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Complexity Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548893/dynamic-decision-making-learning-processes-and-new-research-directions
#1
Cleotilde Gonzalez, Pegah Fakhari, Jerome Busemeyer
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this manuscript is to provide a review of contemporary research and applications on dynamic decision making (DDM). BACKGROUND: Since early DDM studies, there has been little systematic progress in understanding decision making in complex, dynamic systems. Our review contributes to better understanding of decision making processes in dynamic tasks. METHOD: We discuss new research directions in DDM to highlight the value of simplification in the study of complex decision processes, divided into experimental and theoretical/computational approaches, and focus on problems involving control tasks and search-and-choice tasks...
May 1, 2017: Human Factors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546583/hybridizing-feature-selection-and-feature-learning-approaches-in-qsar-modeling-for-drug-discovery
#2
Ignacio Ponzoni, Víctor Sebastián-Pérez, Carlos Requena-Triguero, Carlos Roca, María J Martínez, Fiorella Cravero, Mónica F Díaz, Juan A Páez, Ramón Gómez Arrayás, Javier Adrio, Nuria E Campillo
Quantitative structure-activity relationship modeling using machine learning techniques constitutes a complex computational problem, where the identification of the most informative molecular descriptors for predicting a specific target property plays a critical role. Two main general approaches can be used for this modeling procedure: feature selection and feature learning. In this paper, a performance comparative study of two state-of-art methods related to these two approaches is carried out. In particular, regression and classification models for three different issues are inferred using both methods under different experimental scenarios: two drug-like properties, such as blood-brain-barrier and human intestinal absorption, and enantiomeric excess, as a measurement of purity used for chiral substances...
May 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545425/mental-health-training-programmes-for-non-mental-health-trained-professionals-coming-into-contact-with-people-with-mental-ill-health-a-systematic-review-of-effectiveness
#3
Alison Booth, Arabella Scantlebury, Adwoa Hughes-Morley, Natasha Mitchell, Kath Wright, William Scott, Catriona McDaid
BACKGROUND: The police and others in occupations where they come into close contact with people experiencing/with mental ill health, often have to manage difficult and complex situations. Training is needed to equip them to recognise and assist when someone has a mental health issue or learning/intellectual disability. We undertook a systematic review of the effectiveness of training programmes aimed at increasing knowledge, changing behaviour and/or attitudes of the trainees with regard to mental ill health, mental vulnerability, and learning disabilities...
May 25, 2017: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545257/the-reactive-sulfur-species-concept-15-years-on
#4
REVIEW
Gregory I Giles, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Wesam Ali, Claus Jacob
Fifteen years ago, in 2001, the concept of "Reactive Sulfur Species" or RSS was advocated as a working hypothesis. Since then various organic as well as inorganic RSS have attracted considerable interest and stimulated many new and often unexpected avenues in research and product development. During this time, it has become apparent that molecules with sulfur-containing functional groups are not just the passive "victims" of oxidative stress or simple conveyors of signals in cells, but can also be stressors in their own right, with pivotal roles in cellular function and homeostasis...
May 23, 2017: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544779/a-brief-review-of-extrusion-based-tissue-scaffold-bio-printing
#5
REVIEW
Liqun Ning, Xiongbiao Chen
Extrusion-based bio-printing has great potential as a technique for manipulating biomaterials and living cells to create three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds for damaged tissue repair and function restoration. Over the last two decades, advances in both engineering techniques and life sciences have evolved extrusion-based bio-printing from a simple technique to one able to create diverse tissue scaffolds from a wide range of biomaterials and cell types. However, the complexities associated with synthesis of materials for bio-printing and manipulation of multiple materials and cells in bio-printing pose many challenges for scaffold fabrication...
May 24, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543648/making-the-choices-necessary-to-make-a-difference-the-responsibility-of-national-bioethics-commissions
#6
Christine Grady
In this essay, I offer some reflections on how the topics were identified and approached by the Presidential Commission for the Study of Bioethical Issues, on which I had the honor to serve, in the hope that the reflections may be useful to future national bioethics commissions. In the executive order that established the bioethics commission, President Obama explicitly recognized the ethical imperative to responsibly pursue science, innovation, and advances in biomedical research and health care, and the importance of national attention to these issues...
May 2017: Hastings Center Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542409/voting-contagion-modeling-and-analysis-of-a-century-of-u-s-presidential-elections
#7
Dan Braha, Marcus A M de Aguiar
Social influence plays an important role in human behavior and decisions. Sources of influence can be divided as external, which are independent of social context, or as originating from peers, such as family and friends. An important question is how to disentangle the social contagion by peers from external influences. While a variety of experimental and observational studies provided insight into this problem, identifying the extent of contagion based on large-scale observational data with an unknown network structure remains largely unexplored...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541354/azaporphyrin-phosphorus-v-complexes-synthesis-structure-and-modification-of-optical-properties
#8
Taniyuki Furuyama, Nagao Kobayashi
Azaporphyrinoids, such as phthalocyanines (Pcs), tetraazaporphyrins (TAPs), and tetrabenzotriazacorroles (TBCs), are some of the most well-known and successful artificial dyes and pigments in modern material chemistry. Modifications of the macrocyclic core, periphery, and central element have attracted a great deal of interest in materials sciences due to generation of unique optical and electronic properties. However, the synthesis of most azaporphyrinoids with novel physical properties generally needs long, tedious procedures...
May 25, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539920/technological-microbiology-development-and-applications
#9
REVIEW
Luciana C Vitorino, Layara A Bessa
Over thousands of years, modernization could be predicted for the use of microorganisms in the production of foods and beverages. However, the current accelerated pace of new food production is due to the rapid incorporation of biotechnological techniques that allow the rapid identification of new molecules and microorganisms or even the genetic improvement of known species. At no other time in history have microorganisms been so present in areas such as agriculture and medicine, except as recognized villains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538916/policies-for-fostering-health-science-technology-and-innovation-in-brazil-and-the-role-of-clinical-research
#10
Marge Tenório, Guilherme Arantes Mello, Ana Luiza D'Ávila Viana
The purpose of this article is to highlight a number of underlying issues that may be useful for a comprehensive review of the management of Health-Related Science, Technology and Innovation policies (ST&I/H), and its strategies and priorities. It is an analytical study supported by an extensive review of the technical and journalistic literature, clippings, legislation and federal government directives. The results show that the Healthcare Production Complex undeniably and increasingly needs science to maintain itself...
May 2017: Ciência & Saúde Coletiva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538056/engaging-all-employees-in-efforts-to-achieve-high-reliability
#11
Anne Marie Benedicto
DRAMATIC AND NUMEROUS advances in science, technology, and medicine provide new opportunities to keep people healthy as well as to diagnose, treat, and cure disease. Unfortunately, increasing complexity increases opportunities for mistakes and errors, particularly in healthcare organizations as they struggle to prevent patient harm (). Safety problems persist and harm to patients continues despite widespread attention to the need for improvement ().An engaged and empowered workforce is critical to improving the patient experience, improving health outcomes, and correcting unsafe conditions ()...
July 2017: Frontiers of Health Services Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537780/science-is-1-inspiration-and-99-biomarkers
#12
Nicolas Dubuisson, Fabiola Puentes, Gavin Giovannoni, Sharmilee Gnanapavan
Neurodegeneration plays a key role in multiple sclerosis (MS) contributing to long-term disability in patients. The prognosis is, however, unpredictable coloured by complex disease mechanisms which can only be clearly appreciated using biomarkers specific to pathobiology of the underlying process. Here, we describe six promising neurodegenerative biomarkers in MS (neurofilament proteins, neurofilament antibodies, tau, N-acetylaspartate, chitinase and chitinase-like proteins and osteopontin), critically evaluating the evidence using a modified Bradford Hill criteria...
May 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28537584/asymmetric-silver-catalysed-intermolecular-bromotrifluoromethoxylation-of-alkenes-with-a-new-trifluoromethoxylation-reagent
#13
Shuo Guo, Fei Cong, Rui Guo, Liang Wang, Pingping Tang
Fluorinated organic compounds are becoming increasingly important in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals and materials science. The introduction of trifluoromethoxy groups into new drugs and agrochemicals has attracted much attention due to their strongly electron-withdrawing nature and high lipophilicity. However, synthesis of trifluoromethoxylated organic molecules is difficult owing to the decomposition of trifluoromethoxide anion and β-fluoride elimination from transition-metal-trifluoromethoxide complexes, and no catalytic enantioselective trifluoromethoxylation reaction has been reported until now...
June 2017: Nature Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535929/genetic-coding-and-united-hypercomplex-systems-in-the-models-of-algebraic-biology
#14
REVIEW
Sergey V Petoukhov
Structured alphabets of DNA and RNA in their matrix form of representations are connected with Walsh functions and a new type of systems of multidimensional numbers. This type generalizes systems of complex numbers and hypercomplex numbers, which serve as the basis of mathematical natural sciences and many technologies. The new systems of multi-dimensional numbers have interesting mathematical properties and are called in a general case as "systems of united-hypercomplex numbers" (or briefly "U-hypercomplex numbers")...
May 20, 2017: Bio Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534765/the-animal-kingdom-is-also-a-bioengineering-field-exploring-the-art-and-science-of-vetinary-medicine-retrospectroscope
#15
Max E Valentinuzzi
Medical science developed in tandem with the evolution of biological species and their associated diseases. Because of the close interaction between humans and other animals, even those in the wild, taking care of the former also means caring for the latter. Several scientific forerunners delved into animals' anatomical and physiological secrets in their quest to better understand animal biology and functions, thereby laying the foundation for animal medicine. Here, I briefly explore the long and complex road that led to the current state of veterinary science and provide a few examples of its present standing...
May 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534676/applications-of-raman-spectroscopy-in-biopharmaceutical-manufacturing-a-short-review
#16
Kevin Buckley, Alan G Ryder
The production of active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) is currently undergoing its biggest transformation in a century. The changes are based on the rapid and dramatic introduction of protein- and macromolecule-based drugs (collectively known as biopharmaceuticals) and can be traced back to the huge investment in biomedical science (in particular in genomics and proteomics) that has been ongoing since the 1970s. Biopharmaceuticals (or biologics) are manufactured using biological-expression systems (such as mammalian, bacterial, insect cells, etc...
June 2017: Applied Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533216/a-diverse-community-to-study-communities-integration-of-experiments-and-mathematical-models-to-study-microbial-consortia
#17
Antonella Succurro, Fiona Wanjiku Moejes, Oliver Ebenhöh
The last few years have seen the advancement of high-throughput experimental techniques produce an extraordinary amount of data. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses have become instrumental to interpreting the information coming from e.g. sequencing data, and often motivate further targeted experiments. The broad discipline of "computational biology" spans far beyond the well-established field of bioinformatics, but it is our impression that more theoretical methods like mathematical models are not yet as well integrated in the research studying microbial interactions...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530665/molecular-engineering-of-chiral-colloidal-liquid-crystals-using-dna-origami
#18
Mahsa Siavashpouri, Christian H Wachauf, Mark J Zakhary, Florian Praetorius, Hendrik Dietz, Zvonimir Dogic
Establishing precise control over the shape and the interactions of the microscopic building blocks is essential for design of macroscopic soft materials with novel structural, optical and mechanical properties. Here, we demonstrate robust assembly of DNA origami filaments into cholesteric liquid crystals, one-dimensional supramolecular twisted ribbons and two-dimensional colloidal membranes. The exquisite control afforded by the DNA origami technology establishes a quantitative relationship between the microscopic filament structure and the macroscopic cholesteric pitch...
May 22, 2017: Nature Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530419/interpersonal-rivalries-gender-and-the-intellectual-and-scientific-making-of-psychoanalysis-in-1940s-britain
#19
Michal Shapira
This article examines the 1940s debates regarding the status and professional orthodoxy of psychoanalysis following Sigmund Freud's death, by exploring the Anna Freud-Melanie Klein Controversial Discussions in the British Psychoanalytical Society. Focusing on the work of now-forgotten analysts Melitta Schmideberg and Edward Glover, and on their relationship with Klein and her supporters, the article reveals how these neglected, yet important, debates were complicated by interpersonal and professional ties, processes of the professionalization, and changing gender norms...
May 2017: History of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530328/-the-israeli-rat-genome-center
#20
REVIEW
Yoram Yagil, Chana Yagil
The Israeli Rat Genome Center, which is located at the Barzilai Medical Center Campus of the Faculty of Health Sciences of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev in Ashkelon, was established to provide a repository of unique genetic strains of rats that were created in Israel and that simulate complex diseases. The Center incorporates models of: salt-sensitive hypertension (SBN/y and SBH/y rats), type 2 diabetes (CDr and CDs rats), combined hypertension and diabetes (CRDH) and additional genetic strains (transgenics, consomics, congenics)...
August 2016: Harefuah
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