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Complexity Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087691/imaging-proteins-at-the-single-molecule-level
#1
Jean-Nicolas Longchamp, Stephan Rauschenbach, Sabine Abb, Conrad Escher, Tatiana Latychevskaia, Klaus Kern, Hans-Werner Fink
Imaging single proteins has been a long-standing ambition for advancing various fields in natural science, as for instance structural biology, biophysics, and molecular nanotechnology. In particular, revealing the distinct conformations of an individual protein is of utmost importance. Here, we show the imaging of individual proteins and protein complexes by low-energy electron holography. Samples of individual proteins and protein complexes on ultraclean freestanding graphene were prepared by soft-landing electrospray ion beam deposition, which allows chemical- and conformational-specific selection and gentle deposition...
January 13, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086971/characteristics-and-use-of-urban-health-indicator-tools-by-municipal-built-environment-policy-and-decision-makers-a-systematic-review-protocol
#2
Helen Pineo, Ketevan Glonti, Harry Rutter, Nicole Zimmermann, Paul Wilkinson, Michael Davies
BACKGROUND: There is wide agreement that there is a lack of attention to health in municipal environmental policy-making, such as urban planning and regeneration. Explanations for this include differing professional norms between health and urban environment professionals, system complexity and limited evidence for causality between attributes of the built environment and health outcomes. Data from urban health indicator (UHI) tools are potentially a valuable form of evidence for local government policy and decision-makers...
January 13, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079771/advanced-research-and-data-methods-in-women-s-health-big-data-analytics-adaptive-studies-and-the-road-ahead
#3
Christian R Macedonia, Clark T Johnson, Indika Rajapakse
Technical advances in science have had broad implications in reproductive and women's health care. Recent innovations in population-level data collection and storage have made available an unprecedented amount of data for analysis while computational technology has evolved to permit processing of data previously thought too dense to study. "Big data" is a term used to describe data that are a combination of dramatically greater volume, complexity, and scale. The number of variables in typical big data research can readily be in the thousands, challenging the limits of traditional research methodologies...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078586/study-of-the-cd95-mediated-non-apoptotic-signaling-pathway-pi3k
#4
Amélie Fouqué, Patrick Legembre
CD95 is a plasma membrane receptor that belongs to the TNF receptor family (Itoh and Nagata, J Biol Chem 268(15):10932-10937, 1993; Trauth et al., Science 245(4915):301-305, 1989). Accumulating evidence indicate that this so-called death receptor can also trigger non-apoptotic signaling pathways promoting inflammation and oncogenesis (Barnhart et al., Embo J 23(15):3175-3185, 2004; Chen et al., Nature 465(7297):492-496, 2010; Legembre et al., Cell Cycle 3(10):1235-1239, 2004; Legembre et al., EMBO Rep 5(11):1084-1089, 2004; Malleter et al...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077925/artificial-cells-from-basic-science-to-applications
#5
Can Xu, Shuo Hu, Xiaoyuan Chen
Artificial cells have attracted much attention as substitutes for natural cells. There are many different forms of artificial cells with many different definitions. They can be integral biological cell imitators with cell-like structures and exhibit some of the key characteristics of living cells. Alternatively, they can be engineered materials that only mimic some of the properties of cells, such as surface characteristics, shapes, morphology, or a few specific functions. These artificial cells can have applications in many fields from medicine to environment, and may be useful in constructing the theory of the origin of life...
November 2016: Materials Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075157/visual-occlusion-during-minimally-invasive-surgery-a-contemporary-review-of-methods-to-reduce-laparoscopic-and-robotic-lens-fogging-and-other-sources-of-optical-loss
#6
Todd Galvin Manning, Marlon Perera, Daniel Christidis, Ned Kinnear, Shannon McGrath, Richard O'Beirne, Paul Zotov, Damien M Bolton, Nathan Lawrentschuk
Background Maintenance of optimal vision during minimally invasive surgery is crucial to maintaining operative awareness, efficiency and safety. Hampered vision is commonly caused by laparoscopic lens fogging (LLF) which has prompted the development of various anti-fogging fluids and warming devices. However, limited comparative evidence exists in contemporary literature. Despite technological advancements there remains no consensus as to superior methods to prevent LLF or restore visual acuity once LLF has occurred...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Endourology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074900/physical-controllability-of-complex-networks
#7
Le-Zhi Wang, Yu-Zhong Chen, Wen-Xu Wang, Ying-Cheng Lai
A challenging problem in network science is to control complex networks. In existing frameworks of structural or exact controllability, the ability to steer a complex network toward any desired state is measured by the minimum number of required driver nodes. However, if we implement actual control by imposing input signals on the minimum set of driver nodes, an unexpected phenomenon arises: due to computational or experimental error there is a great probability that convergence to the final state cannot be achieved...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073267/folding-sheets-with-ion-beams
#8
Cheng-Lun Wu, Fang-Cheng Li, Chun-Wei Pao, David J Srolovitz
Focused ion beams (FIBs) are versatile tools with cross-disciplinary applications from the physical and life sciences to archeology. Nevertheless, the nanoscale patterning precision of FIBs is often accompanied by defect formation and sample deformation. In this study, the fundamental mechanisms governing the large-scale plastic deformation of nanostructures undergoing FIB processes are revealed by a series of molecular dynamic simulations. A surprisingly simple linear correlation between atomic volume removed from the film bulk and film deflection angle, regardless of incident ion energy and current, is revealed, demonstrating that the mass transport to the surface of material caused by energetic ion bombardment is the primary cause leading to nanostructure deformation...
January 11, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28070572/electrostatic-layer-by-layer-construction-of-fibrous-tmv-biofilms
#9
Brylee David B Tiu, Daniel L Kernan, Sicily B Tiu, Amy M Wen, Yi Zheng, Jonathan K Pokorski, Rigoberto C Advincula, Nicole F Steinmetz
As nature's choice in designing complex architectures, the bottom-up assembly of nanoscale building blocks offers unique solutions in achieving more complex and smaller morphologies with wide-ranging applications in medicine, energy, and materials science as compared to top-down manufacturing. In this work, we employ charged tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-wt and TMV-lys) nanoparticles in constructing multilayered fibrous networks via electrostatic layer-by-layer (LbL) deposition. In neutral aqueous media, TMV-wt assumes an anionic surface charge...
January 10, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069261/de-problematizing-gmos-suggestions-for-communicating-about-genetic-engineering
#10
Stefaan Blancke, Wim Grunewald, Geert De Jaeger
The public debates concerning genetic engineering (GE) involve many non-scientific issues. The ensuing complexity is one reason why biotechnologists are reluctant to become involved. By sharing our personal experiences in science communication and suggesting ways to de-problematize GE, we aim to inspire our colleagues to engage with the public.
January 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069078/women-s-empowerment-and-family-planning-a-review-of-the-literature
#11
Ndola Prata, Ashley Fraser, Megan J Huchko, Jessica D Gipson, Mellissa Withers, Shayna Lewis, Erica J Ciaraldi, Ushma D Upadhyay
This paper reviews the literature examining the relationship between women's empowerment and contraceptive use, unmet need for contraception and related family planning topics in developing countries. Searches were conducted using PubMed, Popline and Web of Science search engines in May 2013 to examine literature published between January 1990 and December 2012. Among the 46 articles included in the review, the majority were conducted in South Asia (n=24). Household decision-making (n=21) and mobility (n=17) were the most commonly examined domains of women's empowerment...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Biosocial Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068489/legumes-as-functional-ingredients-in-gluten-free-bakery-and-pasta-products
#12
Martina Foschia, Stefan W Horstmann, Elke K Arendt, Emanuele Zannini
The increasing demand of gluten-free food products from consumers has triggered food technologists to investigate a wide range of gluten-free ingredients from different sources to reproduce the unique network structure developed by gluten in a wheat-dough system. In recent times, the attention has been focused on novel application of legume flour or ingredients. The interest in this crop category is mainly attributed to their functional properties, such as solubility and water-binding capacity, which play an important role in gluten-free food formulation and processing...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068484/informatics-and-data-analytics-to-support-exposome-based-discovery-for-public-health
#13
Arjun K Manrai, Yuxia Cui, Pierre R Bushel, Molly Hall, Spyros Karakitsios, Carolyn J Mattingly, Marylyn Ritchie, Charles Schmitt, Denis A Sarigiannis, Duncan C Thomas, David Wishart, David M Balshaw, Chirag J Patel
The complexity of the human exposome-the totality of environmental exposures encountered from birth to death-motivates systematic, high-throughput approaches to discover the environmental determinants of disease. In this review, we describe the state of science in analyzing the human exposome and provide recommendations for the public health community to consider in dealing with analytic challenges of exposome-based biomedical research. We describe extant and novel analytic methods needed to associate the exposome with critical health outcomes and contextualize the data-centered challenges by drawing parallels to other research endeavors such as human genomics research...
December 23, 2016: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068061/looking-at-photoinduced-charge-transfer-processes-in-the-ir-answers-to-several-long-standing-questions
#14
Bogdan Dereka, Marius Koch, Eric Vauthey
Because of its crucial role in many areas of science and technology, photoinduced electron transfer is the most investigated photochemical reaction. Despite this, several important questions remain open. We present recent efforts to answer some of them, which concern both inter- and intramolecular processes. The decisive factor that allowed these issues to be successfully addressed was the use of time-resolved infrared (TRIR) spectroscopy. Many different transient species, such as tight and loose ion pairs (TIPs and LIPs) and exciplexes, have been invoked to explain the dynamics of intermolecular photoinduced charge separation reactions (i...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068053/surface-modification-of-gold-nanoparticles-with-small-molecules-for-biochemical-analysis
#15
Yiping Chen, Yunlei Xianyu, Xingyu Jiang
As one of the major tools for and by chemical science, biochemical analysis is becoming increasingly important in fields like clinical diagnosis, food safety, environmental monitoring, and the development of chemistry and biochemistry. The advancement of nanotechnology boosts the development of analytical chemistry, particularly the nanoparticle (NP)-based approaches for biochemical assays. Functional NPs can greatly improve the performance of biochemical analysis because they can accelerate signal transduction, enhance the signal intensity, and enable convenient signal readout due to their unique physical and chemical properties...
January 9, 2017: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067444/irreversible-conversion-of-a-water-ethanol-solution-into-an-organized-two-dimensional-network-of-alternating-supramolecular-units-in-a-hydrophobic-zeolite-under-pressure
#16
Rossella Arletti, Ettore Fois, Lara Gigli, Giovanna Vezzalini, Simona Quartieri, Gloria Tabacchi
Turning disorder into organization is a key issue in science. By making use of X-ray powder diffraction and modeling studies, we show herein that high pressures in combination with the shape and space constraints of the hydrophobic all-silica zeolite ferrierite separate an ethanol-water liquid mixture into ethanol dimer wires and water tetramer squares. The confined supramolecular blocks alternate in a binary two-dimensional (2D) architecture that remains stable upon complete pressure release. These results support the combined use of high pressures and porous networks as a viable strategy for driving the organization of molecules or nano-objects towards complex, pre-defined patterns relevant for the realization of novel functional nanocomposites...
January 9, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067031/informed-consent-the-case-of-%C3%A2-omics%C3%A2-literacy
#17
Marilyn Hammer
The world of “-omics” is vastly changing the landscape of accelerated research and its translation to patient care. Understanding this complex science, particularly in the world of oncogenomics, can be daunting. Questions arise pertaining to how nurses can best educate patients who are forced to make difficult decisions without fully understanding to what they are consenting. This article follows a patient story that drives home the need to improve -omics literacy.
6, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065518/membranous-nephropathy-integrating-basic-science-into-improved-clinical-management
#18
REVIEW
Daniel C Cattran, Paul E Brenchley
Idiopathic membranous nephropathy (INM) remains a common cause of the nephrotic syndrome in adults. The autoimmune nature of IMN was clearly delineated in 2009 with the identification of the glomerular-deposited IgG to be a podocyte receptor, phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R) in 70% to 75% of cases. This anti-PLA2R autoantibody, predominantly the IgG4 subclass, has been quantitated in serum using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and has been used to aid diagnosis and monitor response to immunosuppressive therapy...
January 5, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065453/protective-effects-of-l-carnitine-against-delayed-graft-function-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-pilot-randomized-double-blinded-placebo-controlled-clinical-trial
#19
Atefeh Jafari, Mohammad-Reza Khatami, Simin Dashti-Khavidaki, Mahboob Lessan-Pezeshki, Alireza Abdollahi, Azadeh Moghaddas
OBJECTIVE: Delayed graft function (DGF) is an early complication after deceased donor kidney transplantation with significant adverse effects on graft outcomes. Ischemia-reperfusion injury during transplantation is a major cause of DGF. Tissue concentrations of carnitine, an antioxidant and regulator of cellular energy supply, decrease in the kidney following ischemia-reperfusion insult. Based on promising animal data, this study evaluated the possible protective effect of L-carnitine against DGF...
January 3, 2017: Journal of Renal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065430/informed-consent-in-dental-care-and-research-for-the-older-adult-population-a-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Amrita Mukherjee, Alicia A Livinski, Joseph Millum, Steffany Chamut, Shahdokht Boroumand, Timothy J Iafolla, Margo R Adesanya, Bruce A Dye
BACKGROUND: Ethics in health care and research is based on the fundamental principle of informed consent. However, informed consent in geriatric dentistry is not well documented. Poor health, cognitive decline, and the passive nature of many geriatric patients complicate this issue. METHODS: The authors completed this systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. The authors searched the PubMed (MEDLINE), Web of Science, PsycINFO, and Cochrane Library databases...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the American Dental Association
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