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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29779845/effects-of-estradiol-on-lactoprivic-signaling-of-the-hindbrain-upon-the-contraregulatory-hormonal-response-and-metabolic-neuropeptide-synthesis-in-hypoglycemic-female-rats
#1
Santosh K Mandal, Prem K Shrestha, Fahaad S H Alenazi, Manita Shakya, Hussain N Alhamami, Karen P Briski
BACKGROUND: Caudal dorsomedial hindbrain detection of hypoglycemia-associated lactoprivation regulates glucose counter-regulation in male rats. In females, estradiol (E) determines hypothalamic neuroanatomical and molecular foci of hindbrain energy sensor activation. This study investigated the hypothesis that E signal strength governs metabolic neuropeptide and counter-regulatory hormone responses to hindbrain lactoprivic stimuli in hypoglycemic female rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized animals were implanted with E-filled silastic capsules [30 (E-30) or 300 μg (E-300)/mL] to replicate plasma concentrations at estrous cycle nadir versus peak levels...
May 17, 2018: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776088/how-nonuniform-contact-profiles-of-t-cell-receptors-modulate-thymic-selection-outcomes
#2
Hanrong Chen, Arup K Chakraborty, Mehran Kardar
T cell receptors (TCRs) bind foreign or self-peptides attached to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules, and the strength of this interaction determines T cell activation. Optimizing the ability of T cells to recognize a diversity of foreign peptides yet be tolerant of self-peptides is crucial for the adaptive immune system to properly function. This is achieved by selection of T cells in the thymus, where immature T cells expressing unique, stochastically generated TCRs interact with a large number of self-peptide-MHC; if a TCR does not bind strongly enough to any self-peptide-MHC, or too strongly with at least one self-peptide-MHC, the T cell dies...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773846/appetite-during-the-recovery-phase-of-critical-illness-a-cohort-study
#3
Judith L Merriweather, David M Griffith, Timothy S Walsh
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Reduced appetite is a recognised physiological symptom in survivors of critical illness. While reduced appetite has been reported by patients after intensive care unit (ICU) discharge, quantification using visual analogue scales (VAS) has not been previously performed, and follow-up duration has been limited. We aimed to describe appetite scores in ICU survivors during the first 3 months after ICU discharge and explore association with systemic inflammation. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Secondary analysis of data collected in a complex rehabilitation intervention trial (RECOVER)...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764211/assessing-emotional-reactivity-psychometric-properties-of-the-perth-emotional-reactivity-scale-and-the-development-of-a-short-form
#4
David Preece, Rodrigo Becerra, Guillermo Campitelli
The Perth Emotional Reactivity Scale (PERS) is a 30-item self-report measure of trait levels of emotional reactivity. In this article, we examine the psychometric properties of the PERS subscale and composite scores in an adult community sample (N = 428), and develop an 18-item short form of the measure (PERS-S). The PERS and PERS-S are designed to assess the typical ease of activation, intensity, and duration of one's emotional responses, and do so for positive and negative emotions separately. Our confirmatory factor analyses supported that the PERS and PERS-S both had the same theoretically congruent factor structure, and that all subscale and composite scores displayed high internal consistency reliability...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761132/the-risk-factors-of-performance-based-early-frailty-in-midlife-and-older-age
#5
Matthew J Peterson
Background: Identifying impairments prior to onset of physical frailty may inform targeted interventions. An objective, clinically feasible early frailty measure, termed performance-based early frailty (PBEF) was developed, and antecedent and current risk factors were examined. Method: Data were from N = 104 participants of the Fels Longitudinal Study. PBEF was derived from age-specific cut points for time to complete five chair stands and walk four meters. "Pre-PBEF" and "PBEF" were defined as impairment in one or both measures, respectively...
January 2018: Gerontology & Geriatric Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760648/profile-of-arachidonic-acid-derived-inflammatory-markers-and-its-modulation-by-nitro-oleic-acid-in-an-inherited-model-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis
#6
Andrés Trostchansky, Mauricio Mastrogiovanni, Ernesto Miquel, Sebastián Rodríguez-Bottero, Laura Martínez-Palma, Patricia Cassina, Homero Rubbo
The lack of current treatments for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) highlights the need of a comprehensive understanding of the biological mechanisms of the disease. A consistent neuropathological feature of ALS is the extensive inflammation around motor neurons and axonal degeneration, evidenced by accumulation of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia. Final products of inflammatory processes may be detected as a screening tool to identify treatment response. Herein, we focus on (a) detection of arachidonic acid (AA) metabolization products by lipoxygenase (LOX) and prostaglandin endoperoxide H synthase in SOD1G93A mice and (b) evaluate its response to the electrophilic nitro-oleic acid (NO2 -OA)...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746992/cofilin-knockdown-attenuates-hemorrhagic-brain-injury-induced-oxidative-stress-and-microglial-activation-in-mice
#7
Qasim Alhadidi, Kevin Nash, Saleh Alaqel, Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed, Zahoor A Shah
Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) resulting from the rupture of the blood vessels in the brain is associated with significantly higher mortality and morbidity. Clinical studies focused on alleviating the primary injury, hematoma formation and expansion, were largely ineffective, suggesting that secondary injury-induced inflammation and the formation of reactive species also contribute to the overall injury process. In this study, we explored the effects of cofilin knockdown in a mouse model of ICH. Animals given stereotaxic injections of cofilin-siRNA, 72-hours prior to induction of ICH by collagenase injection within the area of siRNA administration showed significantly decreased cofilin expression levels and lower hemorrhage volume and edema, and the animals performed significantly better in neurobehavioral tasks i...
May 7, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744982/the-control-of-risk-hypothesis-reactive-vs-proactive-antipredator-responses-and-stress-mediated-vs-food-mediated-costs-of-response
#8
Scott Creel
Inducible defences against predators evolve because they reduce the rate of direct predation, but this benefit is offset by the cost (if any) of defence. If antipredator responses carry costs, the effect of predators on their prey is partitioned into two components, direct killing and risk effects. There is considerable uncertainty about the strength of risk effects, the factors that affect their strength, and the mechanisms that underlie them. In some cases, antipredator responses are associated with a glucocorticoid stress response, and in other cases they are associated with trade-offs between food and safety, but there is no general theory to explain this variation...
May 9, 2018: Ecology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744517/understanding-the-deformation-mechanism-and-mechanical-characteristics-of-cementitious-mineral-analogues-from-first-principles-and-reactive-force-field-molecular-dynamics
#9
Jinyang Jiang, Yiru Yan, Dongshuai Hou, Jiao Yu
In this paper, first principles and reactive force field molecular dynamics were utilized to study the mechanical properties of tobermorite 9 Å, tobermorite 11 Å and jennite. These are essential minerals in cement chemistry. The mechanical properties calculated by the first-principle method match well with previous experimental results, pointing to the introduction of vdW dispersion-type forces as able to improve the precision. The calculated elastic constants of the three minerals confirm anisotropic mechanical behavior of the layered structures...
May 10, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732669/polydimethylsiloxane-nano-calcium-phosphate-composite-tracheal-stents-mechanical-and-physiological-properties
#10
Kétner Bendo Demétrio, Marta Justina Giotti Cioato, Alexandre Moreschi, Guilherme Augusto Oliveira, William Lorenzi, Francine Hehn de Oliveira, Amarílio Vieira de Macedo Neto, Paulo Roberto Stefani Sanches, Rogerio Gastal Xavier, Luís Alberto Loureiro Dos Santos
In this study, we report the production and characterization of tracheal stents composed of polydimethylsiloxane/nanostructured calcium phosphate composites obtained by reactive synthesis. Tracheal stents were produced by transfer molding, and in vivo tests were carried out. PDMS was combined with H3 PO4 and Ca(OH)2 via an in situ reaction to obtain nanoparticles of calcium phosphate dispersed within the polymeric matrix. The incorporation of bioactive inorganic substances, such as calcium phosphates, improved biological properties, and the in situ reaction allowed tight coupling of particles to the matrix...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722438/influence-of-cnts-decomposition-during-reactive-friction-stir-processing-of-an-al-mg-alloy-on-the-correlation-between-microstructural-characteristics-and-microtextural-components
#11
F Khodabakhshi, M Nosko, A P Gerlich
Multipass friction-stir processing was employed to uniformly disperse multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MW-CNTs) within an Al-Mg alloy metal matrix. Decomposition of MW-CNTs occurs in situ as a result of solid-state chemical reactions, forming fullerene (C60) and aluminium carbide (Al4 C3 ) phases during reactive high temperature severe plastic processing. The effects of this decomposition on the microstructural features, dynamic restoration mechanisms and crystallographic microtextural developments are studied for the first time by using electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29719704/microhydration-of-pah-cations-evolution-of-hydration-network-in-naphthalene-h-2-o-n-clusters-n-%C3%A2-5
#12
Kuntal Chatterjee, Otto Dopfer
The interaction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon molecules with water (H2 O = W) is of fundamental importance in chemistry and biology. Herein, size-selected microhydrated naphthalene cation nanoclusters, Np+ -W n ( n ≤ 5), are characterized by infrared photodissociation (IRPD) spectroscopy in the C-H and O-H stretch range to follow the stepwise evolution of the hydration network around this prototypical PAH+ cation. The IRPD spectra are highly sensitive to the hydration structure and are analyzed by dispersion-corrected density functional theory calculations (B3LYP-D3/aug-cc-pVTZ) to determine the predominant structural isomers...
February 28, 2018: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718717/facets-of-conscientiousness-and-objective-markers-of-health-status
#13
Angelina R Sutin, Yannick Stephan, Antonio Terracciano
OBJECTIVE: To examine the association between six facets of conscientiousness (self-control, order, industriousness, traditionalism, virtue, responsibility) and objective markers of health status, including adiposity, blood markers and physical performance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional analysis of participants from the health and retirement study (N = 12,188). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adiposity (body mass index, waist circumference), blood markers (A1c, HDL cholesterol, total cholesterol, cystatin c, c-reactive protein) and physical performance (lung function, grip strength, walking speed)...
May 2, 2018: Psychology & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29716566/active-aging-resilience-and-external-support-as-modifiers-of-the-disablement-outcome-agnes-cohort-study-protocol
#14
Taina Rantanen, Milla Saajanaho, Laura Karavirta, Sini Siltanen, Merja Rantakokko, Anne Viljanen, Timo Rantalainen, Katja Pynnönen, Anu Karvonen, Inna Lisko, Lotta Palmberg, Johanna Eronen, Eeva-Maija Palonen, Timo Hinrichs, Markku Kauppinen, Katja Kokko, Erja Portegijs
BACKGROUND: Population aging increases the need for knowledge on positive aspects of aging, and contributions of older people to their own wellbeing and that of others. We defined active aging as an individual's striving for elements of wellbeing with activities as per their goals, abilities and opportunities. This study examines associations of health, health behaviors, health literacy and functional abilities, environmental and social support with active aging and wellbeing. We will develop and validate assessment methods for physical activity and physical resilience suitable for research on older people, and examine their associations with active aging and wellbeing...
May 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29715270/nanosecond-pulsed-electric-fields-promoting-the-proliferation-of-porcine-iliac-endothelial-cells-an-in-vitro-study
#15
Yuchen Zhang, Feihong Dong, Zhengxin Liu, Jinsong Guo, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
Currently, nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEFs) with short pulse duration and non-thermal effects have various potential applications in medicine and biology, especially in tumor ablation. Additionally, there are a few investigations on its proliferative effects in the normal cell. Clinically, proliferation of endothelial cells can perhaps accelerate the stent endothelialization and reduce the risk of acute thrombosis. To explore the feasibility using nsPEFs to induce proliferation of endothelial cells, in this study, porcine iliac endothelial (PIEC) cell line was cultured and tested by CCK-8 assay after nsPEFs treatment...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713281/the-effectiveness-and-safety-of-tripterygium-wilfordii-hook-f-extracts-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
REVIEW
Ying-Yan Zhou, Xuan Xia, Wen-Ke Peng, Qin-He Wang, Jian-Hong Peng, Yan-Lin Li, Jian-Xiong Wu, Jian-Yong Zhang, Yue Zhao, Xiu-Min Chen, Run-Yue Huang, Per-Johan Jakobsson, Ze-Huai Wen, Qing-Chun Huang
Objective: To conduct a meta-analysis of the effectiveness and safety of Tripterygium wilfordii Hook. F (TwHF) extracts for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane, Medline, CNKI, SinoMed and WanFang Library till 12 July 2017. All included studies were analyzed with the use of the Review Manager 5.2 software according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement protocol. Results: Fourteen randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709421/correlates-of-immune-and-clinical-activity-of-novel-cancer-vaccines
#17
REVIEW
Sjoerd H van der Burg
Cancer vaccines are solely meant to amplify the pool of type 1 cytokine oriented CD4+ and CD8+ T cells that recognize tumor antigen and ultimately foster control and destruction of a growing tumor. They are not designed to deal with all aspects of immune ignorance, exclusion, suppression and escape that are generally in place in patients with cancer and may prevent the T cells to enter the tumor or to exert their effector function. This simple fact prompted for a reappraisal of the many recent trials in which therapeutic cancer vaccines have been examined as monotherapy...
April 27, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707098/optimum-particle-size-for-gold-catalyzed-co-oxidation
#18
Jin-Xun Liu, Ivo A W Filot, Yaqiong Su, Bart Zijlstra, Emiel J M Hensen
The structure sensitivity of gold-catalyzed CO oxidation is presented by analyzing in detail the dependence of CO oxidation rate on particle size. Clusters with less than 14 gold atoms adopt a planar structure, whereas larger ones adopt a three-dimensional structure. The CO and O2 adsorption properties depend strongly on particle structure and size. All of the reaction barriers relevant to CO oxidation display linear scaling relationships with CO and O2 binding strengths as main reactivity descriptors. Planar and three-dimensional gold clusters exhibit different linear scaling relationship due to different surface topologies and different coordination numbers of the surface atoms...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702682/restrictive-lung-disorder-is-common-in-patients-with-kidney-failure-and-associates-with-protein-energy-wasting-inflammation-and-cardiovascular-disease
#19
Hideyuki Mukai, Pei Ming, Bengt Lindholm, Olof Heimbürger, Peter Barany, Björn Anderstam, Peter Stenvinkel, Abdul Rashid Qureshi
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD), protein-energy wasting (PEW), and inflammation are common interrelated features of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Less is known about lung dysfunction in CKD and its possible role in this context. We evaluated lung function and its association with estimated glomerular filtration rate (GFR), CVD, PEW, and inflammation in individuals with normal to severely reduced GFR. METHODS: In 404 individuals with GFR category G1 (n = 31; GFR >90mL/min/1...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702306/network-analysis-of-empathy-items-from-the-interpersonal-reactivity-index-in-1973-young-adults
#20
Giovanni Briganti, Chantal Kempenaers, Stéphanie Braun, Eiko I Fried, Paul Linkowski
The aim of this work is to perform a network analysis on the French adaptation of the interpersonal reactivity index (IRI) scale from a large Belgian database and provide additional information for the construct of empathy. We analyze a database of 1973 healthy young adults who were queried on the IRI scale. A regularized partial correlation network is estimated. In the visualization of the model, items are displayed as nodes, edges represent regularized partial correlations between the nodes. Centrality denotes a node's connectedness with other nodes in the network...
April 19, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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