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Complexity Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453841/beyond-cost-benefit-analysis-in-the-governance-of-synthetic-biology
#1
Wendell Wallach, Marc Saner, Gary Marchant
For many innovations, oversight fits nicely within existing governance mechanisms; nevertheless, others pose unique public health, environmental, and ethical challenges. Synthetic artemisinin, for example, has many precursors in laboratory-developed drugs that emulate natural forms of the same drug. The policy challenges posed by synthetic artemisinin do not differ significantly in kind from other laboratory-formulated drugs. Synthetic biofuels and gene drives, however, fit less clearly into existing governance structures...
January 2018: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452784/abdominal-aortic-aneurysm-sex-differences
#2
REVIEW
Christina Villard, Rebecka Hultgren
OBJECTIVE: Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) predominantly affects an elderly male population. Even so, AAA appears more detrimental in women, who experience a higher risk of aneurysm rupture and a worse outcome after surgery than men. Why women are privileged from yet are worse off once affected has been attributed to an effect of sex hormones. This review summarizes the knowledge of sex differences in AAA and addresses the changes in the aneurysm wall from a gender perspective. METHOD: Standard reporting guidelines set by the PRISMA Group were followed to identify studies examining AAA from a gender perspective...
March 2018: Maturitas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451874/a-stochastic-and-dynamical-view-of-pluripotency-in-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#3
Yen Ting Lin, Peter G Hufton, Esther J Lee, Davit A Potoyan
Pluripotent embryonic stem cells are of paramount importance for biomedical sciences because of their innate ability for self-renewal and differentiation into all major cell lines. The fateful decision to exit or remain in the pluripotent state is regulated by complex genetic regulatory networks. The rapid growth of single-cell sequencing data has greatly stimulated applications of statistical and machine learning methods for inferring topologies of pluripotency regulating genetic networks. The inferred network topologies, however, often only encode Boolean information while remaining silent about the roles of dynamics and molecular stochasticity inherent in gene expression...
February 16, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450146/novel-proteins-from-proteomic-analysis-of-the-trunk-disease-fungus-lasiodiplodia-theobromae-botryosphaeriaceae
#4
Carla C Uranga, Majid Ghassemian, Rufina Hernández-Martínez
Many basic science questions remain regarding protein functions in the pathogen: host interaction, especially in the trunk disease fungi family, the Botryosphaeriaceae, which are a global problem for economically important plants, especially fruiting trees. Proteomics is a highly useful technology for studying protein expression and for discovering novel proteins in unsequenced and poorly annotated organisms. Current fungal proteomics approaches involve 2D SDS-PAGE and extensive, complex, protein extraction methodologies...
June 2017: Biochimie Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447929/a-complex-systems-approach-to-cancer-prevention
#5
P W Jupp
Cancer incidence continues to be a major health problem possibly because cancer is a complex system comprising many agents that interact in a non-linear manner resulting in many possible outcomes. The degree of complexity of a cancer system could be vast involving multiple endogenous and exogenous agents interacting with the over 10 trillion cells comprising the body. It is hypothesized that the practical management of this complexity may be a key to cancer prevention and possibly treatment. But the management and resolution of such an immensely complex system is difficult and may require a multidisciplinary approach including physics, biology, biochemistry and medical science...
March 2018: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447212/predicting-species-emergence-in-simulated-complex-pre-biotic-networks
#6
Omer Markovitch, Natalio Krasnogor
An intriguing question in evolution is what would happen if one could "replay" life's tape. Here, we explore the following hypothesis: when replaying the tape, the details ("decorations") of the outcomes would vary but certain "invariants" might emerge across different life-tapes sharing similar initial conditions. We use large-scale simulations of an in silico model of pre-biotic evolution called GARD (Graded Autocatalysis Replication Domain) to test this hypothesis. GARD models the temporal evolution of molecular assemblies, governed by a rates matrix (i...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446168/hospital-nurses-lived-experiences-of-intelligent-resilience-a-phenomenological-study
#7
Behzad Imani, Sima Mohamad Khan Kermanshahi, Zohreh Vanaki, Anoshiravan Kazemnejad Lili
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore Iranian hospital nurses' lived experiences of intelligent resilience. BACKGROUND: Nurses do high levels of emotional work when fulfilling patients' and their family members' complex needs. Intelligent resilience can alleviate nurses' stress and enhance their endurance. DESIGN: This study was based on the Husserlian descriptive phenomenology. METHODS: A purposive sample of ten hospital nurses was drawn from hospitals affiliated with Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan, Iran...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445780/actinide-based-mofs-a-middle-ground-in-solution-and-solid-state-structural-motifs
#8
Ekaterina A Dolgopolova, Allison M Rice, Natalia B Shustova
In this review, we highlight how recent advances in the field of actinide structural chemistry of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) could be utilized towards investigations relative to efficient nuclear waste administration, driven by the interest towards development of novel actinide-containing architectures as well as concerns regarding environmental pollution and nuclear waste storage. We attempt to perform a comprehensive analysis of more than 100 crystal structures of the existing An (U,Th)-based MOFs to establish a correlation between structural density and wt% of actinide and bridge structural motifs common for natural minerals with ones typically observed in the solution chemistry of actinides...
February 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29443053/neuroimaging-field-methods-using-functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-nirs-neuroimaging-to-study-global-child-development-rural-sub-saharan-africa
#9
Kaja K Jasińska, Sosthène Guei
Portable neuroimaging approaches provide new advances to the study of brain function and brain development with previously inaccessible populations and in remote locations. This paper shows the development of field functional Near Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) imaging to the study of child language, reading, and cognitive development in a rural village setting of Côte d'Ivoire. Innovation in methods and the development of culturally appropriate neuroimaging protocols allow a first-time look into the brain's development and children's learning outcomes in understudied environments...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441659/genetic-polymorphisms-associated-with-circadian-rhythm-dysregulation-provide-new-perspectives-on-bipolar-disorder
#10
REVIEW
Thomaz Oliveira, Victor Marinho, Valécia Carvalho, Francisco Magalhães, Kaline Rocha, Carla Ayres, Silmar Teixeira, Monara Nunes, Victor Hugo Bastos, Giovanny R Pinto
OBJECTIVES: The objective of this study was to present a broad view of how genetic polymorphisms in genes that control the rhythmicity and function of circadian rhythm may influence the etiology, pathophysiology and treatment of bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: A bibliographic search was performed to identify and select papers reporting studies on variations in circadian genes and BD. A search of Medline, Google Scholar, Scopus, and Web of Science was carried out to review the literature...
February 13, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441527/global-macroevolution-and-macroecology-of-passerine-song
#11
William D Pearse, Ignacio Morales-Castilla, Logan S James, Maxwell Farrell, Frédéric Boivin, T Jonathan Davies
Studying the macroevolution of the songs of Passeriformes (perching birds) has proved challenging. The complexity of the task stems not just from the macroevolutionary and macroecological challenge of modelling so many species, but also from the difficulty in collecting and quantifying birdsong itself. Using machine learning techniques, we extracted songs from a large citizen science dataset, and then analysed the evolution, and biotic and abiotic predictors of variation in birdsong across 578 passerine species...
February 14, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441237/comparison-of-complex-networks-and-tree-based-methods-of-phylogenetic-analysis-and-proposal-of-a-bootstrap-method
#12
Aristóteles Góes-Neto, Marcelo V C Diniz, Daniel S Carvalho, Gilberto C Bomfim, Angelo A Duarte, Jerzy A Brzozowski, Thierry C Petit Lobão, Suani T R Pinho, Charbel N El-Hani, Roberto F S Andrade
Complex networks have been successfully applied to the characterization and modeling of complex systems in several distinct areas of Biological Sciences. Nevertheless, their utilization in phylogenetic analysis still needs to be widely tested, using different molecular data sets and taxonomic groups, and, also, by comparing complex networks approach to current methods in phylogenetic analysis. In this work, we compare all the four main methods of phylogenetic analysis (distance, maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian) with a complex networks method that has been used to provide a phylogenetic classification based on a large number of protein sequences as those related to the chitin metabolic pathway and ATP-synthase subunits...
2018: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440515/integrative-studies-of-cultural-evolution-crossing-disciplinary-boundaries-to-produce-new-insights
#13
Oren Kolodny, Marcus W Feldman, Nicole Creanza
Culture evolves according to dynamics on multiple temporal scales, from individuals' minute-by-minute behaviour to millennia of cultural accumulation that give rise to population-level differences. These dynamics act on a range of entities-including behavioural sequences, ideas and artefacts as well as individuals, populations and whole species-and involve mechanisms at multiple levels, from neurons in brains to inter-population interactions. Studying such complex phenomena requires an integration of perspectives from a diverse array of fields, as well as bridging gaps between traditionally disparate areas of study...
April 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439847/the-outcomes-of-central-hepatectomy-versus-extended-hepatectomy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
REVIEW
Jenny Chan, Marcos Perini, Michael Fink, Mehrdad Nikfarjam
BACKGROUND: Central hepatectomy (CH) is a relatively uncommon liver resection technique. It is generally perceived as a more complex operation than extended hepatectomies (EH), with potentially higher associated morbidity. The outcomes of CH compared with EH is not well defined and there is a need to reassess. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted in PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science according to PRISMA guidelines for studies on the treatment of liver tumours with CH published from 1972 until February 2017...
February 10, 2018: HPB: the Official Journal of the International Hepato Pancreato Biliary Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439695/male-partner-involvement-in-increasing-the-uptake-of-infant-antiretroviral-prophylaxis-treatment-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
Noah F Takah, Jeannine A Atem, Leopold N Aminde, Moffat Malisheni, Grant Murewenhema
BACKGROUND: Infant antiretroviral prophylaxis plays an important role towards ensuring the reduction of HIV transmission from mother to child in the postpartum period. However in sub Saharan Africa (SSA), the low level of involvement of male partners may hinder the uptake of such services by HIV positive mothers. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the impact of male partner involvement approaches on the uptake of infant antiretroviral prophylaxis in SSA. METHODS: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, Ovid Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, Cochrane library, ClinicalTrials...
February 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438321/the-intersection-of-hpv-epidemiology-genomics-and-mechanistic-studies-of-hpv-mediated-carcinogenesis
#16
Lisa Mirabello, Megan A Clarke, Chase W Nelson, Michael Dean, Nicolas Wentzensen, Meredith Yeager, Michael Cullen, Joseph F Boland, Mark Schiffman, Robert D Burk
Of the ~60 human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes that infect the cervicovaginal epithelium, only 12-13 "high-risk" types are well-established as causing cervical cancer, with HPV16 accounting for over half of all cases worldwide. While HPV16 is the most important carcinogenic type, variants of HPV16 can differ in their carcinogenicity by 10-fold or more in epidemiologic studies. Strong genotype-phenotype associations embedded in the small 8-kb HPV16 genome motivate molecular studies to understand the underlying molecular mechanisms...
February 13, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437224/perception-and-measurement-of-food-texture-solid-foods
#17
K Nishinari, Y Fang
There is still a gap between instrumental measurement and sensory evaluation because of the complexity of food texture in spite of many efforts. In sensory evaluation, the terms describing the texture should be well understood by panelists, which poses a problem of establishing lexicons and training panelists. In the instrumental measurement, more efforts are required to understand the large deformation and fracture behaviour of foods. The texture profile analysis (TPA) proposed by Alina Szczesniak, Malcolm Bourne and Sherman has been applied to many foods, and was useful to develop the understanding of textures...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Texture Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436536/quantum-dots-for-a-high-throughput-pfu-polymerase-based-multi-round-polymerase-chain-reaction-pcr
#18
Fuming Sang, Zhizhou Zhang, Lin Yuan, Deli Liu
Multi-round PCR is an important technique for obtaining enough target DNA from rare DNA resources, and is commonly used in many fields including forensic science, ancient DNA analysis and cancer research. However, multi-round PCR is often aborted, largely due to the accumulation of non-specific amplification during repeated amplifications. Here, we developed a Pfu polymerase based multi-round PCR technique assisted by quantum dots (QDs). Different PCR assays, DNA polymerases (Pfu and Taq), DNA sizes and GC amounts were compared in this study...
February 13, 2018: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435448/toward-a-tiered-model-to-share-clinical-trial-data-and-samples-in-precision-oncology
#19
Stefanie Broes, Denis Lacombe, Michiel Verlinden, Isabelle Huys
The recent revolution in science and technology applied to medical research has left in its wake a trial of biomedical data and human samples; however, its opportunities remain largely unfulfilled due to a number of legal, ethical, financial, strategic, and technical barriers. Precision oncology has been at the vanguard to leverage this potential of "Big data" and samples into meaningful solutions for patients, considering the need for new drug development approaches in this area (due to high costs, late-stage failures, and the molecular diversity of cancer)...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434679/crispr-cas9-a-promising-genetic-engineering-approach-in-cancer-research
#20
REVIEW
Zubair Ahmed Ratan, Young-Jin Son, Mohammad Faisal Haidere, Bhuiyan Mohammad Mahtab Uddin, Md Abdullah Yusuf, Sojib Bin Zaman, Jong-Hoon Kim, Laila Anjuman Banu, Jae Youl Cho
Bacteria and archaea possess adaptive immunity against foreign genetic materials through clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) systems. The discovery of this intriguing bacterial system heralded a revolutionary change in the field of medical science. The CRISPR and CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) based molecular mechanism has been applied to genome editing. This CRISPR-Cas9 technique is now able to mediate precise genetic corrections or disruptions in in vitro and in vivo environments...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Medical Oncology
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