cope with high-risk situations for relapse, such as stimuli and situations associated with drug taking. Virtual reality cue exposure (VRCE) may be a complementary approach to MBRP as it allows for controlled and graded presentations of various high-risk situations with distal and proximal drug cues...
April 18, 2018: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677548/combination-of-curcumin-and-vagus-nerve-stimulation-attenuates-cerebral-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-induced-behavioral-deficits
#14
Jian Xu, Xinjuan Kong, Hong Xiu, Yihe Dou, Zeyu Wu, Peng Sun
AIM: Previous studies indicated that cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury (CI/RI) could induce behavioral deficits. Single treatment of vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) or curcumin is reported to restore CI/RI-induced behavioral deficits. However, the synergic effect remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rats were divided into 6 groups: sham, CI/RI, VNS, CI/RI + VNS, VNS + curcumin and CI/RI + VNS + curcumin groups. Each group was further divided into three or four subgroups for further assessments...
April 17, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675956/clonidine-modulates-the-activity-of-the-subthalamic-supplementary-motor-loop-evidence-from-a-pharmacological-study-combining-dbs-and-eeg-recordings-in-parkinsonian-patients
#15
Charlotte Spay, Marion Albares, Guillaume Lio, Stephane Thobois, Emmanuel Broussolle, Brian Lau, Benedicte Ballanger, Philippe Boulinguez
Clonidine is an anti-hypertensive medication which acts as an alpha-adrenergic receptors agonist. As the noradrenergic system is likely to support cognitive functions including attention and executive control, other clinical uses of clonidine have recently gained popularity for the treatment of neuropsychiatric disorders like attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome, but the mechanism of action is still unclear. Here, we test the hypothesis that the noradrenergic system regulates the activity of subthalamo-motor cortical loops, and that this influence can be modulated by clonidine...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674948/low-to-no-effect-application-of-trns-during-two-digit-addition
#16
Silke M Bieck, Christina Artemenko, Korbinian Moeller, Elise Klein
Transcranial electric stimulation such as transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) have been used to investigate structure-function relationships in numerical cognition. Recently, tRNS was suggested to be more effective than tDCS. However, so far there is no evidence on the differential impact of tDCS and tRNS on numerical cognition using the same experimental paradigm. In the present study, we used a two-digit addition paradigm for which significant-albeit small-effects of tDCS were observed previously to evaluate the impact of parietal and frontal tRNS on specific numerical effects...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674270/response-inhibition-and-emotional-cognition-improved-by-atomoxetine-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-the-action-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Kristi R Griffiths, John E Leikauf, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Daniel F Hermens, Daryl Efron, Leanne M Williams, Michael R Kohn
Although the non-stimulant medication atomoxetine is effective for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge about whether atomoxetine improves anxiety symptoms or cognition in children. Furthermore, while cognition has been proposed as an intermediate phenotype for ADHD dysfunction, the relationships between clinical and cognitive outcomes are not yet understood. We addressed these knowledge gaps in a controlled trial using objective assessments of both general and emotional cognitive functions implicated in ADHD and in anxiety, which commonly co-occurs with ADHD...
March 27, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669695/roadblocks-to-driving-cognitive-gains-through-transcranial-electrical-stimulation
#18
Urvakhsh Meherwan Mehta
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669582/galantamine-improves-cognition-hippocampal-inflammation-and-synaptic-plasticity-impairments-induced-by-lipopolysaccharide-in-mice
#19
Yi Liu, Yuyun Zhang, Xian Zheng, Tongyong Fang, Xia Yang, Xuan Luo, Anlei Guo, Kelly A Newell, Xu-Feng Huang, Yinghua Yu
BACKGROUND: Neuroinflammation plays an important role in the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS, endotoxin) levels are higher in the brains of Alzheimer's disease patients and are associated with neuroinflammation and cognitive decline, while neural cholinergic signaling controls inflammation. This study aimed to examine the efficacy of galantamine, a clinically approved cholinergic agent, in alleviating LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cognitive decline as well as the associated mechanism...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667473/harnessing-neuroplasticity-modern-approaches-and-clinical-future
#20
Andrew Octavian Sasmita, Joshua Kuruvilla, Anna Pick Kiong Ling
Neurological diseases and injuries to the nervous system may cause inadvertent damage to neuronal and synaptic structures. Such phenomenon would catastrophically accumulate, leading to the development of neurological and neurodegenerative disorders which might affect memory, cognition, and motoric functions. The body has various negative feedback systems which are able to induce beneficial neuroplastic changes in mediating some neuronal damage, however, such efforts are often not enough to ameliorate the derogatory changes...
April 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
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