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Qiuzhi Ji, Young-Sik Yoo, Hira Alam, Geunyoung Yoon
PURPOSE: To characterise the impact of monofocal soft contact lens (SCL) and bifocal SCLs on refractive error, depth of focus (DoF) and orientation of blur in the peripheral visual field. METHODS: Monofocal and two bifocal SCLs, Acuvue Bifocal (AVB, Johnson & Johnson) and Misight Dual Focus (DF, CooperVision) with +2.0 D add power were modelled using a ray tracing program (ZEMAX) based on their power maps. These SCLs were placed onto the anterior corneal surface of the simulated Atchison myopic eye model to correct for -3...
May 2018: Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics: the Journal of the British College of Ophthalmic Opticians (Optometrists)
Simon Hein, Ralf Petzold, Martin Schoenthaler, Ulrich Wetterauer, Arkadiusz Miernik
PURPOSE: To evaluate the thermal effect of Ho:YAG laser lithotripsy in a standardized in vitro model via real-time temperature measurement. METHODS: Our model comprised a 20 ml test tube simulating the renal pelvis that was immersed in a 37 °C water bath. Two different laser fibers [FlexiFib (15-45 W), RigiFib 1000 (45-100 W), LISA laser products OHG, Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany] were placed in the test tube. An Ho:YAG 100 W laser was used in all experiments (LISA)...
April 24, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Deepika, Sandeep Kaur, Shiv Narayan
This paper proposes a novel fractional order sliding mode control approach to address the issues of stabilization as well as tracking of an N-dimensional extended chained form of fractional order non-holonomic system. Firstly, the hierarchical fractional order terminal sliding manifolds are selected to procure the desired objectives in finite time. Then, a sliding mode control law is formulated which provides robustness against various system uncertainties or external disturbances. In addition, a novel fractional order uncertainty estimator is deduced mathematically to estimate and mitigate the effects of uncertainties, which also excludes the requirement of their upper bounds...
April 21, 2018: ISA Transactions
Yuanyuan Sun, Shaochun Zhu, Xuan Yang, Melanie Valerie Weston, Ke Wang, Zhangquan Shen, Hongwei Xu, Lisu Chen
Digital image processing is widely used in the non-destructive diagnosis of plant nutrition. Previous plant nitrogen diagnostic studies have mostly focused on characteristics of the rice canopy or leaves at some specific points in time, with the long sampling intervals unable to provide detailed and specific "dynamic features." According to plant growth mechanisms, the dynamic changing rate in leaf shape and color differ between different nitrogen supplements. Therefore, the objective of this study was to diagnose nitrogen stress levels by analyzing the dynamic characteristics of rice leaves...
2018: PloS One
Sara Shahzadeh, Somayeh Gholami, Seyed Mahmood Reza Aghamiri, Hojjat Mahani, Mansoure Nabavi, Faraz Kalantari
PURPOSE: The present study was conducted to investigate normal lung tissue complication probability in gated and conventional radiotherapy (RT) as a function of diaphragm motion, lesion size, and its location using 4D-XCAT digital phantom in a simulation study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Different time series of 3D-CT images were generated using the 4D-XCAT digital phantom. The binary data obtained from this phantom were then converted to the digital imaging and communication in medicine (DICOM) format using an in-house MATLAB-based program to be compatible with our treatment planning system (TPS)...
April 12, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Åsmund Rinnan, Francesco Savorani, Søren Balling Engelsen
Interval based chemometric algorithms have proven to be very powerful for spectral alignments, spectral regressions and spectral classifications. The interval-based methods may not only improve the performance, but also reduce model complexity and enhance the spectral interpretation. Extended Canonical Variate Analysis (ECVA) is a powerful method for multiple group classifications of multivariate data and can easily be extended to an interval approach, iECVA. This study outlines the iECVA method and compares its performance to interval Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis (iPLS-DA) on three spectroscopic datasets from Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR), Near Infrared (NIR) and Infrared (IR) spectroscopy, respectively...
August 27, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Do Hyeon Yoo, Jaekook Lee, Chul Hee Min
The aim of this study is to develop the Effective Dose Calculation Program (EDCP) for the usage of Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM) added consumer products. The EDCP was developed based on a database of effective dose conversion coefficient and the Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB) program to incorporate a Graphic User Interface (GUI) for ease of use. To validate EDCP, the effective dose calculated with EDCP by manually determining the source region by using the GUI and that by using the reference mathematical algorithm were compared for pillow, waist supporter, eye-patch and sleeping mattress...
April 9, 2018: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
Peter W Tinning, Ross Scrimgeour, Gail McConnell
We report the first demonstration of widefield standing wave (SW) microscopy of fluorescently labelled red blood cells at high speeds that allow for the rapid imaging of membrane deformations. Using existing and custom MATLAB functions, we also present a method to generate 2D and 3D reconstructions of the SW data for improved visualization of the cell. We compare our technique with standard widefield epifluorescence imaging and show that the SW technique not only reveals more topographical information about the specimen but does so without increasing toxicity or the rate of photobleaching and could make this a powerful technique for the diagnosis or study of red blood cell morphology and biomechanical characteristics...
April 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Heidi Lees, Félix Zapata, Merike Vaher, Carmen García-Ruiz
This novel investigation focused on studying the transfer of explosive residues (TNT, HMTD, PETN, ANFO, dynamite, black powder, NH4 NO3 , KNO3 , NaClO3 ) in ten consecutive fingerprints to two different surfaces - cotton fabric and polycarbonate plastic - by using multispectral imaging (MSI). Imaging was performed employing a reflex camera in a purpose-built photo studio. Images were processed in MATLAB to select the most discriminating frame - the one that provided the sharpest contrast between the explosive and the material in the red-green-blue (RGB) visible region...
July 1, 2018: Talanta
Mohammad Rawashdeh, Sarah Lewis, Maha Zaitoun, Patrick Brennan
BACKGROUND: While there is much literature describing the radiologic detection of breast cancer, there are limited data available on the agreement between experts when delineating and classifying breast lesions. The aim of this work is to measure the level of agreement between expert radiologists when delineating and classifying breast lesions as demonstrated through Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) and quantitative shape metrics. METHODS: Forty mammographic images, each containing a single lesion, were presented to nine expert breast radiologists using a high specification interactive digital drawing tablet with stylus...
April 13, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Hui Peng, Yi Zheng, Michael Blumenstein, Dacheng Tao, Jinyan Li
Motivation: CRISPR/Cas9 system is a widely used genome editing tool. A prediction problem of great interests for this system is: how to select optimal single guide RNAs (sgRNAs) such that its cleavage efficiency is high meanwhile the off-target effect is low. Results: This work proposed a two-step averaging method (TSAM) for the regression of cleavage efficiencies of a set of sgRNAs by averaging the predicted efficiency scores of a boosting algorithm and those by a support vector machine (SVM)...
April 16, 2018: Bioinformatics
Ellison Chen, Keiko Amano, Valentina Pedoia, Richard B Souza, C Benjamin Ma, Xiaojuan Li
Patients who have suffered ACL injury are more likely to develop early onset post-traumatic osteoarthritis despite reconstruction. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the longitudinal changes in the tibiofemoral cartilage contact area size and location after ACL injury and reconstruction. Thirty-one patients with isolated unilateral ACL injury were followed with T2 weighted Fast Spin Echo, T1ρ and T2 MRI at baseline prior to reconstruction, and 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after surgery. Areas were delineated in FSE images with an in-house Matlab program using a spline-based semi-automated segmentation algorithm...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
Sabina Stefan, Barbara Schorr, Alex Lopez-Rolon, Iris-Tatjana Kolassa, Jonathan P Shock, Martin Rosenfelder, Suzette Heck, Andreas Bender
We applied the following methods to resting-state EEG data from patients with disorders of consciousness (DOC) for consciousness indexing and outcome prediction: microstates, entropy (i.e. approximate, permutation), power in alpha and delta frequency bands, and connectivity (i.e. weighted symbolic mutual information, symbolic transfer entropy, complex network analysis). Patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and patients in a minimally conscious state (MCS) were classified into these two categories by fitting and testing a generalised linear model...
April 17, 2018: Brain Topography
Achmad Syafiuddin, Salmiati Salmiati, Jonbi Jonbi, Mohamad Ali Fulazzaky
It is the first time to do investigation the reliability and validity of thirty kinetic and isotherm models for describing the behaviors of adsorption of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) onto different adsorbents. The purpose of this study is therefore to assess the most reliable models for the adsorption of AgNPs onto feasibility of an adsorbent. The fifteen kinetic models and fifteen isotherm models were used to test secondary data of AgNPs adsorption collected from the various data sources. The rankings of arithmetic mean were estimated based on the six statistical analysis methods of using a dedicated software of the MATLAB Optimization Toolbox with a least square curve fitting function...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Ramanpreet Singh, Himanshu Chaudhary, Amit K Singh
Background/Objective: Human walking involves the coordination of brain, nerves, and muscles. A disturbance in their coordination may result in gait disorder. The gait disorder may be treated through manually assisted gait training or with the aid of assistive devices/robotic devices. These robotic devices involve mechanisms which are synthesized using complex conventional procedures. Therefore, in this study, a new gait-based synthesis procedure is proposed, which simplifies the mechanism synthesis and helps to develop a mechanism which can be used in rehabilitation devices, bipeds, etc...
January 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Margit Alt Murphy, Steve Murphy, Hanna C Persson, Ulla-Britt Bergström, Katharina Stibrant Sunnerhagen
Kinematic analysis is a powerful method for objective assessment of upper extremity movements in a three-dimensional (3D) space. Three-dimensional motion capture with an optoelectronic camera system is considered as golden standard for kinematic movement analysis and is increasingly used as outcome measure to evaluate the movement performance and quality after an injury or disease involving upper extremity movements. This article describes a standardized protocol for kinematic analysis of drinking task applied in individuals with upper extremity impairments after stroke...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Jiayuan Zhang, Wei Zhan, Mehrdad Ehsani
Extensive research effort has been made in fault diagnosis of motors and related components such as winding and ball bearing. In this paper, a new concept of inter-turn short circuit fault for DC brushed motors is proposed to include the short circuit ratio and short circuit resistance. A first-principle model is derived for motors with inter-turn short circuit fault. A statistical model based on Hidden Markov Model is developed for fault diagnosis purpose. This new method not only allows detection of motor winding short circuit fault, it can also provide estimation of the fault severity, as indicated by estimation of the short circuit ratio and the short circuit resistance...
April 11, 2018: ISA Transactions
Richard Börner, Danny Kowerko, Mélodie C A S Hadzic, Sebastian L B König, Marc Ritter, Roland K O Sigel
Single-molecule microscopy has become a widely used technique in (bio)physics and (bio)chemistry. A popular implementation is single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (smFRET), for which total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy is frequently combined with camera-based detection of surface-immobilized molecules. Camera-based smFRET experiments generate large and complex datasets and several methods for video processing and analysis have been reported. As these algorithms often address similar aspects in video analysis, there is a growing need for standardized comparison...
2018: PloS One
Ross A Clark, Yong-Hao Pua
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Computerised posturography can be used to assess standing balance, and can predict poor functional outcomes in many clinical populations. A key limitation is the disparate signal filtering and analysis techniques, with many methods requiring custom computer programs. This paper discusses the creation of a freely available web-based software program, SeeSway (, which was designed to provide powerful tools for pre-processing, analysing and visualising standing balance data in an easy to use and platform independent website...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Chuong Ngo, Stephan Dahlmanns, Thomas Vollmer, Berno Misgeld, Steffen Leonhardt
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: This work introduces an object-oriented computational model to study cardiopulmonary interactions in humans. METHODS: Modeling was performed in object-oriented programing language Matlab Simscape, where model components are connected with each other through physical connections. Constitutive and phenomenological equations of model elements are implemented based on their non-linear pressure-volume or pressure-flow relationship. The model includes more than 30 physiological compartments, which belong either to the cardiovascular or respiratory system...
June 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
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