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Retinal stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917311/rock-inhibition-promotes-attachment-proliferation-and-wound-closure-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigmented-epithelium
#1
Roxanne H Croze, William J Thi, Dennis O Clegg
PURPOSE: Nonexudative (dry) age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a leading cause of blindness in the elderly, is associated with the loss of retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) cells and the development of geographic atrophy, which are areas devoid of RPE cells and photoreceptors. One possible treatment option would be to stimulate RPE attachment and proliferation to replace dying/dysfunctional RPE and bring about wound repair. Clinical trials are underway testing injections of RPE cells derived from pluripotent stem cells to determine their safety and efficacy in treating AMD...
November 2016: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911706/using-induced-pluripotent-stem-cells-to-understand-retinal-ciliopathy-disease-mechanisms-and-develop-therapies
#2
REVIEW
David A Parfitt, Amelia Lane, Conor Ramsden, Katarina Jovanovic, Peter J Coffey, Alison J Hardcastle, Michael E Cheetham
The photoreceptor cells in the retina have a highly specialised sensory cilium, the outer segment (OS), which is important for detecting light. Mutations in cilia-related genes often result in retinal degeneration. The ability to reprogramme human cells into induced pluripotent stem cells and then differentiate them into a wide range of different cell types has revolutionised our ability to study human disease. To date, however, the challenge of producing fully differentiated photoreceptors in vitro has limited the application of this technology in studying retinal degeneration...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906070/subretinal-adipose-tissue-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cell-implantation-in-advanced-stage-retinitis-pigmentosa-a-phase-i-clinical-safety-study
#3
Ayse Oner, Z Burcin Gonen, Neslihan Sinim, Mustafa Cetin, Yusuf Ozkul
BACKGROUND: This prospective clinical case series aimed to investigate the safety of subretinal adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cell (ADMSC) implantation in advanced stage retinitis pigmentosa (RP). METHODS: This study included 11 patients with end-stage RP who received subretinal implantation of ADMSCs. All patients had a total visual field defect and five of them only had light perception. The best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in the study was 20/2000...
December 1, 2016: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904503/stem-cell-ophthalmology-treatment-study-scots-bone-marrow-derived-stem-cells-in-the-treatment-of-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#4
Jeffrey N Weiss, Steven Levy, Susan C Benes
The Stem Cell Ophthalmology Treatment Study (SCOTS) is currently the largest-scale stem cell ophthalmology trial registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (identifier: NCT01920867). SCOTS utilizes autologous bone marrow-derived stem cells (BMSCs) to treat optic nerve and retinal diseases. Treatment approaches include a combination of retrobulbar, subtenon, intravitreal, intra-optic nerve, subretinal, and intravenous injection of autologous BMSCs according to the nature of the disease, the degree of visual loss, and any risk factors related to the treatments...
October 2016: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876464/m%C3%A3-ller-stem-cell-dependent-retinal-regeneration
#5
REVIEW
Annu Chohan, Usha Singh, Atul Kumar, Jasbir Kaur
Müller Stem cells to treat ocular diseases has triggered enthusiasm across all medical and scientific communities. Recent development in the field of stem cells has widened the prospects of applying cell based therapies to regenerate ocular tissues that have been irreversibly damaged by disease or injury. Ocular tissues such as the lens and the retina are now known to possess cell having remarkable regenerative abilities. Recent studies have shown that the Müller glia, a cell found in all vertebrate retinas, is the primary source of new neurons, and therefore are considered as the cellular basis for retinal regeneration in mammalian retinas...
November 19, 2016: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27868044/stem-cells-with-a-view-a-look-inside-a-retinal-ciliopathy
#6
EDITORIAL
Linjing Li, Hemant Khanna
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2016: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867005/temporal-expression-of-cd184-cxcr4-and-cd171-l1cam-identifies-distinct-early-developmental-stages-of-human-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retina
#7
J G Aparicio, H Hopp, A Choi, J Mandayam Comar, V C Liao, N Harutyunyan, T C Lee
Human retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have anticipated value for human disease study, drug screening, and therapeutic applications; however, their full potential remains underdeveloped. To characterize RGCs in human embryonic stem cell (hESC) derived retinal organoids we examined RGC markers and surface antigen expression and made comparisons to human fetal retina. RGCs in both tissues exhibited CD184 and CD171 expression and distinct expression patterns of the RGC markers BRN3 and RBPMS...
November 17, 2016: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864663/mesenchymal-stem-cells-attenuate-hydrogen-peroxide-induced-oxidative-stress-and-enhance-neuroprotective-effects-in-retinal-ganglion-cells
#8
Yi Cui, Nuo Xu, Wei Xu, Guoxing Xu
The apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells leads to visual impairment and blindness in ocular neurodegenerative diseases, especially in diabetic retinopathy (DR). Mounting evidence suggests that oxidative stress contributes to the pathogenesis of DR. In the present study, we investigated whether bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have protective ability to relieve hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury on retinal ganglion cells in vitro. An immortalized retinal ganglion cells, RGC-5 cells, were exposed to an indicated concentration of H2O2 for 24 h...
November 18, 2016: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856246/reprogramming-of-retinoblastoma-cancer-cells-into-cancer-stem-cells
#9
Fengming Yue, Kanji Hirashima, Daihachiro Tomotsune, Sakiko Takizawa-Shirasawa, Tadayuki Yokoyama, Katsunori Sasaki
Retinoblastoma is the most common intraocular malignancy in pediatric patients. It develops rapidly in the retina and can be fatal if not treated promptly. It has been proposed that a small population of cancer cells, termed cancer stem cells (CSCs), initiate tumorigenesis from immature tissue stem cells or progenitor cells. Reprogramming technology, which can convert mature cells into pluripotent stem cells (iPS), provides the possibility of transducing malignant cancer cells back to CSCs, a type of early stage of cancer...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826002/3d-culture-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-rgd-alginate-hydrogel-improves-retinal-tissue-development
#10
Nicola C Hunt, Dean Hallam, Ayesha Karimi, Carla B Mellough, Jinju Chen, David H W Steel, Majlinda Lako
: No treatments exist to effectively treat many retinal diseases. Retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) and neural retina can be generated from human embryonic stem cells/induced pluripotent stem cells (hESCs/hiPSCs). The efficacy of current protocols is, however, limited. It was hypothesised that generation of laminated neural retina and/or RPE from hiPSCs/hESCs could be enhanced by 3D culture in hydrogels. hiPSC- and hESC-derived embryoid bodies (EBs) were encapsulated in 0.5% RGD-alginate; 1% RGD-alginate; hyaluronic acid (HA) or HA/gelatin hydrogels and maintained until day 45...
November 5, 2016: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27812821/early-retinal-differentiation-of-human-pluripotent-stem-cells-in-microwell-suspension-cultures
#11
Vishal S Sharma, Rana Khalife, Rui Tostoes, Leonard Leung, Rose Kinsella, Ludmilla Ruban, Farlan S Veraitch
OBJECTIVE: To develop a microwell suspension platform for the adaption of attached stem cell differentiation protocols into mixed suspension culture. RESULTS: We adapted an adherent protocol for the retinal differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) using a two-step protocol. Establishing the optimum embryoid body (EB) starting size and shaking speed resulted in the translation of the original adherent process into suspension culture. Embryoid bodies expanded in size as the culture progressed resulting in the expression of characteristic markers of early (Rx, Six and Otx2) and late (Crx, Nrl and Rhodopsin) retinal differentiation...
November 3, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27807930/human-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-for-retinal-vascular-injury
#12
Jin-Da Wang, Ying An, Jing-Shang Zhang, Xiu-Hua Wan, Jost B Jonas, Liang Xu, Wei Zhang
PURPOSE: To examine the potential of intravitreally implanted human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) to affect vascular repair and the blood-retina barrier in mice and rats with oxygen-induced retinopathy, diabetic retinopathy or retinal ischaemia-reperfusion damage. METHODS: Three study groups (oxygen-induced retinopathy group: 18 C57BL/6J mice; diabetic retinopathy group: 15 rats; retinal ischaemia-reperfusion model: 18 rats) received BMSCs injected intravitreally...
November 3, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27803852/therapeutic-effects-of-mesenchymal-stem-cells-administered-at-later-phase-of-recurrent-experimental-autoimmune-uveitis
#13
Ping-Ting Zhao, Ling-Jun Zhang, Hui Shao, Ling-Ling Bai, Bo Yu, Chang Su, Li-Jie Dong, Xun Liu, Xiao-Rong Li, Xiao-Min Zhang
AIM: To test the therapeutic effects of delayed treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in recurrent experimental autoimmune uveitis (rEAU). METHODS: The efficacy of different regimens of MSC administration in rEAU were tested by evaluation of clinical and pathological intraocular inflammation, as well as retinal structural and functional integrity using optical coherence tomography (OCT) and electroretinogram (ERG). The retinal sections were also immunostained with antibodies to glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and rhodopsin (RHO)...
2016: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784628/advances-in-bone-marrow-stem-cell-therapy-for-retinal-dysfunction
#14
REVIEW
Susanna S Park, Elad Moisseiev, Gerhard Bauer, Johnathon D Anderson, Maria B Grant, Azhar Zam, Robert J Zawadzki, John S Werner, Jan A Nolta
The most common cause of untreatable vision loss is dysfunction of the retina. Conditions, such as age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma remain leading causes of untreatable blindness worldwide. Various stem cell approaches are being explored for treatment of retinal regeneration. The rationale for using bone marrow stem cells to treat retinal dysfunction is based on preclinical evidence showing that bone marrow stem cells can rescue degenerating and ischemic retina. These stem cells have primarily paracrine trophic effects although some cells can directly incorporate into damaged tissue...
October 23, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27782803/co-activator-candidate-interactions-for-orphan-nuclear-receptor-nr2e1
#15
Ximena Corso-Díaz, Charles N de Leeuw, Vivian Alonso, Diana Melchers, Bibiana K Y Wong, René Houtman, Elizabeth M Simpson
BACKGROUND: NR2E1 (Tlx) is an orphan nuclear receptor that regulates the maintenance and self-renewal of neural stem cells, and promotes tumourigenesis. Nr2e1-null mice exhibit reduced cortical and limbic structures and pronounced retinal dystrophy. NR2E1 functions mainly as a repressor of gene transcription in association with the co-repressors atrophin-1, LSD1, HDAC and BCL11A. Recent evidence suggests that NR2E1 also acts as an activator of gene transcription. However, co-activator complexes that interact with NR2E1 have not yet been identified...
October 26, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768856/elevated-serum-tetrac-in-graves-disease-potential-pathogenic-role-in-thyroid-associated-ophthalmopathy
#16
Roshini Fernando, Ekaterina Placzek, Edmund A Reese, Andrew T Placzek, Samantha Schwartz, Aaron Trierweiler, Leslie M Niziol, Stephen Atkins, Thomas S Scanlan, Terry J Smith
CONTEXT: The sources and biological impact of 3,3',5,5' tetraiodothyroacetic acid (TA4) are uncertain. CD34(+) fibrocytes express several proteins involved in the production of thyroid hormones. They infiltrate the orbit in Graves' disease (GD), an autoimmune process known as thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy. It appears that the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TAO. OBJECTIVE: To quantify levels of TA4 in healthy subjects and those with Graves' disease...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27759097/crystal-structure-of-human-aldehyde-dehydrogenase-1a3-complexed-with-nad-and-retinoic-acid
#17
Andrea Moretti, Jianfeng Li, Stefano Donini, Robert W Sobol, Menico Rizzi, Silvia Garavaglia
The aldehyde dehydrogenase family 1 member A3 (ALDH1A3) catalyzes the oxidation of retinal to the pleiotropic factor retinoic acid using NAD(+). The level of ALDHs enzymatic activity has been used as a cancer stem cell marker and seems to correlate with tumour aggressiveness. Elevated ALDH1A3 expression in mesenchymal glioma stem cells highlights the potential of this isozyme as a prognosis marker and drug target. Here we report the first crystal structure of human ALDH1A3 complexed with NAD(+) and the product all-trans retinoic acid (REA)...
October 19, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755590/correction-retinal-electrophysiological-effects-of-intravitreal-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-streptozotocin-induced-diabetic-rats
#18
Eren Çerman, Tolga Akkoç, Muhsin Eraslan, Özlem Şahin, Selvinaz Özkara, Fugen Vardar Aker, Cansu Subaşı, Erdal Karaöz, Tunç Akkoç
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0156495.].
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750286/secretion-profile-of-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelium-during-wound-healing
#19
Whitney A Greene, Teresa A Burke, Elaine D Por, Ramesh R Kaini, Heuy-Ching Wang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to characterize the secretion profile of induced pluripotent stem cell-derived retinal pigment epithelium (iPS-RPE) during wound healing. iPS-RPE was used to develop an in vitro wound healing model. We hypothesized that iPS-RPE secretes cytokines and growth factors which act in an autocrine manner to promote migration and proliferation of cells during wound healing. Methods: iPS-RPE was grown in transwells until fully confluent and pigmented...
August 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746675/src-tyrosine-kinase-regulates-the-stem-cell-factor-induced-breakdown-of-the-blood-retinal-barrier
#20
Ji-Eun Im, Sun-Hwa Song, Wonhee Suh
PURPOSE: Stem cell factor (SCF) has been recently acknowledged as a novel endothelial permeability factor. However, the mechanisms by which SCF-induced activation of the SCF cognate receptor, cKit, enhances endothelial permeability have not been fully elucidated. This study aimed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB). METHODS: In vitro endothelial permeability and in vivo retinal vascular permeability assays were performed to investigate the role of Src in SCF-induced breakdown of the BRB...
2016: Molecular Vision
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