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J Mortensen, M Trkov, A Merryweather
Musculoskeletal modeling allows for analysis of individual muscles in various situations. However, current techniques to realistically simulate muscle response when significant amounts of intentional coactivation is required are inadequate. This would include stiffening the neck or spine through muscle coactivation in preparation for perturbations or impacts. Muscle coactivation has been modeled previously in the neck and spine using optimization techniques that seek to maximize the joint stiffness by maximizing total muscle activation or muscle force...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Pernilla Svefors, Katarina Ekholm Selling, Rubina Shaheen, Ashraful Islam Khan, Lars-Åke Persson, Lars Lindholm
INTRODUCTION: Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat), with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS) supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis...
2018: PloS One
Farzana Ferdous, Md Harunor Rashid, Enbo Ma, Rubhana Raqib, Hiromi Hamada, Yukiko Wagatsuma
Background: Fetal growth restriction (FGR) and low birth weight(LBW) are serious public health problems. In developing countries, the incidence of low birth weight is predominantly the result of FGR, and both low birth weight and FGR are associated with neonatal death and later growth and development. Fetal growth charts are important for assessing the size of the fetus during pregnancy. The aims of this study were to describe the fetal growth pattern of a population in rural Bangladesh where maternal undernutrition is prevalent and to compare the timing of FGR in that population with WHO and INTERGROWTH- 21st international reference values...
2018: Tropical Medicine and Health
Kun Wei, Bingyin Ren
In a future intelligent factory, a robotic manipulator must work efficiently and safely in a Human-Robot collaborative and dynamic unstructured environment. Autonomous path planning is the most important issue which must be resolved first in the process of improving robotic manipulator intelligence. Among the path-planning methods, the Rapidly Exploring Random Tree (RRT) algorithm based on random sampling has been widely applied in dynamic path planning for a high-dimensional robotic manipulator, especially in a complex environment because of its probability completeness, perfect expansion, and fast exploring speed over other planning methods...
February 13, 2018: Sensors
Hans Jonas Meyer, Alexander Emmer, Malte Kornhuber, Alexey Surov
OBJECTIVE: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) has the potential of being able to reflect histopathology architecture. A novel imaging approach, namely histogram analysis, is used to further characterize tissues on MRI. The aim of this study was to correlate histogram parameters derived from ADC maps with serological parameters in myositis. METHODS: 16 patients with autoimmune myositis were included in this retrospective study. DWI was obtained on a 1.5T scanner by using the b values of 0 and 1000 s/mm2...
February 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Seyoung Park, Hongyu Zhao, Inanc Birol
Motivation: Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) technology can generate genome-wide expression data at the single-cell levels. One important objective in scRNA-seq analysis is to cluster cells where each cluster consists of cells belonging to the same cell type based on gene expression patterns. Results: We introduce a novel spectral clustering framework that imposes sparse structures on a target matrix. Specifically, we utilize multiple doubly stochastic similarity matrices to learn a similarity matrix, motivated by the observation that each similarity matrix can be a different informative representation of the data...
February 8, 2018: Bioinformatics
Agnese Sbrollini, Angela Agostinelli, Ilaria Marcantoni, Micaela Morettini, Luca Burattini, Francesco Di Nardo, Sandro Fioretti, Laura Burattini
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity...
March 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Nattapol Attatippaholkun, Nont Kosaisawe, Yaowalak U-Pratya, Panthipa Supraditaporn, Chanchao Lorthongpanich, Kovit Pattanapanyasat, Surapol Issaragrisil
Since the hemorrhage in severe dengue seems to be primarily related to the defect of the platelet, the possibility that dengue virus (DENV) is selectively tropic for one of its surface receptors was investigated. Flow cytometric data of DENV-infected megakaryocytic cell line superficially expressing human glycoprotein Ib (CD42b) and glycoprotein IIb/IIIa (CD41 and CD41a) were analyzed by our custom-written software in MATLAB. In two-dimensional analyses, intracellular DENV was detected in CD42b+, CD41+ and CD41a+ cells...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ehsanollah Habibi, Mina Salehi, Ghasem Yadegarfar, Ali Taheri
PURPOSE: Recently, a new method was proposed for physical work rate classification based on an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). This study aims to present a genetic algorithm (GA) optimized ANFIS model for a high accurate classification of physical work rate. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty healthy men participated in this study. The heart rate and the oxygen consumption of the participants were measured directly during a step test and a maximal treadmill test...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Occupational Safety and Ergonomics: JOSE
Megerle L Scherholz, James Forder, Ioannis P Androulakis
Parameter sensitivity and uncertainty analysis for physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) models are becoming an important consideration for regulatory submissions, requiring further evaluation to establish the need for global sensitivity analysis. To demonstrate the benefits of an extensive analysis, global sensitivity was implemented for the GastroPlus™ model, a well-known commercially available platform, using four example drugs: acetaminophen, risperidone, atenolol, and furosemide. The capabilities of GastroPlus were expanded by developing an integrated framework to automate the GastroPlus graphical user interface with AutoIt and for execution of the sensitivity analysis in MATLAB®...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics
Sahely Bhadra, Peter Blomberg, Sandra Castillo, Juho Rousu, Jonathan Wren
Motivation: In the analysis of metabolism, two distinct and complementary approaches are frequently used: Principal component analysis (PCA) and stoichiometric flux analysis. PCA is able to capture the main modes of variability in a set of experiments and does not make many prior assumptions about the data, but does not inherently take into account the flux mode structure of metabolism. Stoichiometric flux analysis methods, such as Flux Balance Analysis (FBA) and Elementary Mode Analysis, on the other hand, are able to capture the metabolic flux modes, however, they are primarily designed for the analysis of single samples at a time, and not best suited for exploratory analysis on a large sets of samples...
February 6, 2018: Bioinformatics
Suoqin Jin, Adam L MacLean, Tao Peng, Qing Nie
Motivation: Single-cell RNA-sequencing (scRNA-seq) offers unprecedented resolution for studying cellular decision-making processes. Robust inference of cell state transition paths and probabilities is an important yet challenging step in the analysis of these data. Results: Here we present scEpath, an algorithm that calculates energy landscapes and probabilistic directed graphs in order to reconstruct developmental trajectories. We quantify the energy landscape using "single-cell energy" and distance-based measures, and find that the combination of these enables robust inference of the transition probabilities and lineage relationships between cell states...
February 5, 2018: Bioinformatics
Jon N Buzzelli, Djamila Ouaret, Graham Brown, Philip D Allen, Ruth J Muschel
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) liver metastasis is highly unfavorable for patient outcome and is a leading cause of cancer-related death. Pre-clinical research of CRC liver metastasis predominately utilizes CRC cell lines grown in tissue culture. Here, we demonstrate that CRC liver metastases organoids derived from human specimens recapitulate some aspects of human disease. METHODS: Human CRC liver metastases pathological specimens were obtained following patient consent...
January 27, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Nushrat Nazia, Mohammad Ali, Md Jakariya, Quamrun Nahar, Mohammad Yunus, Michael Emch
We identify high risk clusters and measure their persistence in time and analyze spatial and population drivers of small area incidence over time. The geographically linked population and cholera surveillance data in Matlab, Bangladesh for a 10-year period were used. Individual level data were aggregated by local 250 × 250 m communities. A retrospective space-time scan statistic was applied to detect high risk clusters. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify risk factors for cholera. We identified 10 high risk clusters, the largest of which was in the southern part of the study area where a smaller river flows into a large river...
February 2018: Spatial and Spatio-temporal Epidemiology
Mohammadreza Toulabi, Shahab Bahrami, Ali Mohammad Ranjbar
In most of the existing studies, the frequency response in the variable speed wind turbines (VSWTs) is simply realized by changing the torque set-point via appropriate inputs such as frequency deviations signal. However, effective dynamics and systematic process design have not been comprehensively discussed yet. Accordingly, this paper proposes a proportional-derivative frequency controller and investigates its performance in a wind farm consisting of several VSWTs. A band-pass filter is deployed before the proposed controller to avoid responding to either steady state frequency deviations or high rate of change of frequency...
February 3, 2018: ISA Transactions
Parth Shah, Siddaram Mahajan, Sharmila Nageswaran, Sathish Kumar Paul, Mannam Ebenzer
BACKGROUND: Around 125,785 new cases in year 2013-14 of leprosy were detected in India as per WHO report on leprosy in September 2015 which accounts to approximately 62% of the total new cases. Anaesthetic foot caused by leprosy leads to uneven loading of foot leading to ulcer in approximately 20% of the cases. Much efforts have gone in identifying newer techniques to efficiently monitor the progress of ulcer healing. Current techniques followed in measuring the size of ulcers, have not been found to be so accurate but are still is followed by clinicians across the globe...
August 11, 2017: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Junfei Xia, Yuting Qiu, Xiaojie Xun, Liyuan Ma, Jingjiao Guan, Ming Su
Cell population based toxicity assays cannot distinguish responses of single cells and sub-cellular organelles; while single cell assays are limited by low statistical power due to small number of cells examined. This article reports a new single cell array based toxicity assay, in which cell responses at population level, single cell level and sub-cellular level can be obtained simultaneously at high throughput. The single cell array was produced by microcontact printing and selected area cell attachment, and exposed to damaging X-ray radiation, which was followed by fluorescence imaging after staining...
May 12, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Agostino Chiaravalloti, Anna Elisa Castellano, Maria Ricci, Gaetano Barbagallo, Pasqualina Sannino, Francesco Ursini, Georgios Karalis, Orazio Schillaci
PURPOSE: The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between dysfunction of cortical glucose metabolism as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-[18F]fluoro -D-glucose ([18F]FDG) positron emission tomography/x-ray computed tomography (PET/CT) and amyloid burden as detectable by means of 4-{(E)-2-[4-(2-{2-[2-[18F]fluoroethoxy]ethoxy}ethoxy)phenyl]vinyl}-N-methylaniline (florbetaben; [18F]FBB) in a group of patients affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD). PROCEDURES: We examined 38 patients newly diagnosed with AD according to the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria...
February 5, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Parinaz Mehnati, Sirous Khorram, Mohammad Sadegh Zakerhamidi, Farhood Fahima
Introduction: Near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging is a non-ionizing modality that is emerging as a diagnostic/prognostic tool for breast cancer according to NIR differentiation of hemoglobin (Hb) concentration. Methods: The transmission values of LED-sourced light at 625 nm were measured by power meter to evaluate the optical properties of Hb in breast phantom containing major and minor vessels. For the simulation of blood variations in cancerous breast condition, we prepared 2 concentrations of pre-menopausal Hb and 4 concentrations of post-menopausal Hb and, for comparison with normal tissue, one concentration of Hb injected inside the phantom's vessels...
2018: Journal of Lasers in Medical Sciences
Matthew B Hamilton, Maria Tartakovsky, Amy Battocletti
The genetic effective population size, Ne , can be estimated from the average gametic disequilibrium (r2^) between pairs of loci but such estimates require evaluation of assumptions and currently have few methods to estimate confidence intervals. SpEED-Ne is a suite of Matlab computer code functions to estimate Ne^ from r2^ with a graphical user interface and a rich set of outputs that aid in understanding data patterns and comparing multiple estimators. SpEED-Ne includes functions to either generate or input simulated genotype data to facilitate comparative studies of Ne^ estimators under various population genetic scenarios...
February 3, 2018: Molecular Ecology Resources
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