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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228074/a-review-of-the-current-therapies-challenges-and-future-directions-of-transcranial-focused-ultrasound-technology-advances-in-diagnosis-and-treatment
#1
Vibhor Krishna, Francesco Sammartino, Ali Rezai
Importance: Magnetic resonance imaging-guided focused ultrasound ablation has been approved for the treatment of refractory essential tremor and is being studied for other neurological indications, including dyskinesias and tremor in Parkinson disease, dystonia, neuropathic pain, obsessive-compulsive disorder, epilepsy, and brain tumors. Objective: To review the scientific foundations of FUS technology, existing neurological applications, and future advances. Evidence Review: PubMed was searched for the past 10 years using the terms "transcranial ultrasound," "focused ultrasound," and "neurological applications...
December 11, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227584/npas4-deficiency-and-prenatal-stress-interact-to-affect-social-recognition-in-mice
#2
Kelsey Heslin, Laurence Coutellier
Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia have an expansive array of reported genetic and environmental contributing factors. However, none of these factors alone can account for a substantial proportion of cases of either disorder. Instead, many gene-by-environment interactions are responsible for neurodevelopmental disturbances that lead to these disorders. The current experiment used heterozygous knock-out mice to examine a potential interaction between two factors commonly linked to neurodevelopmental disorders and cognitive deficit: imbalanced excitatory/inhibitory signaling in the cortex and prenatal stress (PNS) exposure...
December 11, 2017: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227296/lesch-nyhan-syndrome-and-its-variants-examining-the-behavioral-and-neurocognitive-phenotype
#3
James C Harris
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Lesch-Nyhan Syndrome (LNS) is a metabolic disorder involving mutations in the HGPRT1 gene that result in hyperuricemia, intellectual disability, a dystonic movement disorder, and compulsive self-injury with self-mutilation. The aim of this review is to summarize recent research that documents the extended behavioral, neurologic, and neurocognitive phenotype in classic LNS, to describe milder variants of HGprt deficiency that do not self-injure and have less severe neurological and cognitive deficits, and to provide an update on treatment for associated psychiatric and behavioral disorders...
December 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226871/increased-serum-acylated-ghrelin-levels-in%C3%A2-patients-with-mild-cognitive-impairment
#4
Xi Cao, Min Zhu, Yan He, Wenzheng Chu, Yifeng Du, Heng Du
Ghrelin is a stomach-derived circulating hormone. In addition to its function as an orexigenic stimulant, the role of ghrelin in the consolidation of learning and memory has been implicated in recent years. However, the status of circulating acylated ghrelin (AG, that is, the functional form of ghrelin) in the symptomatic predementia stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has rarely been investigated. In the current study, we examined the serum levels of acylated and total ghrelin in 22 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and 30 cognitively normal controls...
December 2, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226224/an-application-of-programmatic-assessment-for-learning-pal-system-for-general-practice-training
#5
Lambert Schuwirth, Nyoli Valentine, Paul Dilena
Aim: Programmatic assessment for learning (PAL) is becoming more and more popular as a concept but its implementation is not without problems. In this paper we describe the design principles behind a PAL program in a general practice training context. Design principles: The PAL program was designed to optimise the meaningfulness of assessment information for the registrar and to make him/her use that information to self regulate their learning. The main principles in the program were cognitivist and transformative...
2017: GMS Journal for Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224085/aphasia-and-cognitive-impairment-decrease-the-reliability-of-rntms-language-mapping
#6
Vera Schwarzer, Ina Bährend, Tizian Rosenstock, Felix R Dreyer, Peter Vajkoczy, Thomas Picht
BACKGROUND: Navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS) is a non-invasive mapping tool to locate functional areas of the brain. While gaining importance in the preoperative planning process in motor eloquent regions, its usefulness for reliably identifying language areas is still being discussed. The aim of this study was to identify biometric factors which might influence and therefore bias the results of repetitive nTMS (rnTMS) over cortex areas relevant for language. METHOD: We included data of 101 patients with language eloquent brain lesions who underwent preoperative rnTMS examination bihemispherically...
December 9, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223355/multisession-anodal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-induces-motor-cortex-plasticity-enhancement-and-motor-learning-generalization-in-an-aging-population
#7
Gaëlle Dumel, Marie-Ève Bourassa, Camille Charlebois-Plante, Martine Desjardins, Julien Doyon, Dave Saint-Amour, Louis De Beaumont
OBJECTIVES: The present aging study investigated the impact of a multisession anodal-tDCS protocol applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during motor sequence learning on generalization of motor learning and plasticity-dependent measures of cortical excitability. METHODS: A total of 32 cognitively-intact aging participants performed five consecutive daily 20-min sessions of the serial-reaction time task (SRTT) concomitant with either anodal (n = 16) or sham (n = 16) tDCS over M1...
November 21, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221898/exercise-merging-physical-and-cognitive-stimulation-improves-physical-fitness-and-cognitive-functioning-in-older-nursing-home-residents-a-pilot-study
#8
José Marmeleira, Luís Galhardas, Armando Raimundo
The main purpose of this pilot study was to examine the feasibility and the effects of a multimodal exercise intervention on the physical and cognitive functioning of institutionalized older people. Twenty-one older adults (83.5 ± 4.9 years) living in two nursing home residences, were tested on two occasions 4 weeks apart to establish a baseline measure, and then engage in the exercise program twice weekly for 8 weeks. Participants were tested again after the exercise program. Almost all physical fitness and cognitive tests were unchanged at baseline measures, but after the exercise program, significant improvements (p < 0...
December 5, 2017: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220608/factors-that-differentiate-prescription-stimulant-misusers-from-those-at-risk-for-misuse-expectancies-perceived-safety-and-diversion
#9
Laura J Holt, Alison Looby
BACKGROUND: The nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (NMUPS) is one of the most prevalent illicit behaviors on college campuses. While numerous risk factors for NMUPS have been identified, it is unknown how nonusing students who meet several risk factors for NMUPS differ from those who have used, which may inform intervention efforts. We expected that users would evidence greater cognitive enhancement and anxiety/arousal expectancies and intentions to use, and lower guilt/dependence expectancies, perceptions of NMUPS-related harm, and academic self-efficacy...
December 8, 2017: Substance Use & Misuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218819/a-conceptual-model-of-the-risk-of-elder-abuse-posed-by-incontinence-and-care-dependence
#10
Joan Ostaszkiewicz
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe and critically analyse the thinking that led to the concept of an association between incontinence, care dependence and elder abuse. BACKGROUND: Coercive or abusive continence care practices include chastising a person for their incontinence and overriding their attempts to resist continence care. Neglect in continence care is characterised by withholding or delaying responding to requests for help to maintain continence or to manage incontinence, and restricting a person's access to toileting assistance, incontinence aids or hygiene care...
December 8, 2017: International Journal of Older People Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218702/deep-brain-stimulation-for-drug-resistant-epilepsy
#11
REVIEW
Michael C H Li, Mark J Cook
OBJECTIVES: To review clinical evidence on the antiepileptic effects of deep brain stimulation (DBS) for drug-resistant epilepsy, its safety, and the factors influencing individual outcomes. METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature (PubMed, Medline) was conducted to identify relevant articles investigating DBS therapy for drug-resistant epilepsy. Reference lists of these articles were used to source further articles. RESULTS: Stimulation of the anterior nucleus of the thalamus (ANT) and hippocampus (HC) has been shown to decrease the frequency of refractory seizures...
December 7, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217996/switching-between-multiple-codes-of-snarc-like-associations-two-conceptual-replication-attempts-with-anodal-tdcs-in-sham-controlled-cross-over-design
#12
Philipp A Schroeder, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Christian Plewnia
In societies with left-to-right reading direction, left-side vs. right-side behavioral decisions are faster for relatively small vs. large number magnitudes, and vice versa, a phenomenon termed Spatial-Numerical Associations of Response Codes (SNARC) effect. But also for non-numerical sequential items, SNARC-like effects were observed, suggesting a common neurocognitive mechanism based on the ordinal structures of both numbers and sequences. Modulation of prefrontal networks that are involved in providing spatial associations during cognitive behavior can contribute to elaborate their neuropsychological theoretical foundations...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217994/local-fields-in-human-subthalamic-nucleus-track-the-lead-up-to-impulsive-choices
#13
John M Pearson, Patrick T Hickey, Shivanand P Lad, Michael L Platt, Dennis A Turner
The ability to adaptively minimize not only motor but cognitive symptoms of neurological diseases, such as Parkinson's Disease (PD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), is a primary goal of next-generation deep brain stimulation (DBS) devices. On the basis of studies demonstrating a link between beta-band synchronization and severity of motor symptoms in PD, the minimization of beta band activity has been proposed as a potential training target for closed-loop DBS. At present, no comparable signal is known for the impulsive side effects of PD, though multiple studies have implicated theta band activity within the subthalamic nucleus (STN), the site of DBS treatment, in processes of conflict monitoring and countermanding...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214483/psychotherapyplus-augmentation-of-cognitive-behavioral-therapy-cbt-with-prefrontal-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs-in-major-depressive-disorder-study-design-and-methodology-of-a-multicenter-double-blind-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#14
Malek Bajbouj, Sabine Aust, Jan Spies, Ana-Lucia Herrera-Melendez, Sarah V Mayer, Maike Peters, Christian Plewnia, Andreas J Fallgatter, Lukas Frase, Claus Normann, Nora Behler, Linda Wulf, Eva-Lotta Brakemeier, Frank Padberg
Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders worldwide. About 20-30% of patients do not respond to the standard psychopharmacological and/or psychotherapeutic interventions. Mounting evidence from neuroimaging studies in MDD patients reveal altered activation patterns in lateral prefrontal brain areas. Successful cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) is associated with a recovery of these neural alterations. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) is capable of influencing prefrontal cortex activity and cognitive functions such as working memory and emotion regulation...
December 6, 2017: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213529/therapeutic-effect-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-on-neuropsychological-symptoms-of-an-elderly-patient-a-case-report
#15
Aline Iannone, Joaquim Brasil-Neto, Antonio Pedro Mello Cruz, Corina Satler, Nasser Allam
Although growing evidence points to the potential therapeutic effects of transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS), there is still no consensus on the most appropriate protocol to be used in specific neurological and neuropsychological symptoms. This case report evaluated the neuromodulatory therapeutic effects of two 15-day courses of tDCS on an elderly female patient, aged 78 years with mild neurocognitive disorder, chronic pain and depression-related symptoms. Results indicated an overall significant improvement of cognitive and executive functions, as well as reduction in both depression and chronic pain symptoms...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213519/language-and-communication-non-pharmacological-interventions-in-patients-with-alzheimer-s-disease-a-systematic-review-communication-intervention-in-alzheimer
#16
Aline Nunes da Cruz Morello, Tatiane Machado Lima, Lenisa Brandão
Alzheimer's disease considerably compromises communication skills. Language changes become more prominent as the disease progresses. Deterioration of language and cognition reduces the ability of holding conversations, which has a negative impact on social interaction. OBJECTIVE: To conduct a systematic review of the literature for articles reporting interventions focused on the language and communication of people with Alzheimer's disease (AD) without use of medication. METHODS: We performed a search using the keywords Alzheimer's disease, language, communication, cognition, cognitive intervention, rehabilitation and therapy, and their corresponding Portuguese and Spanish terms, on the SciELO, LILACS, PubMed and PsychINFO databases...
July 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213510/actively-station-effects-on-global-cognition-of-mature-adults-and-healthy-elderly-program-using-eletronic-games
#17
Tiago Nascimento Ordonez, Felipe Borges, Camila Sato Kanashiro, Carolina Carneiro das Neves Santos, Samara Santos Hora, Thais Bento Lima-Silva
Studies show that aging is accompanied by decline in cognitive functions but also indicate that interventions, such as training on electronic games, can enhance performance and promote maintenance of cognitive abilities in healthy older adults. Objective: To investigate the effects of an electronic game program, called Actively Station, on the performance of global cognition of adults aged over 50 years. Methods: 124 mature and elderly adults enrolled in the "Actively Station" cognitive stimulation program of São Caetano do Sul City, in the State of São Paulo, participated in training for learning of electronic games...
April 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213498/program-of-neuropsychological-stimulation-of-cognition-in-students-emphasis-on-executive-functions-development-and-evidence-of-content-validity
#18
Caroline de Oliveira Cardoso, Natália Martins Dias, Alessandra Gotuzo Seabra, Rochele Paz Fonseca
Objective: The goal of this study was to describe the construction process and content validity evidence of an early and preventive intervention program for stimulating executive functions (EF) in Elementary School children within the school environment. Methods: The process has followed the recommended steps for creating neuropsychological instruments: internal phase of program organization, with literature search and analyses of available materials in the classroom; program construction; analysis by expert judges; data integration and program finalization...
January 2017: Dementia & Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213090/evaluation-of-short-interval-cortical-inhibition-and-intracortical-facilitation-from-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#19
Yoshihiro Noda, Mera S Barr, Reza Zomorrodi, Robin F H Cash, Faranak Farzan, Tarek K Rajji, Robert Chen, Zafiris J Daskalakis, Daniel M Blumberger
GABAergic and glutamatergic dysfunction in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) are thought to be the core pathophysiological mechanisms of schizophrenia. Recently, we have established a method to index these functions from the DLPFC using the paired transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigms of short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and facilitation (ICF) combined with electroencephalography (EEG). In this study, we aimed to evaluate neurophysiological indicators related to GABAA and glutamate receptor-mediated functions respectively from the DLPFC in patients with schizophrenia using these paradigms, compared to healthy controls...
December 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29211814/overexpression-of-transmembrane-protein-168-in-the-mouse-nucleus-accumbens-induces-anxiety-and-sensorimotor-gating-deficit
#20
Kequan Fu, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Kazuyuki Sumi, Eriko Saika, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Kyosuke Uno, Atsumi Nitta
Transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168) comprises 697 amino acid residues, including some putative transmembrane domains. It is reported that TMEM168 controls methamphetamine (METH) dependence in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) of mice. Moreover, a strong link between METH dependence-induced adaptive changes in the brain and mood disorders has been evaluated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of accumbal TMEM168 in a battery of behavioral paradigms. The adeno-associated virus (AAV) Tmem168 vector was injected into the NAc of C57BL/6J mice (NAc-TMEM mice)...
2017: PloS One
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