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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723570/dynamic-control-of-dendritic-mrna-expression-by-cnot7-regulates-synaptic-efficacy-and-higher-cognitive-function
#1
Rhonda L McFleder, Fernanda Mansur, Joel D Richter
Translation of mRNAs in dendrites mediates synaptic plasticity, the probable cellular basis of learning and memory. Coordination of translational inhibitory and stimulatory mechanisms, as well as dendritic transport of mRNA, is necessary to ensure proper control of this local translation. Here, we find that the deadenylase CNOT7 dynamically regulates dendritic mRNA translation and transport, as well as synaptic plasticity and higher cognitive function. In cultured hippocampal neurons, synaptic stimulation induces a rapid decrease in CNOT7, which, in the short-term, results in poly(A) tail lengthening of target mRNAs...
July 18, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721049/the-potential-role-of-vagus-nerve-stimulation-in-the-treatment-of-hiv-associated-depression-a-review-of-literature
#2
REVIEW
William C Nicholson, Mirjam-Colette Kempf, Linda Moneyham, David E Vance
Depression is the most common comorbidity and neuropsychiatric complication in HIV. Estimates suggest that the prevalence rate for depression among HIV-infected individuals is three times that of the general population. The association between HIV and clinical depression is complex; however, chronic activation of inflammatory mechanisms, which disrupt central nervous system (CNS) function, may contribute to this association. Disruptions in CNS function can result in cognitive disorders, social withdrawal, fatigue, apathy, psychomotor impairment, and sleep disturbances, which are common manifestations in depression and HIV alike...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720980/efficacy-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-therapy-on-poststroke-depression-among-survivors-of-first-stroke-attack-in-ibadan-nigeria
#3
Olugbemi Olukolade, Helen O Osinowo
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Poststroke depression (PSD) is a common complication after stroke. There is no adequate treatment for PSD. This study examined efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT) in the treatment of PSD among stroke survivors. METHODS: An experimental design, 30 participants with poststroke depression were randomly assigned into 3 groups of cognitive rehabilitation therapy (CRT), psychoeducation (PE), and the control group (CG). CRT consisted of nine sessions with three-phased sessions focusing on activity stimulation, negative thoughts, and people contacts, PE consisted of nine sessions focusing on knowledge on stroke and poststroke depression, and the CG group was on the waiting list...
2017: Behavioural Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720898/balance-training-improves-memory-and-spatial-cognition-in-healthy-adults
#4
Ann-Kathrin Rogge, Brigitte Röder, Astrid Zech, Volker Nagel, Karsten Hollander, Klaus-Michael Braumann, Kirsten Hötting
Physical exercise has been shown to improve cognitive functions. However, it is still unknown which type of exercise affects cognition. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that a demanding balance training program improves memory and spatial cognition. Forty healthy participants aged 19-65 years were randomly assigned to either a balance or relaxation training intervention. Each group exercised twice a week for a total of 12 weeks. Pre- and posttests assessed balance performance, cardiorespiratory fitness, memory, spatial cognition, and executive functions...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720188/the-importance-of-the-study-of-cognitive-performance-enhancement-for-u-s-national-security
#5
Richard G Malish
The American military is embarking on the 'Third Offset'-a strategy designed to produce seismic shifts in the future of warfare. Central to the approach is the conjoining of humans, technology, and machines to deliver a decisive advantage on the battlefield. Because technology will spread rapidly and globally, tactical overmatch will occur when American operators possess a competitive edge in cognition. Investigation of cognitive enhancing therapeutics is not widely articulated as an adjunct to the Third Offset, yet failure to study promising agents could represent a strategic vulnerability...
August 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720023/early-motor-development-and-cognitive-abilities-among-mexican-preschoolers
#6
Erika Osorio-Valencia, Luisa Torres-Sánchez, Lizbeth López-Carrillo, Stephen J Rothenberg, Lourdes Schnaas
Psychomotricity plays a very important role in children's development, especially for learning involving reading-writing and mathematical calculations. Evaluate motor development in children 3 years old and its relationship with their cognitive abilities at the age of 5 years. Based on a cohort study, we analyzed the information about motor performance evaluated at 3 years old by Peabody Motor Scale and cognitive abilities at 5 years old. The association was estimated using linear regression models adjusted by mother's intelligence quotient, sex, Bayley mental development index at 18 months, and quality of the environment at home (HOME scale)...
July 18, 2017: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720013/the-5-ht1b-serotonin-receptor-regulates-methylphenidate-induced-gene-expression-in-the-striatum-differential-effects-on-immediate-early-genes
#7
David Alter, Joel A Beverley, Ronak Patel, Carlos A Bolaños-Guzmán, Heinz Steiner
Drug combinations that include a psychostimulant such as methylphenidate (Ritalin) and a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor such as fluoxetine are indicated in several medical conditions. Co-exposure to these drugs also occurs with "cognitive enhancer" use by individuals treated with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors. Methylphenidate, a dopamine reuptake inhibitor, by itself produces some addiction-related gene regulation in the striatum. We have demonstrated that co-administration of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors potentiates these methylphenidate-induced molecular effects, thus producing a more "cocaine-like" profile...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719509/the-relationship-between-structural-and-functional-brain-changes-and-altered-emotion-and-cognition-in-chronic-low-back-pain-a-systematic-review-of-mri-and-fmri-studies
#8
Sin Ki Ng, Donna M Urquhart, Paul B Fitzgerald, Flavia M Cicuttini, Sultana Monira Hussain, Bernadette M Fitzgibbon
OBJECTIVES: Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a major health issue, yet its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Studies have demonstrated the importance of emotion and cognition in chronic pain, however, the relevant brain physiology in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies are unclear in CLBP populations. Therefore, this review aimed to identify MRI brain changes and examine their potential relationship with emotional and cognitive processes in CLBP. METHOD: A systematic search was conducted in 5 databases...
July 17, 2017: Clinical Journal of Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717525/differential-effects-of-awake-glioma-surgery-in-critical-language-areas-on-cognition-4-case-studies
#9
Djaina Satoer, Elke De Witte, Marion Smits, Roelien Bastiaanse, Arnaud Vincent, Peter Mariën, Evy Visch-Brink
Awake surgery with electrocorticosubcortical stimulation is the golden standard treatment for gliomas in eloquent areas. Preoperatively, mostly mild cognitive disturbances are observed with postoperative deterioration. We describe pre- and postoperative profiles of 4 patients (P1-P4) with gliomas in "critical" language areas ("Broca," "Wernicke," and the arcuate fasciculus) undergoing awake surgery to get insight into the underlying mechanism of neuroplasticity. Neuropsychological examination was carried out preoperatively (at T1) and postoperatively (at T2, T3)...
2017: Case Reports in Neurological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716966/hierarchically-organized-medial-frontal-cortex-basal-ganglia-loops-selectively-control-task-and-response-selection
#10
Franziska M Korb, Jiefeng Jiang, Joseph A King, Tobias Egner
Adaptive behavior requires context-sensitive configuration of task-sets that specify time-varying stimulus-response mappings. Intriguingly, response time costs associated with changing task-sets and motor responses are known to be strongly interactive: switch costs at the task-level are small in the presence of a response-switch but large when accompanied by a response-repetition, and vice versa for response-switch costs. The reasons behind this well-known inter-dependence between task- and response-level control processes are currently not well understood...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716237/long-term-follow-up-on-quality-of-life-and-its-relationship-to-motor-and-cognitive-functions-in-parkinson-s-disease-after-deep-brain-stimulation
#11
Tatsuya Yamamoto, Tomoyuki Uchiyama, Yoshinori Higuchi, Masato Asahina, Shigeki Hirano, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Liu Weibing, Satoshi Kuwabara
INTRODUCTION: We aimed to examine temporal changes in health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and its relationship with motor and cognitive functions in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) after subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN-DBS). METHODS: In total, 31 patients with PD were enrolled in this study (mean age: 66.7±0.9years; mean disease duration: 11.6±3.7years). Participants completed the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale and the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire-39...
August 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715907/selective-effects-of-psychotherapy-on-frontopolar-cortical-function-in-ptsd
#12
Gregory A Fonzo, Madeleine S Goodkind, Desmond J Oathes, Yevgeniya V Zaiko, Meredith Harvey, Kathy K Peng, M Elizabeth Weiss, Allison L Thompson, Sanno E Zack, Colleen E Mills-Finnerty, Benjamin M Rosenberg, Raleigh Edelstein, Rachael N Wright, Carena A Kole, Steven E Lindley, Bruce A Arnow, Booil Jo, James J Gross, Barbara O Rothbaum, Amit Etkin
OBJECTIVE: Exposure therapy is an effective treatment for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), but a comprehensive, emotion-focused perspective on how psychotherapy affects brain function is lacking. The authors assessed changes in brain function after prolonged exposure therapy across three emotional reactivity and regulation paradigms. METHOD: Individuals with PTSD underwent functional MRI (fMRI) at rest and while completing three tasks assessing emotional reactivity and regulation...
July 18, 2017: American Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713549/where-are-aphasia-theory-and-management-headed
#13
REVIEW
Donna C Tippett, Argye E Hillis
The sequelae of post-stroke aphasia are considerable, necessitating an understanding of the functional neuroanatomy of language, cognitive processes underlying various language tasks, and the mechanisms of recovery after stroke. This knowledge is vital in providing optimal care of individuals with aphasia and counseling to their families and caregivers. The standard of care in the rehabilitation of aphasia dictates that treatment be evidence-based and person-centered. Promising techniques, such as cortical stimulation as an adjunct to behavioral therapy, are just beginning to be explored...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713248/deep-brain-magnetic-stimulation-promotes-neurogenesis-and-restores-cholinergic-activity-in-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Junli Zhen, Yanjing Qian, Jian Fu, Ruijun Su, Haiting An, Wei Wang, Yan Zheng, Xiaomin Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive decline of memory and cognitive functions. Deep magnetic stimulation (DMS), a noninvasive and nonpharmacological brain stimulation, has been reported to alleviate stress-related cognitive impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Our previous study also discovered the preventive effect of DMS on cognitive decline in an AD mouse model. However, the underlying mechanism must be explored further. In this study, we investigated the effect of DMS on spatial learning and memory functions, neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus (DG), as well as expression and activity of the cholinergic system in a transgenic mouse model of AD (5XFAD)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713235/connecting-the-brain-to-itself-through-an-emulation
#15
Mijail D Serruya
Pilot clinical trials of human patients implanted with devices that can chronically record and stimulate ensembles of hundreds to thousands of individual neurons offer the possibility of expanding the substrate of cognition. Parallel trains of firing rate activity can be delivered in real-time to an array of intermediate external modules that in turn can trigger parallel trains of stimulation back into the brain. These modules may be built in software, VLSI firmware, or biological tissue as in vitro culture preparations or in vivo ectopic construct organoids...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713233/the-role-of-the-interplay-between-stimulus-type-and-timing-in-explaining-bci-illiteracy-for-visual-p300-based-brain-computer-interfaces
#16
Roberta Carabalona
Visual P300-based Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) spellers enable communication or interaction with the environment by flashing elements in a matrix and exploiting consequent changes in end-user's brain activity. Despite research efforts, performance variability and BCI-illiteracy still are critical issues for real world applications. Moreover, there is a quite unaddressed kind of BCI-illiteracy, which becomes apparent when the same end-user operates BCI-spellers intended for different applications: our aim is to understand why some well performers can become BCI-illiterate depending on speller type...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712841/long-term-impact-of-subthalamic-stimulation-on-cognitive-function-in-patients-with-advanced-parkinson-s-disease
#17
M Acera, A Molano, B Tijero, G Bilbao, I Lambarri, R Villoria, J Somme, E Ruiz de Gopegui, I Gabilondo, J C Gomez-Esteban
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (DBS-SN) on cognitive function in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) 5 years after surgery. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We conducted a prospective study including 50 patients with PD who underwent DBS-SN (62.5% were men; mean age of 62.2±8.2 years; mean progression time of 14.1±6.3 years). All patients were assessed before the procedure and at one year after surgery; 40 patients were further followed up until the 5-year mark...
July 13, 2017: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711472/interactive-effects-of-an-n-methyl-d-aspartate-receptor-antagonist-and-a-nicotinic-acetylcholine-receptor-agonist-on-mismatch-negativity-implications-for-schizophrenia
#18
Holly K Hamilton, Deepak C D'Souza, Judith M Ford, Brian J Roach, Naomi S Kort, Kyung-Heup Ahn, Savita Bhakta, Mohini Ranganathan, Daniel H Mathalon
N-methyl-d-aspartate glutamate receptor (NMDAR) hypofunction has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia, including auditory processing abnormalities reflected by the mismatch negativity (MMN) event-related potential component. Evidence suggesting cognitive benefits from nicotine administration, together with the high rate of cigarette use in patients with schizophrenia, has stimulated interest in whether nicotine modulates NMDAR hypofunction. We examined the interactive effects of ketamine, an NMDAR antagonist that produces transient schizophrenia-like neurophysiological effects, and nicotine, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, in 30 healthy volunteers to determine whether nicotine prevents or attenuates MMN abnormalities...
July 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709999/tdcs-over-the-right-inferior-frontal-gyrus-disrupts-control-of-interference-in-memory-a-retrieval-induced-forgetting-study
#19
Davide F Stramaccia, Barbara Penolazzi, Gianmarco Altoè, Giovanni Galfano
Retrieving information from episodic memory may result in later inaccessibility of related but task-irrelevant information. This phenomenon, known as retrieval-induced forgetting, is thought to represent a specific instance of broader cognitive control mechanisms, that would come into play during memory retrieval, whenever non-target competing memories interfere with recall of target items. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown an association between these mechanisms and the activity of the right Prefrontal Cortex...
July 11, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709847/topographical-projections-from-the-nucleus-basalis-magnocellularis-meynert-to-the-frontal-cortex-a-voltage-sensitive-dye-imaging-study-in-rats
#20
Kazuaki Nagasaka, Yumiko Watanabe, Ichiro Takashima
BACKGROUND: The nucleus basalis magnocellularis/Meynert (NBM) has been explored as a new target for deep brain stimulation for neurological disorders. Although anatomical studies suggest the existence of cholinergic topographical projections of the NBM, it is still unknown whether NBM subregions differentially activate the frontal cortex. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the topography between the NBM and frontal cortex. METHODS: Electrical stimulation was applied to the anterior and posterior sites of the NBM in rats, and the evoked frontal activity was investigated using voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging...
July 3, 2017: Brain Stimulation
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