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Reactive strength

Nattapong Prichapan, David Julian McClements, Utai Klinkesorn
Iron deficiency is a major global human health concern. Encapsulation of iron in functional food products may help to solve this problem. However, iron is highly reactive and may promote rapid lipid oxidation in fatty foods. In this study, the effect of ferrous sulfate (0.1 to 0.5 wt%) and rice bran stearin (0 or 30 wt%) on the physical properties, oxidative stability, and encapsulation efficiency of 20 wt% water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions stabilized with polyglycerol polyricinoleate was investigated. In the presence of rice bran stearin crystals in the continuous oil phase, W/O emulsions had smaller mean droplet diameters (d ∼ 250 nm) and better physical stability than its absence (d ∼ 330 nm)...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Food Science
Catherine E O'Brien, Gulnur Com, John Fowlkes, Xinyu Tang, Laura P James
INTRODUCTION: In 2015, 11.9% of people with cystic fibrosis (CF) in the United States had osteopenia, 5.1% osteoporosis, and 0.3% experienced a fracture. Screening for CF-related bone disease starts in childhood, and dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) is the recommended method. It is unknown whether peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) can detect deficits earlier than DXA. This study compared pQCT and DXA scans in a group of pre-pubertal children with CF and healthy controls...
2018: PloS One
Luís Gustavo Teixeira Alves Duarte, José Carlos Germino, Cláudia de Ávila Braga, Cristina Aparecida Barboza, Teresa Dib Zambon Atvars, Fabiano da Silveira Santos, Fabiano Severo Rodembusch
This work presents the determination of acidic strengths at the electronic ground and excited states (pKa and ) of three flavonol derivatives using electronic absorption and fluorescence emission spectroscopy. The differences of the pKa and values were successfully correlated with the molecular structures according to the substitution pattern at the flavonol structure (hydrogen, diethylamino or fluoro moieties). In order to obtain more information about the observed photoacidity of these superacids, geometry optimizations and excitation energy calculations were performed at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level for their neutral, protonated and deprotonated species...
January 9, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Pei-Yun Lee, Yi-Ju Tsai, Yu-Ting Liao, Yi-Ching Yang, Fen-Hwa Lu, Sang-I Lin
Diabetes mellitus is a major health problem for older adults worldwide and could be associated with impaired ability to recover balance after postural disturbances. This study compared reactive balance control in three groups of adults, young (YA), healthy non-diabetes older (nonDM-OA) and diabetes older (DM-OA). Twenty participants in each group completed a series of vision, plantar cutaneous sensitivity, grip power and lower limb strength tests. In the reactive balance test, participants stood on a force platform and used the dominant hand to pull the handle of a cord that could be suddenly released to create an imbalancing force...
December 30, 2017: Gait & Posture
Alistair S Rocke, Gordon G Paterson, Matthew T Barber, Alexander I R Jackson, Shona Main, Calum Stannett, Martin F Schnopp, J Kenneth Baillie, Elizabeth H Horne, Carl Moores, Paul Harrison, Alastair F Nimmo, A A Roger Thompson
Interaction between hypoxia and coagulation is important given the increased risk of thrombotic diseases in chronically hypoxic patients who reside at sea level and in residents at high altitude. Hypoxia alters the proteome of platelets favouring a prothrombotic phenotype, but studies of activation and consumption of specific coagulation factors in hypoxic humans have yielded conflicting results. We tested blood from 63 healthy lowland volunteers acclimatizing to high altitude (5,200 m) using thromboelastometry and assays of platelet function to examine the effects of hypoxia on haemostasis...
January 2018: Thrombosis and Haemostasis
Ilaria Prada, Martina Gabrielli, Elena Turola, Alessia Iorio, Giulia D'Arrigo, Roberta Parolisi, Mariacristina De Luca, Marco Pacifici, Mattia Bastoni, Marta Lombardi, Giuseppe Legname, Dan Cojoc, Annalisa Buffo, Roberto Furlan, Francesca Peruzzi, Claudia Verderio
Recent evidence indicates synaptic dysfunction as an early mechanism affected in neuroinflammatory diseases, such as multiple sclerosis, which are characterized by chronic microglia activation. However, the mode(s) of action of reactive microglia in causing synaptic defects are not fully understood. In this study, we show that inflammatory microglia produce extracellular vesicles (EVs) which are enriched in a set of miRNAs that regulate the expression of key synaptic proteins. Among them, miR-146a-5p, a microglia-specific miRNA not present in hippocampal neurons, controls the expression of presynaptic synaptotagmin1 (Syt1) and postsynaptic neuroligin1 (Nlg1), an adhesion protein which play a crucial role in dendritic spine formation and synaptic stability...
January 4, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica
Ahmad Shah Idil, Nick Donaldson
This review paper shows that tungsten should not generally by used as a chronically implanted material. The metal has a long implant history, from neuroscience, vascular medicine, radiography, orthopaedics, prosthodontics, and various other fields, primarily as a result of its high density, radiopacity, tensile strength and yield point. However a crucial material criterion for chronically implanted metals is their long term resistance to corrosion in body fluids, either by inherently noble metallic surfaces, or by protective passivation layers of metal oxide...
January 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Cheng Lei, Yuqing Sun, Eakalak Khan, Season S Chen, Daniel C W Tsang, Nigel J D Graham, Yong Sik Ok, Xin Yang, Daohui Lin, Yujie Feng, Xiang-Dong Li
With the increasing application of hydraulic fracturing, it is urgent to develop an effective and economically feasible method to treat the large volumes of fracturing wastewater. In this study, bare and entrapped nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) were introduced for the removal of carbon tetrachloride (CT) and 1,1,2-trichloroethane (TCA) in model high-salinity fracturing wastewater. With increasing ionic strength (I) from Day-1 (I = 0.35 M) to Day-90 (I = 4.10 M) wastewaters, bare nZVI presented significantly lower removal efficiency of CT (from 53...
December 26, 2017: Chemosphere
Hui Ying Lai, Shuai Wang, Vaishali Singh, Luong T H Nguyen, Kee Woei Ng
The intrinsically high cysteine content in human hair keratins and keratin associated proteins confer hair its outstanding mechanical strength through the formation of strong intermolecular disulphide bonds. In addition, these proteins offer the potential to be exploited as potent antioxidants. This report presents our findings on the antioxidant effects of human hair protein extracts and their consequent protective role against oxidative stress in human dermal fibroblast cultures. Protein extracts were obtained from human hair using sodium sulphide as the reducing agent, and characterized using SDS-PAGE, Western blotting, MALDI-ToF mass spectrometry and amino acid analysis...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
Eric E Benson, Hanyu Zhang, Samuel A Schuman, Sanjini U Nanayakkara, Noah D Bronstein, Suzanne Ferrere, Jeffrey L Blackburn, Elisa M Miller
We modify the fundamental electronic properties of metallic (1T phase) nanosheets of molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) through covalent chemical functionalization, and thereby directly influence the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER), surface energetics, and stability. Chemically exfoliated, metallic MoS2 nanosheets are functionalized with organic phenyl rings containing electron donating or withdrawing groups. We find that MoS2 functionalized with the most electron donating functional group (p-(CH3CH2)2NPh-MoS2) is the most efficient catalyst for HER in this series, with initial activity that is slightly worse compared to the pristine metallic phase of MoS2...
December 27, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Isadora S Deschamps, Gabriel L Magrin, Ricardo S Magini, Márcio C Fredel, Cesar A M Benfatti, Júlio C M Souza
Objectives: After tooth loss, dimensional alterations on the alveolar bone ridge can occur that can negatively affect the placement of dental implants. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the synthesis, and mechanical properties of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds coated with bioabsorbable polymers, namely, collagen and poly (D, L-lactic acid) (PDLLA). Materials and Methods: β-TCP powder was obtained by reactive milling and then characterized by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)...
October 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
Irene Murgia, Piero Morandini
The understanding of seed dormancy, germination and longevity are important goals in plant biology, with relevant applications for agriculture, food industry and also human nutrition. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) are key molecules involved in the release of dormancy, when their concentrations fall within the so called 'oxidative window.' The mechanisms of ROS distribution and sensing in seeds, from dormant to germinating ones, still need elucidation. Also, the impact of iron (Fe) deficiency on seed dormancy is still unexplored; this is surprising, given the known pro-oxidant role of Fe when in a free form...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Yen-Yie Lau, Yee-Shian Wong, Tze-Zhang Ang, Soon-An Ong, Nabilah Aminah Lutpi, Li-Ngee Ho
The theme of present research demonstrates performance of copper (II) sulfate (CuSO4) as catalyst in thermolysis process to treat reactive black 5 (RB 5) dye. During thermolysis without presence of catalyst, heat was converted to thermal energy to break the enthalpy of chemical structure bonding and only 31.62% of color removal. With CuSO4 support as auxiliary agent, the thermally cleaved molecular structure was further destabilized and reacted with CuSO4. Copper ions functioned to delocalize the coordination of π of the lone paired electron in azo bond, C=C bond of the sp2 carbon to form C-C of the sp3 amorphous carbon in benzene and naphthalene...
December 23, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Non Eleri Thomas, David A Rowe, Elaine M Murtagh, Jeffrey W Stephens, Rhys Williams
We investigated the multivariate dimensionality and strength of the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and inflammation in children. Caucasian school children (N = 229; 12-14 years) from Wales were tested on several health indicators including measures of body composition, inflammation, fasting glucose regulation, blood pressure, and lipids. The multivariate association between MetS and inflammation was investigated via canonical correlation analysis. Data were corrected for non-normality by log transformation, and sex-specific z-scores computed for variables where there was a significant sex difference...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
Yang Li, Jian Zhao, Enxiang Shang, Xinghui Xia, Junfeng Niu, John C Crittenden
This work investigates the effect of chloride ion (Cl-) on dissolution, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and toxicity of citrate-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) under UV irradiation. The dissolution rate was decreased by 0.01 M Cl- due to AgCl passivation on the AgNP surface. By contrast, high concentrations of Cl- (0.1 or 0.5 M) promoted dissolution due to the formation of soluble Ag-Cl complexes (AgClx1-x). The generation of O2•- in the AgNPs/Cl-/UV system was promoted by 0.01 M Cl-, whereas was retarded by 0...
December 20, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Dmitriy V Makarov, Alexander A Novikov, Alexander N Zakhlevnykh
We study the unwinding of the ferrocholesteric helical structure induced by a combined action of a magnetic field and a shear flow. Both influences are able to induce the ferrocholesteric-ferronematic transition independently; however, the differences between the magnetic field orientation and the flow alignment direction lead to a competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic mechanisms of influence on the ferrocholesteric structure. We analyze various orientations of a magnetic field relative to the direction of a shear flow...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Bongani Brian Nkambule, Zibusiso Mkandla, Tinashe Mutize, Phiwayinkosi Vusi Dludla
INTRODUCTION: The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is now at least threefold higher in HIV-infected patients as compared with the general population. Although platelet activation and reactivity are implicated in the development of CVDs in HIV-infected patients, its precise role remains inconclusive. We aim to assess the association between platelet activation and selected cardiovascular risk factors in HIV-1-infected individuals on highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART)...
December 19, 2017: BMJ Open
Kira S Birditt, Lauren A Tighe, Michael R Nevitt, Steven H Zarit
Background and Objectives: According to the strength and vulnerability integration (SAVI) model, older people are better able to avoid negative social interactions than younger people, but when they do experience negative interactions, they are equally or more emotionally and physiologically reactive than younger people. Less is known about the links between daily negative and positive social encounters and the sympathetic adrenal medullary system (a key stress pathway) and whether there are age differences in these links...
December 12, 2017: Gerontologist
Igor A Pašti, Aleksandar Jovanović, Ana S Dobrota, Slavko V Mentus, Börje Johansson, Natalia V Skorodumova
Vacancies in graphene present sites of altered chemical reactivity and open possibilities to tune graphene properties by defect engineering. The understanding of chemical reactivity of such defects is essential for successful implementation of carbon materials in advanced technologies. We report the results of a systematic DFT study of atomic adsorption on graphene with a single vacancy for the elements of rows 1-6 of the periodic table of elements (PTE), excluding lanthanides. The calculations have been performed using the PBE, long-range dispersion interaction-corrected PBE (PBE+D2 and PBE+D3) and non-local vdW-DF2 functionals...
December 13, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Johannes Fleckenstein, Jan Wilke, Lutz Vogt, Winfried Banzer
Objectives of the study were to compare the effects of a single bout of preventive or regenerative foam rolling (FR) on exercise-induced neuromuscular exhaustion. Single-centre randomised-controlled study was designed. Forty-five healthy adults (22 female; 25±2 yrs) were allocated to three groups: 1) FR of the lower limb muscles prior to induction of fatigue, 2) FR after induction of fatigue, 3) no-treatment control. Neuromuscular exhaustion was provoked using a standardized and validated functional agility short-term fatigue protocol...
December 2017: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
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