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Complexity Sciences

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221872/analysis-of-food-safety-and-security-challenges-in-emerging-african-food-producing-areas-through-a-one-health-lens-the-dairy-chains-in-mali
#1
Rachel Cheng, Alberto Mantovani, Chiara Frazzoli
Challenges posed by changes in livestock production in emerging food producing areas and demographic development and climate change require new approaches and responsibilities in the management of food chains. The increasingly recognized role of primary food producers requires the support of the scientific community to instruct effective approaches based on scientific data, tools, and expertise. Mali is an emerging food producing area, and this review covers (i) the dairy farming scenario and its environment, (ii) the role of dairy production in food security, including the greatly different animal rearing systems in the Sahel and tropical regions, (iii) risk management pillars as modern infrastructures, effective farmer organizations, and institutional systems to guarantee animal health and safety of products, and (iv) feasible interventions based on good practices and risk assessment at the farm level (e...
January 2017: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220995/development-of-hydrogels-for-regenerative-engineering
#2
REVIEW
Xiaofei Guan, Meltem Avci-Adali, Emine Alarçin, Hao Cheng, Sara Saheb Kashaf, Yuxiao Li, Aditya Chawla, Hae Lin Jang, Ali Khademhosseini
The aim of regenerative engineering is to restore complex tissues and biological systems through convergence in the fields of advanced biomaterials, stem cell science, and developmental biology. Hydrogels are one of the most attractive biomaterials for regenerative engineering, since they can be engineered into tissue mimetic 3D scaffolds to support cell growth due to their similarity to native extracellular matrix. Advanced nano- and micro-technologies have dramatically increased the ability to control properties and functionalities of hydrogel materials by facilitating biomimetic fabrication of more sophisticated compositions and architectures, thus extending our understanding of cell-matrix interactions at the nanoscale...
February 21, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220680/an-environmental-sociology-for-the-anthropocene
#3
Gary Bowden
Attention to the relationship between nature and society has been a defining feature of environmental sociology since its inception. Early research, incorporating insights from ecology, argued for the need to (1) theorize the causal connections between nature and society and (2) contextualize those connections in terms of biophysical limits resulting from resource scarcity. Over the past two decades, partly in response to new forms of existential threat such as climate change, the treatment of nature and society as distinct entities has given way to a focus on socio-natural assemblages...
February 2017: Canadian Review of Sociology, Revue Canadienne de Sociologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219417/documenting-research-with-transgender-and-gender%C3%A2-diverse-people-protocol-for-an-evidence-map-and-thematic-analysis
#4
Zack Marshall, Vivian Welch, James Thomas, Fern Brunger, Michelle Swab, Ian Shemilt, Chris Kaposy
BACKGROUND: There is limited information about how transgender, gender diverse, and Two-Spirit (trans) people have been represented and studied by researchers. The objectives of this study are to (1) map and describe trans research in the social sciences, sciences, humanities, health, education, and business, (2) identify evidence gaps and opportunities for more responsible research with trans people, (3) assess the use of text mining for study identification, and (4) increase access to trans research for key stakeholders through the creation of a web-based evidence map...
February 20, 2017: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28219035/conceptualizing-agency-folkpsychological-and-folkcommunicative-perspectives-on-plants
#5
Bethany L Ojalehto, Douglas L Medin, Salino G García
The present research addresses cultural variation in concepts of agency. Across two experiments, we investigate how Indigenous Ngöbe of Panama and US college students interpret and make inferences about nonhuman agency, focusing on plants as a critical test case. In Experiment 1, participants predicted goal-directed actions for plants and other nonhuman kinds and judged their capacities for intentional agency. Goal-directed action is pervasive among living kinds and as such we expected cultural agreement on these predictions...
February 17, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217849/how-long-bones-grow-children-mechanistic-paths-to-variation-in-human-height-growth
#6
REVIEW
Michelle Lampl, Meriah Schoen
OBJECTIVES: Eveleth and Tanner's descriptive documentation of worldwide variability in human growth provided evidence of the interaction between genetics and environment during development that has been foundational to the science of human growth. There remains a need, however, to describe the mechanistic foundations of variability in human height growth patterns. METHODS: A review of research documenting cellular activities at the endochondral growth plate aims to show how the unique microenvironment and cell functions during the sequential phases of the chondrocyte lifecycle affect long bone elongation, a fundamental source of height growth...
February 20, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217739/grounded-and-embodied-mathematical-cognition-promoting-mathematical-insight-and-proof-using-action-and-language
#7
Mitchell J Nathan, Candace Walkington
We develop a theory of grounded and embodied mathematical cognition (GEMC) that draws on action-cognition transduction for advancing understanding of how the body can support mathematical reasoning. GEMC proposes that participants' actions serve as inputs capable of driving the cognition-action system toward associated cognitive states. This occurs through a process of transduction that promotes valuable mathematical insights by eliciting dynamic depictive gestures that enact spatio-temporal properties of mathematical entities...
2017: Cogn Res Princ Implic
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28217535/prevalence-and-pattern-of-partial-edentulism-among-dental-patients-attending-college-of-dentistry-aljouf-university-saudi-arabia
#8
Mostafa I Fayad, Mohamed N Baig, Abdulrazaq M Alrawaili
OBJECTIVE: The current study aimed to determine the prevalence and pattern of partial edentulism among dental patients attending the College of Dentistry, Aljouf University, Saudi Arabia. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A total of 142 patients were selected, and the prevalence of partial edentulism among the selected patient was recorded. Patients were grouped into three age groups; Group I: 21-30 years, Group II: 31-40 years, and Group III: 41-50 years. Kennedy's classification was used to determine the pattern of partially edentulous arches...
December 2016: Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215809/topological-data-analysis-tda-applied-to-reveal-pedogenetic-principles-of-european-topsoil-system
#9
Aleksandar Savic, Gergely Toth, Ludovic Duponchel
Recent developments in applied mathematics are bringing new tools that are capable to synthesize knowledge in various disciplines, and help in finding hidden relationships between variables. One such technique is topological data analysis (TDA), a fusion of classical exploration techniques such as principal component analysis (PCA), and a topological point of view applied to clustering of results. Various phenomena have already received new interpretations thanks to TDA, from the proper choice of sport teams to cancer treatments...
February 16, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214437/chempreview-an-augmented-reality-based-molecular-interface
#10
Min Zheng, Mark P Waller
Human computer interfaces make computational science more comprehensible and impactful. Complex 3D structures such as proteins or DNA are magnified by digital representations and displayed on two-dimensional monitors. Augmented reality has recently opened another door to access the virtual three-dimensional world. Herein, we present an augmented reality application called ChemPreview with the potential to manipulate bio-molecular structures at an atomistic level. ChemPreview is available at https://github.com/wallerlab/chem-preview/releases, and is built on top of the Meta 1 platform https://www...
January 31, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#11
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213127/quantitation-of-lead-210-210-pb-using-lead-203-203-pb-as-a-massless-yield-tracer
#12
D May, A N Nelson, M K Schultz
Determination of Pb-210 ((210)Pb) in aqueous solution is a common radioanalytical challenge in environmental science. Widely used methods for undertaking these analyses (e.g., ASTM D7535) rely on the use of stable lead (Pb) as a yield tracer that takes into account losses of (210)Pb that inevitably occur during elemental/radiochemical separations of the procedures. Although effective, these methods introduce technical challenges that can be difficult to track and potentially introduce uncertainty that can be difficult to quantify...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212969/lessons-learned-when-introducing-pharmacogenomic-panel-testing-into-clinical-practice
#13
Marc B Rosenman, Brian Decker, Kenneth D Levy, Ann M Holmes, Victoria M Pratt, Michael T Eadon
OBJECTIVES: Implementing new programs to support precision medicine in clinical settings is a complex endeavor. We describe challenges and potential solutions based on the Indiana GENomics Implementation: an Opportunity for the Underserved (INGenious) program at Eskenazi Health-one of six sites supported by the Implementing GeNomics In pracTicE network grant of the National Institutes of Health/National Human Genome Research Institute. INGenious is an implementation of a panel of genomic tests...
January 2017: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212897/representing-composed-meanings-through-temporal-binding
#14
Hugh Rabagliati, Leonidas A A Doumas, Douglas K Bemis
A key feature of human thought and language is compositionality, the ability to bind pre-existing concepts or word meanings together in order to express new ideas. Here we ask how newly composed complex concepts are mentally represented and matched to the outside world, by testing whether it is harder to verify if a picture matches the meaning of a phrase, like big pink tree, than the meaning of a single word, like tree. Five sentence-picture verification experiments provide evidence that, in fact, the meaning of a phrase can often be checked just as fast as the meaning of one single word (and sometimes faster), indicating that the phrase's constituent concepts can be represented and checked in parallel...
February 14, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211559/behavioral-genetics-in-polish-print-news-media-between-2000-and-2014
#15
Jan Domaradzki
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this paper is to describe how Polish print news media frame relations between genetics and human behaviors and what images of behavioral genetics dominate in press discourse. METHODS: A content and frame analysis of 72 print news articles about behavioral genetics published between 2000 and 2014 in four major Polish weekly magazines: "Polityka", "Wprost", "Newsweek" and "Przekrój" was conducted. RESULTS: Twenty one different behaviors were mentioned in the sample and six major analytic frames were identified: essentialist, materialistic, deterministic, probabilistic, optimistic and pessimistic...
December 23, 2016: Psychiatria Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207956/application-of-network-methods-for-understanding-evolutionary-dynamics-in-discrete-habitats
#16
Gili Greenbaum, Nina H Fefferman
In populations occupying discrete habitat patches, gene flow between habitat patches may form an intricate population structure. In such structures, the evolutionary dynamics resulting from interaction of gene flow patterns with other evolutionary forces may be exceedingly complex. Several models describing gene flow between discrete habitat patches have been presented in the population genetics literature; however, these models have usually addressed relatively simple settings of habitable patches, and have stopped short of providing general methodologies for addressing non-trivial gene flow patterns...
February 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205401/computer-aided-drug-design-to-explore-cyclodextrin-therapeutics-and-biomedical-applications
#17
Azizeh Abdolmaleki, Fatemeh Ghasemi, Jahan B Ghasemi
Cyclodextrin (CD) is a subset of the macrocyclic structural class, which is an important class of small organic agents that are useful functional excipients. They have wide range application possibilities in different fields of sciences such as material preparation, medicine, analytical chemistry, and separation processes. They are used widely in pharmaceutical formulations and drug delivery for increasing the water solubility of low soluble drugs and drug candidates. Due to the ring structure, they behave differently than smaller molecules and may be capable of hitting new classes of targets...
February 2017: Chemical Biology & Drug Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204845/mirnas-target-databases-developmental-methods-and-target-identification-techniques-with-functional-annotations
#18
REVIEW
Nagendra Kumar Singh
PURPOSE: microRNA (miRNA) regulates diverse biological mechanisms and metabolisms in plants and animals. Thus, the discoveries of miRNA has revolutionized the life sciences and medical research.The miRNA represses and cleaves the targeted mRNA by binding perfect or near perfect or imperfect complementary base pairs by RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC) formation during biogenesis process. One miRNA interacts with one or more mRNA genes and vice versa, hence takes part in causing various diseases...
February 15, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202154/social-media-processes-in-disasters-implications-of-emergent-technology-use
#19
Dhiraj Murthy, Alexander J Gross
This article seeks to extend social science scholarship on social media technology use during disruptive events. Though social media's role in times of crisis has been previously studied, much of this work tends to focus on first-responders and relief organizations. However, social media use during disasters tends to be decentralized and this organizational structure can promote different types of messages to top-down information systems. Using 142,786 geo-tagged tweets collected before and after Hurricane Sandy's US landfall as a case study, this article seeks to explore shifts in social media behavior during disruptive events and highlights that though Sandy disrupted routine life within Twitter, users responded to the disaster by employing humor, sharing photos, and checking into locations...
March 2017: Social Science Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199923/assistance-at-mealtimes-in-hospital-settings-and-rehabilitation-units-for-patients-65years-from-the-perspective-of-patients-families-and-healthcare-professionals-a-mixed-methods-systematic-review
#20
REVIEW
Deborah Edwards, Judith Carrier, Jane Hopkinson
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is one of the key issues affecting the health of older people (>65years). With an aging population the problem is expected to increase further since the prevalence of malnutrition increases with age. Studies worldwide have identified that some older patients with good appetites do not receive sufficient nourishment because of inadequate feeding assistance. Mealtime assistance can enhance nutritional intake, clinical outcomes and patient experience. OBJECTIVES/AIM: To determine the effectiveness of meal time assistance initiatives for improving nutritional intake and nutritional status for older adult patients (>65years) in hospital settings and rehabilitation units...
January 30, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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