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Peter E Clayson, Gregory A Miller
Generalizability theory (G theory) provides a flexible, multifaceted approach to estimating score reliability. G theory's approach to estimating score reliability has important advantages over classical test theory that are relevant for research using event-related brain potentials (ERPs). For example, G theory does not require parallel forms (i.e., equal means, variances, and covariances), can handle unbalanced designs, and provides a single reliability estimate for designs with multiple sources of error. This monograph provides a detailed description of the conceptual framework of G theory using examples relevant to ERP researchers, presents the algorithms needed to estimate ERP score reliability, and provides a detailed walkthrough of newly-developed software, the ERP Reliability Analysis (ERA) Toolbox, that calculates score reliability using G theory...
October 18, 2016: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Jamil Abdolmohammadi, Mohsen Shafiee, Fariborz Faeghi, Douman Arefan, Alireza Zali, Rouzbeh Motiei-Langroudi, Zahra Farshidfar, Ali Kiani Nazarlou, Ali Tavakkoli, Mohammad Yarham
INTRODUCTION: Timely diagnosis of brain tumors could considerably affect the process of patient treatment. To do so, para-clinical methods, particularly MRI, cannot be ignored. MRI has so far answered significant questions regarding tumor characteristics, as well as helping neurosurgeons. In order to detect the tumor cellularity, neuro-surgeons currently have to sample specimens by biopsy and then send them to the pathology unit. The aim of this study is to determine the tumor cellularity in the brain...
August 2016: Electronic Physician
Audrey Adji, Thomas Weber, Caroline O'Brien, Michael O'Rourke, Alberto Avolio
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have shown the reciprocal effects of wave reflection on aortic pressure and aortic flow waves. Invasive (Electro-Magnetic (EM)) and non-invasive (Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR)) studies of aortic blood flow have shown characteristic aging changes as reduction in late systolic flow, which corresponds in time to the late systolic boost of aortic pressure. These are not always apparent in Doppler flow tracings. DESIGN AND METHOD: This study aimed to better understand the mechanisms of aortic pressure and flow changes due to early wave reflection and stiffening of arteries...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Audrey Adji, Thomas Weber, Caroline O'Brien, Michael O'Rourke, Alberto Avolio
OBJECTIVE: Relative ease of estimating of Ascending Aortic (AA) pressure non-invasively enables interpretation of age-related pressure waveform changes due to altered pulse wave propagation. AA flow velocity waveforms, measured invasively by ElectroMagnetic (EM) cuff/ catheter, and non-invasively by Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) also show characteristic aging changes attributable to aortic dilation and subtle impairment of Left Ventricular (LV) function. Conventional Doppler waveforms do not...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Prawin Kumar, Himanshu Kumar Sanju, J Nikhil
Introduction Enhanced auditory perception in musicians is likely to result from auditory perceptual learning during several years of training and practice. Many studies have focused on biological processing of auditory stimuli among musicians. However, there is a lack of literature on temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skills in vocal musicians. Objective The aim of the present study is to assess temporal resolution and active auditory discrimination skill in vocal musicians. Method The study participants included 15 vocal musicians with a minimum professional experience of 5 years of music exposure, within the age range of 20 to 30 years old, as the experimental group, while 15 age-matched non-musicians served as the control group...
October 2016: International Archives of Otorhinolaryngology
W Abdullah Brooks, K Zaman, Kristen D C Lewis, Justin R Ortiz, Doli Goswami, Jodi Feser, Amina Tahia Sharmeen, Kamrun Nahar, Mustafizur Rahman, Mohammed Ziaur Rahman, Burc Barin, Muhammad Yunus, Alicia M Fry, Joseph Bresee, Tasnim Azim, Kathleen M Neuzil
BACKGROUND: The rates of influenza illness and associated complications are high among children in Bangladesh. We assessed the clinical efficacy and safety of a Russian-backbone live attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) at two field sites in Bangladesh. METHODS: Between Feb 27 and April 9, 2013, children aged 2-4 years in urban Kamalapur and rural Matlab, Bangladesh, were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio, according to a computer-generated schedule, to receive one intranasal dose of LAIV or placebo...
October 13, 2016: Lancet Global Health
Felix Bäuerle, Agnes Zotter, Gideon Schreiber
With computer-based data-fitting methods becoming a standard tool in biochemistry, progress curve analysis of enzyme kinetics is a feasible, yet seldom used tool. Here we present a versatile Matlab-based tool (PCAT) to analyze catalysis progress curves with three complementary model approaches. The first two models are based on the known closed-form solution for this problem: the first describes the required Lambert W function with an analytical approximation and the second provides a numerical solution of the Lambert W function...
October 15, 2016: Protein Engineering, Design & Selection: PEDS
Haixuan Yang, Cathal Seoighe
Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) has proved to be an effective method for unsupervised clustering analysis of gene expression data. By the nonnegativity constraint, NMF provides a decomposition of the data matrix into two matrices that have been used for clustering analysis. However, the decomposition is not unique. This allows different clustering results to be obtained, resulting in different interpretations of the decomposition. To alleviate this problem, some existing methods directly enforce uniqueness to some extent by adding regularization terms in the NMF objective function...
2016: PloS One
Nicholas M Timme, Najja J Marshall, Nicholas Bennett, Monica Ripp, Edward Lautzenhiser, John M Beggs
The analysis of neural systems leverages tools from many different fields. Drawing on techniques from the study of critical phenomena in statistical mechanics, several studies have reported signatures of criticality in neural systems, including power-law distributions, shape collapses, and optimized quantities under tuning. Independently, neural complexity-an information theoretic measure-has been introduced in an effort to quantify the strength of correlations across multiple scales in a neural system. This measure represents an important tool in complex systems research because it allows for the quantification of the complexity of a neural system...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
Seyyede Zohreh Ziatabar Ahmadi, Saeid Mahmoudian, Hasan Ashayeri, Farshid Allaeddini, Mohammad Farhadi
OBJECTIVE: Auditory phoneme discrimination is a basic and important prerequisite for acquiring speech, reading, and spelling skills. Children, who are unable to perceive auditory phoneme discrimination, cannot develop phonemic representations. Therefore, the early identification of these deficits and application of effective therapeutic approaches is a necessity. We need to assess appropriately word or sound discrimination in normal populations using an objective passive task such as mismatch negativity (MMN)...
November 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Paul Sotiriadis
All-digital frequency synthesis using band-pass sigma-delta modulation to achieve spectrally clean single-bit output is presented and mathematically analyzed resulting in a complete model to predict stability and output spectrum. The quadrature homodyne filter architecture is introduced resulting in efficient implementations of carrier-frequency centred bandpass filters for the modulator. A multiplier-less version of the quadrature homodyne filter architecture is also introduced to reduce complexity maintaining clean in-band spectrum...
October 5, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Alireza Rastegarpanah, Mozafar Saadat
The aim of this study is to investigate the performance of a 6-DoF parallel robot in tracking the movement of the foot trajectory of a paretic leg during a single stride. The foot trajectories of nine patients with a paretic leg including both males and females have been measured and analysed by a Vicon system in a gait laboratory. Based on kinematic and dynamic analysis of a 6-DoF UPS parallel robot, an algorithm was developed in MATLAB to calculate the length of the actuators and their required forces during all trajectories...
2016: Applied Bionics and Biomechanics
Sang-Mok Lee, Hyuk Jin Choi, Heejin Choi, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
: BACKGROUND: Though the development and fitting of scleral contact lenses are expanding steadily, there is no simple method to provide scleral metrics for scleral contact lens fitting yet. The aim of this study was to establish formulae for estimation of the axial radius of curvature (ARC) of the anterior sclera using ocular biometric parameters that can be easily obtained with conventional devices. METHODS: A semi-automated stitching method and a computational analysis tool for calculating ARC were developed by using the ImageJ and MATLAB software...
October 7, 2016: BMC Ophthalmology
Hideomi Hamasaki, Hiroyuki Honda, Tsuyoshi Okamoto, Sachiko Koyama, Satoshi O Suzuki, Tomoyuki Ohara, Toshiharu Ninomiya, Yutaka Kiyohara, Toru Iwaki
BACKGROUND: The Hisayama study is a prospective cohort study of lifestyle-related diseases that commenced in 1961. Through it, a significant increasing trend in the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease has been observed over the past 18 years. OBJECTIVES: We sought to investigate the increases in brain pathology related to Alzheimer's disease using automated MATLAB morphometric analyses for quantifying tau pathology. METHODS: We examined a series of autopsied cases from Hisayama residents obtained between 1998 and 2003 (group A: 203 cases), and between 2009 and 2014 (group B: 232 cases)...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Robert Koprowski
BACKGROUND: The paper presents an automatic method for analysis and processing of images from a camera operating in visible light. This analysis applies to images containing the human facial area (body) and enables to measure the blood pulse rate. Special attention was paid to the limitations of this measurement method taking into account the possibility of using consumer cameras in real conditions (different types of lighting, different camera resolution, camera movement). METHODS: The proposed new method of image analysis and processing was associated with three stages: (1) image pre-processing-allowing for the image filtration and stabilization (object location tracking); (2) main image processing-allowing for segmentation of human skin areas, acquisition of brightness changes; (3) signal analysis-filtration, FFT (Fast Fourier Transformation) analysis, pulse calculation...
October 3, 2016: Biomedical Engineering Online
Maria Rubega, Roberto Fontana, Stefano Vassanelli, Giovanni Sparacino
The quantitative study of cross-frequency coupling (CFC) is a relevant issue in neuroscience. In local field potentials (LFPs), measured either in the cortex or in the hippocampus, how γ-oscillation amplitude is modulated by changes in θ-rhythms-phase is thought to be important in memory formation. Several methods were proposed to quantify CFC, but reported evidence suggests that experimental parameters affect the results. Therefore, a simulation tool to support the determination of minimal requirements for CFC estimation in order to obtain reliable results is particularly useful...
August 11, 2016: Network: Computation in Neural Systems
John H R Burns, Theodore Alexandrov, Katya Ovchinnikova, Ruth D Gates, Misaki Takabayashi
Ten annotated 3D reconstructions of Montipora capitata coral colonies contain x,y,z coordinates for all growth anomaly (GA) lesions affecting these corals. The 3D reconstructions are available as Virtual Reality Modeling Language (VRML) files, and the GA lesions coordinates are in accompanying text files. The VRML models and GA lesion coordinates can be spatially analyzed using Matlab. Matlab scripts are provided for three spatial statistical procedures in order to assess clustering of the GA lesions across the coral colony surfaces in a 3D framework: Ripley׳s K, Moran׳s I, and the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Chao Jing, Zhen Gu, Yi-Tao Long
Imaging electrochemical processes has attracted increasing attention in past decades. Particularly, monitoring electrochemical reactions rapidly at the nano-scale is still a challenge due to the ultra-low current detection and long scanning time required. The development of optical techniques provide a new way to demonstrate electrochemical processes through optical signals which enhance sensitivity and spatial resolution. Herein, we developed a novel method to image electrocatalytic processes on single gold nanorods (GNRs) during Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) scanning based on plasmon resonance scattering information by using dark-field microscopy...
September 16, 2016: Faraday Discussions
Xiaoxuan Zheng, Hongkai Xiong, Yong Li, Baohui Han, Jiayuan Sun
Autofluorescence bronchoscopy (AFB) shows good sensitivity in detecting dysplasia and bronchopulmonary cancer. However, the poor specificity of AFB would lead to excessive biopsy. The aim of the study is to establish a more effective quantitative method (optimal identification index and reference value) for characterizing the AFB images within the region of interest and discuss AFB's significance in the diagnosis of central-type lung cancer. A total of 218 suspected lung cancer patients were enrolled in this study...
October 5, 2016: Cancer Medicine
Barbara Klug, Elisabeth Santigli, Christian Westendorf, Stefan Tangl, Gernot Wimmer, Martin Grube
Background: Oral biofilm studies based on simplified experimental setups are difficult to interpret. Models are limited mostly by the number of bacterial species observed and the insufficiency of artificial media. Few studies have attempted to overcome these limitations and to cultivate native oral biofilm. Aims: This study aimed to grow oral biofilm in vivo before transfer to a biofilm reactor for ex situ incubation. The in vitro survival of this oral biofilm and the changes in bacterial composition over time were observed...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
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