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Retinal stem cells

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548249/m%C3%A3-ller-glial-cell-reactivation-in-xenopus-models-of-retinal-degeneration
#1
Rahul Langhe, Albert Chesneau, Gabriele Colozza, Magdalena Hidalgo, Divya Ail, Morgane Locker, Muriel Perron
A striking aspect of tissue regeneration is its uneven distribution among different animal classes, both in terms of modalities and efficiency. The retina does not escape the rule, exhibiting extraordinary self-repair properties in anamniote species but extremely limited ones in mammals. Among cellular sources prone to contribute to retinal regeneration are Müller glial cells, which in teleosts have been known for a decade to re-acquire a stem/progenitor state and regenerate retinal neurons following injury...
May 26, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542257/long-term-results-after-limited-macular-translocation-surgery-for-wet-age-related-macular-degeneration
#2
Hisaaki Oshima, Takeshi Iwase, Kohei Ishikawa, Kentaro Yamamoto, Hiroko Terasaki
PURPOSE: To evaluate the long-term results of limited macular translocation (LMT) surgery with radial chorioscleral outfolding in patients with wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). In addition, to identify the factors associated with the final best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA). METHODS: The medical records of 20 eyes of 20 consecutive patients (65.2±9.8 years) who had undergone LMT for the treatment of wet AMD and were followed for at least 5 years, were reviewed...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534814/autophagy-regulates-proteasome-inhibitor-induced-pigmentation-in-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#3
Kati Juuti-Uusitalo, Ali Koskela, Niko Kivinen, Johanna Viiri, Juha M T Hyttinen, Mika Reinisalo, Arto Koistinen, Hannu Uusitalo, Debasish Sinha, Heli Skottman, Kai Kaarniranta
The impairment of autophagic and proteasomal cleansing together with changes in pigmentation has been documented in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cell degeneration. However, the function and co-operation of these mechanisms in melanosome-containing RPE cells is still unclear. We show that inhibition of proteasomal degradation with MG-132 or autophagy with bafilomycin A1 increased the accumulation of premelanosomes and autophagic structures in human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived RPE cells. Consequently, upregulation of the autophagy marker p62 (also known as sequestosome-1, SQSTM1) was confirmed in Western blot and perinuclear staining...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523456/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cell-administration-significantly-improves-outcome-after-retinal-ischemia-in-rats
#4
Biji Mathew, Jacqueline N Poston, John C Dreixler, Leianne Torres, Jasmine Lopez, Ruth Zelkha, Irina Balyasnikova, Maciej S Lesniak, Steven Roth
PURPOSE: Ischemia-associated retinal degeneration is one of the leading causes of vision loss, and to date, there are no effective treatment options. We hypothesized that delayed injection of bone-marrow stem cells (BMSCs) 24 h after the onset of ischemia could effectively rescue ischemic retina from its consequences, including apoptosis, inflammation, and increased vascular permeability, thereby preventing retinal cell loss. METHODS: Retinal ischemia was induced in adult Wistar rats by increasing intraocular pressure (IOP) to 130-135 mmHg for 55 min...
May 18, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516002/transplantation-of-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-retinal-cells-into-the-subretinal-space-of-a-non-human-primate
#5
Jennifer R Chao, Deepak A Lamba, Todd R Klesert, Anna La Torre, Akina Hoshino, Russell J Taylor, Anu Jayabalu, Abbi L Engel, Thomas H Khuu, Ruikang K Wang, Maureen Neitz, Jay Neitz, Thomas A Reh
PURPOSE: Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of retinal cells derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) to survive, integrate into the host retina, and mediate light responses in murine mouse models. Our aim is to determine whether these cells can also survive and integrate into the retina of a nonhuman primate, Saimiri sciureus, following transplantation into the subretinal space. METHODS: hESCs were differentiated toward retinal neuronal fates using our previously published technique and cultured for 60 to 70 days...
May 2017: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505174/extracellular-matrix-nitration-alters-growth-factor-release-and-activates-bioactive-complement-in-human-retinal-pigment-epithelial-cells
#6
Mark A Fields, Hannah E Bowrey, Jie Gong, Ernesto F Moreira, Hui Cai, Lucian V Del Priore
PURPOSE: We have shown previously that non-enzymatic nitration (NEN) of the extracellular matrix (ECM), which serves as a model of Bruch's membrane (BM) aging, has a profound effect on the behavior of the overlying retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells, including altered phagocytic ability, reduced cell adhesion, and inhibition of proliferation. We know that transplanted RPE monolayers will encounter a hostile sub-RPE environment, including age-related alterations in BM that may compromise cell function and survival...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504201/cilia-the-sensory-antennae-in-the-eye
#7
REVIEW
Helen May-Simera, Kerstin Nagel-Wolfrum, Uwe Wolfrum
Cilia are hair-like projections found on almost all cells in the human body. Originally believed to function merely in motility, the function of solitary non-motile (primary) cilia was long overlooked. Recent research has demonstrated that primary cilia function as signalling hubs that sense environmental cues and are pivotal for organ development and function, tissue hoemoestasis, and maintenance of human health. Cilia share a common anatomy and their diverse functional features are achieved by evolutionarily conserved functional modules, organized into sub-compartments...
May 11, 2017: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503441/applications-of-crispr-cas9-in-retinal-degenerative-diseases
#8
REVIEW
Ying-Qian Peng, Luo-Sheng Tang, Shigeo Yoshida, Ye-Di Zhou
Gene therapy is a potentially effective treatment for retinal degenerative diseases. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)/CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9) system has been developed as a new genome-editing tool in ophthalmic studies. Recent advances in researches showed that CRISPR/Cas9 has been applied in generating animal models as well as gene therapy in vivo of retinitis pigmentosa (RP) and leber congenital amaurosis (LCA). It has also been shown as a potential attempt for clinic by combining with other technologies such as adeno-associated virus (AAV) and induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs)...
2017: International Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494567/-the-advances-in-research-on-precisely-inducing-retinal-ganglion-cells-from-stem-cells
#9
K J Li, M Y Zhu, J Ge
The injury and repair of retinal neurons is a common scientific problem in the occurrence, development and prognosis of neuronal visual impairment. Transplant of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) differentiated from stem cells opens a new avenue for treatment of glaucoma and optic neuronal degenerative diseases. For the goal to explore the optimal method for RGCs replacement, this review summarizes the current information regarding the classification and application of stem cells, the growth characteristics of RGCs and the precise methods to induce RGCs, and discusses some important issues that need resolving and are related to RGCs transplantation...
May 11, 2017: [Zhonghua Yan Ke za Zhi] Chinese Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494434/p-cadherin-is-necessary-for-retinal-stem-cell-behavior-in-vitro-but-not-in-vivo
#10
Brenda L K Coles, Derek van der Kooy
Adult retinal stem cells (RSCs) are rare quiescent cells within the ciliary epithelium of the eye, which is made up of non-pigmented N-Cadherin(+ve) inner and pigmented P-Cadherin(+ve) outer cell layers. Through FACs and single cell analyses, we have shown that RSCs arise from single cells from within the pigmented CE and express P-Cadherin. However, whether the expression of P-Cadherin is required for maintenance of the stem cell in vivo or in the formation of the clonal stem cell spheres in vitro is not known...
May 3, 2017: Stem Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489788/cytomegalovirus-retinitis-in-a-patient-with-secondary-acute-lymphosarcoma-leukemia-undergoing-allogeneic-hematopoietic-stem-cell-transplantation-a-rare-case-report-a-care-compliant-article
#11
Ning Zhao, Lei Liu, Junjie Xu
RATIONALE: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is a common opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients, which may lead to blindness. CMV retinitis is not an uncommon infectious disease in patients with immune regulatory abnormalities, for example, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. However, CMV retinitis in a patient with acute lymphosarcoma leukemia (ALL) undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (HSCT) phase is very rare. PATIENT CONCERNS: A case of CMV retinitis in a patient receiving immunosuppressive therapy as a part of ALL allogeneic HSCT is described including the pathogenesis, clinical signs, and therapy...
May 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486987/progress-of-stem-progenitor-cell-based-therapy-for-retinal-degeneration
#12
REVIEW
Zhimin Tang, Yi Zhang, Yuyao Wang, Dandan Zhang, Bingqiao Shen, Min Luo, Ping Gu
Retinal degeneration (RD), such as age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and retinitis pigmentosa, is one of the leading causes of blindness. Presently, no satisfactory therapeutic options are available for these diseases principally because the retina and retinal pigmented epithelium (RPE) do not regenerate, although wet AMD can be prevented from further progression by anti-vascular endothelial growth factor therapy. Nevertheless, stem/progenitor cell approaches exhibit enormous potential for RD treatment using strategies mainly aimed at the rescue and replacement of photoreceptors and RPE...
May 10, 2017: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28481993/inherited-eye-related-disorders-due-to-mitochondrial-dysfunction
#13
Patrick Yu-Wai-Man, Nancy J Newman
Genetic disorders due to mitochondrial dysfunction are not uncommon and the majority of these patients will have eye-related manifestations, including visual loss from optic nerve and retinal disease, visual field loss from retrochiasmal visual pathway damage, and ptosis and ocular dysmotility from extraocular muscle involvement. Defects in both the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes cause mitochondrial dysfunction via several mechanisms, including impaired mitochondrial energy production, oxidative stress, mitochondrial DNA instability, abnormalities in the regulation of mitochondrial dynamics and mitochondrial quality control, and disturbed cellular interorganellar communication...
May 8, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474838/connective-tissue-growth-factor-promotes-efficient-generation-of-human-induced-pluripotent-stem-cell-derived-choroidal-endothelium
#14
Allison E Songstad, Kristan S Worthington, Kathleen R Chirco, Joseph C Giacalone, S Scott Whitmore, Kristin R Anfinson, Dalyz Ochoa, Cathryn M Cranston, Megan J Riker, Maurine Neiman, Edwin M Stone, Robert F Mullins, Budd A Tucker
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in the Western world. Although, the majority of stem cell research to date has focused on production of retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) and photoreceptor cells for the purpose of evaluating disease pathophysiology and cell replacement, there is strong evidence that the choroidal endothelial cells (CECs) that form the choriocapillaris vessels are the first to be lost in this disease. As such, to accurately evaluate disease pathophysiology and develop an effective treatment, production of patient-specific, stem cell-derived CECs will be required...
June 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472656/the-dynamic-epigenetic-landscape-of-the-retina-during-development-reprogramming-and-tumorigenesis
#15
Issam Aldiri, Beisi Xu, Lu Wang, Xiang Chen, Daniel Hiler, Lyra Griffiths, Marc Valentine, Abbas Shirinifard, Suresh Thiagarajan, Andras Sablauer, Marie-Elizabeth Barabas, Jiakun Zhang, Dianna Johnson, Sharon Frase, Xin Zhou, John Easton, Jinghui Zhang, Elaine R Mardis, Richard K Wilson, James R Downing, Michael A Dyer
In the developing retina, multipotent neural progenitors undergo unidirectional differentiation in a precise spatiotemporal order. Here we profile the epigenetic and transcriptional changes that occur during retinogenesis in mice and humans. Although some progenitor genes and cell cycle genes were epigenetically silenced during retinogenesis, the most dramatic change was derepression of cell-type-specific differentiation programs. We identified developmental-stage-specific super-enhancers and showed that most epigenetic changes are conserved in humans and mice...
May 3, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469643/impacts-of-the-retinal-environment-and-photoreceptor-type-on-functional-regeneration
#16
REVIEW
Michèle G DuVal, W Ted Allison
Retinal regeneration is a promising central nervous system (CNS) target amongst the various stem cell therapy pursuits, due to its accessibility for manipulation and its disposition towards longitudinal monitoring of treatment safety and efficacy. We offer our perspective on current hurdles towards functional regeneration of cone photoreceptors. Cones are key: For patients suffering vision loss, cone photoreceptors are a required cellular component to restoring daytime vision, colour vision, and high acuity vision...
March 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465291/bipotent-progenitors-as-embryonic-origin-of-retinal-stem-cells
#17
Xia Tang, Jianan Gao, Xinling Jia, Wencao Zhao, Yijie Zhang, Weijun Pan, Jie He
In lower vertebrates, retinal stem cells (RSCs) capable of producing all retinal cell types are a resource for retinal tissue growth throughout life. However, the embryonic origin of RSCs remains largely elusive. Using a Zebrabow-based clonal analysis, we characterized the RSC niche in the ciliary marginal zone of zebrafish retina and illustrate that blood vessels associated with RSCs are required for the maintenance of actively proliferating RSCs. Full lineage analysis of RSC progenitors reveals lineage patterns of RSC production...
May 2, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455970/mitochondrial-replacement-in-an-ipsc-model-of-leber-s-hereditary-optic-neuropathy
#18
Raymond C B Wong, Shiang Y Lim, Sandy S C Hung, Stacey Jackson, Shahnaz Khan, Nicole J Van Bergen, Elisabeth De Smit, Helena H Liang, Lisa S Kearns, Linda Clarke, David A Mackey, Alex W Hewitt, Ian A Trounce, Alice Pébay
Cybrid technology was used to replace Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) causing mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) mutations from patient-specific fibroblasts with wildtype mtDNA, and mutation-free induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) were generated subsequently. Retinal ganglion cell (RGC) differentiation demonstrates increased cell death in LHON-RGCs and can be rescued in cybrid corrected RGCs.
April 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450267/retinal-changes-in-the-tg-swdi-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#19
Fred G Oliveira-Souza, Marci L DeRamus, Thomas van Groen, Alexis E Lambert, Mark S Bolding, Christianne E Strang
Alzheimer's disease (AD), a debilitating neurodegenerative illness, is characterized by neuronal cell loss, mental deficits, and abnormalities in several neurotransmitter and protein systems. AD is also associated with visual disturbances, but their causes remain unidentified. We hypothesize that the visual disturbances stem from retinal changes, particularly changes in the retinal cholinergic system, and that the etiology in the retina parallels the etiology in the rest of the brain. To test our hypothesis, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) were employed to assess changes in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) gene expression, number of retinal cells, and astrocytic gliosis in the Transgenic Swedish, Dutch and Iowa (Tg-SwDI) mouse model as compared to age-matched wild-type (WT)...
April 25, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444310/arl3-and-rp2-regulate-the-trafficking-of-ciliary-tip-kinesins
#20
Nele Schwarz, Amelia Lane, Katarina Jovanovich, David A Parfitt, Monica Aguila, Clare L Thompson, Lyndon da Cruz, Peter J Coffey, J Paul Chapple, Alison J Hardcastle, Michael E Cheetham
Ciliary trafficking defects are the underlying cause of many ciliopathies, including Retinitis Pigmentosa (RP). Anterograde intraflagellar transport (IFT) is mediated by kinesin motor proteins; however, the function of the homodimeric Kif17 motor in cilia is poorly understood, whereas Kif7 is known to play an important role in stabilising cilia tips. Here we identified the ciliary tip kinesins Kif7 and Kif17 as novel interaction partners of the small GTPase Arl3 and its regulatory GTPase activating protein (GAP) Retinitis Pigmentosa 2 (RP2)...
April 21, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
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