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Complexity Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040132/a-call-for-standardization-in-platelet-rich-plasma-preparation-protocols-and-composition-reporting-a-systematic-review-of-the-clinical-orthopaedic-literature
#1
Jorge Chahla, Mark E Cinque, Nicolas S Piuzzi, Sandeep Mannava, Andrew G Geeslin, Iain R Murray, Grant J Dornan, George F Muschler, Robert F LaPrade
BACKGROUND: Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is a blood-derived preparation whose use has grown exponentially in orthopaedic practice. However, there remains an unclear understanding of the biological properties and effects of PRP on musculoskeletal healing. Heterogeneous processing methods, unstandardized nomenclature, and ambiguous classifications make comparison among studies challenging. A comprehensive assessment of orthopaedic clinical PRP trials is key to unraveling the biological complexity of PRP, while improving standardized communication...
October 18, 2017: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039937/concentration-independent-stereodynamic-g-probe-for-chiroptical-enantiomeric-excess-determination
#2
Paolo Zardi, Klaus Wurst, Giulia Licini, Cristiano Zonta
Enantiomeric excess determination is crucial in many aspects of science ranging from synthesis to materials. Within this subject, the use of molecular sensors coupled with chiroptical techniques is a straightforward approach to the stereochemical analysis of chiral molecules, especially in terms of process immediacy and labor. Ste-reodynamic probes typically consist of racemic mixtures of rapidly interconverting enantiomeric conformers able to recognize a chiral analyte and greatly amplify its chiroptical readout...
October 17, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036655/mfib-a-repository-of-protein-complexes-with-mutual-folding-induced-by-binding
#3
Erzsébet Fichó, István Reményi, István Simon, Bálint Mészáros
Motivation: It is commonplace that intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) are involved in crucial interactions in the living cell. However, the study of protein complexes formed exclusively by IDPs is hindered by the lack of data and such analyses remain sporadic. Systematic studies benefited other types of protein-protein interactions paving a way from basic science to therapeutics; yet these efforts require reliable datasets that are currently lacking for synergistically folding complexes of IDPs...
August 3, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036400/prediction-and-modeling-of-pre-analytical-sampling-errors-as-a-strategy-to-improve-plasma-nmr-metabolomics-data
#4
Carl Brunius, Anders Pedersen, Daniel Malmodin, B Göran Karlsson, Lars I Andersson, Gunnel Tybring, Rikard Landberg
Motivation: Biobanks are important infrastructures for life science research. Optimal sample handling regarding e.g. collection and processing of biological samples is highly complex, with many variables that could alter sample integrity and even more complex when considering multiple study centers or using legacy samples with limited documentation on sample management. Novel means to understand and take into account such variability would enable high-quality research on archived samples...
July 14, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033888/concussion-as-a-multi-scale-complex-system-an-interdisciplinary-synthesis-of-current-knowledge
#5
REVIEW
Erin S Kenzie, Elle L Parks, Erin D Bigler, Miranda M Lim, James C Chesnutt, Wayne Wakeland
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) has been called "the most complicated disease of the most complex organ of the body" and is an increasingly high-profile public health issue. Many patients report long-term impairments following even "mild" injuries, but reliable criteria for diagnosis and prognosis are lacking. Every clinical trial for TBI treatment to date has failed to demonstrate reliable and safe improvement in outcomes, and the existing body of literature is insufficient to support the creation of a new classification system...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033880/exploring-the-multi-layered-affordances-of-composing-and-performing-interactive-music-with-responsive-technologies
#6
Anna Einarsson, Tom Ziemke
The question motivating the work presented here, starting from a view of music as embodied and situated activity, is how can we account for the complexity of interactive music performance situations. These are situations in which human performers interact with responsive technologies, such as sensor-driven technology or sound synthesis affected by analysis of the performed sound signal. This requires investigating in detail the underlying mechanisms, but also providing a more holistic approach that does not lose track of the complex whole constituted by the interactions and relationships of composers, performers, audience, technologies, etc...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033468/the-aviation-paradox-why-we-can-know-jetliners-but-not-reactors
#7
John Downer
Publics and policymakers increasingly have to contend with the risks of complex, safety-critical technologies, such as airframes and reactors. As such, 'technological risk' has become an important object of modern governance, with state regulators as core agents, and 'reliability assessment' as the most essential metric. The Science and Technology Studies (STS) literature casts doubt on whether or not we should place our faith in these assessments because predictively calculating the ultra-high reliability required of such systems poses seemingly insurmountable epistemological problems...
2017: Minerva
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032357/actin-assembly-mechanisms-at-a-glance
#8
REVIEW
Klemens Rottner, Jan Faix, Sven Bogdan, Stefan Linder, Eugen Kerkhoff
The actin cytoskeleton and associated motor proteins provide the driving forces for establishing the astonishing morphological diversity and dynamics of mammalian cells. Aside from functions in protruding and contracting cell membranes for motility, differentiation or cell division, the actin cytoskeleton provides forces to shape and move intracellular membranes of organelles and vesicles. To establish the many different actin assembly functions required in time and space, actin nucleators are targeted to specific subcellular compartments, thereby restricting the generation of specific actin filament structures to those sites...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031933/relevant-models-and-elements-of-integrated-care-for-multi-morbidity-results-of-a-scoping-review
#9
Verena Struckmann, Fenna R M Leijten, Ewout van Ginneken, Markus Kraus, Miriam Reiss, Anne Spranger, Melinde R S Boland, Thomas Czypionka, Reinhard Busse, Maureen Rutten-van Mölken
BACKGROUND: In order to provide adequate care for the growing group of persons with multi-morbidity, innovative integrated care programmes are appearing. The aims of the current scoping review were to i) identify relevant models and elements of integrated care for multi-morbidity and ii) to subsequently identify which of these models and elements are applied in integrated care programmes for multi-morbidity. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted in the following scientific databases: Cochrane, Embase, PubMed, PsycInfo, Scopus, Sociological Abstracts, Social Services Abstracts, and Web of Science...
October 6, 2017: Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031791/biofeedback-in-dysphonia-progress-and-challenges
#10
Geová Oliveira de Amorim, Patrícia Maria Mendes Balata, Laís Guimarães Vieira, Thaís Moura, Hilton Justino da Silva
INTRODUCTION: There is evidence that all the complex machinery involved in speech acts along with the auditory system, and their adjustments can be altered. OBJECTIVE: To present the evidence of biofeedback application for treatment of vocal disorders, emphasizing the muscle tension dysphonia. METHODS: A systematic review was conducted in Scielo, Lilacs, PubMed and Web of Sciences databases, using the combination of descriptors, and admitting as inclusion criteria: articles published in journals with editorial committee, reporting cases or experimental or quasi-experimental research on the use of biofeedback in real time as additional source of treatment monitoring of muscle tension dysphonia or for vocal training...
August 19, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030295/the-new-phylogeny-of-the-genus-mycobacterium-the-old-and-the-news
#11
Enrico Tortoli, Tarcisio Fedrizzi, Conor J Meehan, Alberto Trovato, Antonella Grottola, Elisabetta Giacobazzi, Giulia Fregni Serpini, Sara Tagliazucchi, Anna Fabio, Clotilde Bettua, Roberto Bertorelli, Francesca Frascaro, Veronica De Sanctis, Monica Pecorari, Olivier Jousson, Nicola Segata, Daniela M Cirillo
BACKGROUND: Phylogenetic studies of bacteria have been based so far either on a single gene (usually the 16S rRNA) or on concatenated housekeeping genes. For what concerns the genus Mycobacterium these approaches support the separation of rapidly and slowly growing species and the clustering of most species in well-defined phylogenetic groups. The advent of high-throughput shotgun sequencing leads us to revise conventional taxonomy of mycobacteria on the light of genomic data. For this purpose we investigated 89 newly sequenced species in addition to 60 retrieved from GenBank and used the Average Nucleotide Identity pairwise scores to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships within this genus...
October 10, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028639/implications-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-for-the-anesthetic-and-perioperative-management-a-case-report-of-spinal-fusion-genetic-confusion-and-a-patient-s-perspective
#12
Linda S Aglio, Brian T Lockhart, Jeantine E Lunshof, Christoph S Nabzdyk
We describe a patient's personal struggle with a symptom complex consisting of profound muscle weakness requiring pyridostigmine, and metabolic abnormalities suggestive of mitochondrial disease. This included a profound sensitivity to opioids, which in the past caused severe respiratory depression during a prior hospital admission. Interestingly, the patient herself is a professor of ethics in genomic sciences, and she and her medical team thus far have not been able to formally diagnose her with mitochondrial disease...
October 12, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028576/bioelectrochromic-hydrogel-for-fast-antibiotic-susceptibility-testing
#13
Ferran Pujol-Vila, Jiri Dietvorst, Laura Gall-Mas, María Díaz-González, Núria Vigués, Jordi Mas, Xavier Muñoz-Berbel
Materials science offers new perspectives in the clinical analysis of antimicrobial sensitivity. However, a biomaterial with the capacity to respond to living bacteria has not been developed to date. We present an electrochromic iron(III)-complexed alginate hydrogel sensitive to bacterial metabolism, here applied to fast antibiotic-susceptibility determination. Bacteria under evaluation are entrapped -and pre-concentrated- in the hydrogel matrix by oxidation of iron (II) ions to iron (III) and in situ formation of the alginate hydrogel in less than 2min and in soft experimental conditions (i...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028235/how-to-include-public-health-practice-and-practitioners-in-a-european-network
#14
Silvio Brusaferro, Pierfrancesco Tricarico
There is a wide range of different Public Health (PH) activities and programs running in Europe. Besides the richness of national traditions, differences exist in numbers of programs, methods adopted, types of engaged professionals, available resources (including public investments), awareness to the problem and finally in health indicators among and within countries. Promoting networks of PH practices and practitioners strengthens the possibility to share knowledge across organizational, sectorial and geographic boundaries, promotes adaptation and local implementation, fosters innovation in the form of knowledge creation by developing more efficient new services and by sharing effective practices within and between organizations and sectors...
October 1, 2017: European Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027363/optimizing-separations-in-on-line-comprehensive-two-dimensional-liquid-chromatography
#15
REVIEW
Bob W J Pirok, Andrea F G Gargano, Peter J Schoenmakers
Online comprehensive two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC × LC) has become an attractive option for the analysis of complex non-volatile samples found in various fields (e.g. environmental studies, food, life, and polymer sciences). LC × LC complements the highly popular hyphenated systems that combine liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. LC × LC is also applied to the analysis of samples that are not compatible with mass spectrometry (e.g. high-molecular-weight polymers), providing important information on the distribution of the sample components along chemical dimensions (molecular weight, charge, lipophilicity, stereochemistry, etc...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024808/critical-care-nurses-experiences-of-withdrawal-of-treatment-a-systematic-review-of-qualitative-evidence
#16
REVIEW
Brandi Vanderspank-Wright, Nikolaos Efstathiou, Amanda D Vandyk
BACKGROUND: Death and dying is a reality of the clinical context of the intensive care unit. Death often follows a decision to withdraw life-sustaining treatments. Critical care nurses, are the primary care providers to patients and families at the end-of-life in the intensive care unit. OBJECTIVE: To synthesize qualitative evidence on the experiences of critical care nurses who have cared for patients and families throughout the process of withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment...
September 28, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024741/in-vivo-potency-revisited-keep-the-target-inl-sight
#17
REVIEW
Johan Gabrielsson, Lambertus A Peletier, Stephan Hjorth
Potency is a central parameter in pharmacological and biochemical sciences, as well as in drug discovery and development endeavors. It is however typically defined in terms only of ligand to target binding affinity also in in vivo experimentation, thus in a manner analogous to in in vitro studies. As in vivo potency is in fact a conglomerate of events involving ligand, target, and target-ligand complex processes, overlooking some of the fundamental differences between in vivo and in vitro may result in serious mispredictions of in vivo efficacious dose and exposure...
October 9, 2017: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024610/tough-the-measure-of-merit-in-psychological-science
#18
Todd Lubart, Christophe Mouchiroud
Scientific careers depend largely on the evaluation of one's merit. Yet scientists agree that the measurement of merit is quite a complex endeavor. Some indicators exist, such as Hirsch's well-known h index, but none can fully capture the complexity of the notion of merit. We propose that the h factor should be complemented with additional useful measurements: the t, o, u, and g indexes.
October 1, 2017: Perspectives on Psychological Science: a Journal of the Association for Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022513/discrepancies-in-animal-models-of-preterm-birth
#19
Clarence R Manuel, Charles R Ashby, Sandra E Reznik
BACKGROUND: Preterm birth (PTB) is a multifactorial syndrome occurring before the 37th week of full-term pregnancy [1]. Babies delivered preterm experience short-term and long-term complications affecting multiple organ systems, and serious maternal complications include hemorrhage and infection. Each year, an estimated 15 million babies are born preterm, and complications from prematurity are the leading cause of death among children up to 5 years of age [2]. With another increase in PTB rates over the last several years, the United States continues to have the highest incidence of any industrialized country [3]...
October 12, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021161/network-based-approaches-to-quantify-multicellular-development
#20
REVIEW
Matthew D B Jackson, Salva Duran-Nebreda, George W Bassel
Multicellularity and cellular cooperation confer novel functions on organs following a structure-function relationship. How regulated cell migration, division and differentiation events generate cellular arrangements has been investigated, providing insight into the regulation of genetically encoded patterning processes. Much less is known about the higher-order properties of cellular organization within organs, and how their functional coordination through global spatial relations shape and constrain organ function...
October 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
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