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Sanne A A de Laat, Anja C Huizink, Michel H Hof, Tanja G M Vrijkotte
Background: Socioeconomically disadvantaged children often have psychosocial problems. This study examined the mediating role of maternal depressive symptoms during pregnancy, infancy and early childhood in the association between maternal education, as indicator of socioeconomic status (SES), and child's psychosocial problems. Methods: Included were 3410 children from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development (ABCD) study. To assess the child's psychosocial problems at age 5-6 years, mothers and teachers completed the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Laura Avanzino, Giovanna Lagravinese, Giovanni Abbruzzese, Elisa Pelosin
BACKGROUND: Disturbance of gait is a key feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) and has a negative impact on quality of life. Deficits in cognition and sensorimotor processing impair the ability of people with PD to walk quickly, efficiently and safely. Recent evidence suggests that emotional disturbances may also affect gait in PD. RESEARCH QUESTION: We explored if there were relationships between walking ability, emotion and cognitive impairment in people with PD...
June 28, 2018: Gait & Posture
Charles Jardin, Daniel J Paulus, Lorra Garey, Brooke Kauffman, Jafar Bakhshaie, Kara Manning, Nubia A Mayorga, Michael J Zvolensky
The present study examined the factor structure, invariance properties, reliability, and validity of the Anxiety Sensitivity Index-3 (ASI-3, Taylor et al., 2007). Participants were recruited from a large, ethnically diverse southwestern university (n = 3651; 77.8% female; Mage  = 22.06 years; 28% non-Hispanic White). Findings supported a bifactor structure for the ASI-3, which demonstrated measurement invariance across sex, race/ethnicity, age, and sexual minority status. Furthermore, the ASI-3 demonstrated strong reliability and validity, with the anxiety sensitivity general and specific factors (physical, cognitive, and social concerns) evidencing unique patterns of relations with symptoms of depression, suicidality, anxious arousal, and social anxiety...
July 7, 2018: Psychiatry Research
John B Nezlek, Emilia Mochort, Marzena Cypryańska
OBJECTIVE: To examine the self-presentational motives underlying people's selection of their daily dress and relationships between these motives and public self-consciousness. METHOD: Participants in this study, 61 working adults, described their motives for choosing what they wore each day for 2 weeks. They also provided trait level measures of self-consciousness, social anxiety, and self-monitoring. RESULTS: Multilevel modeling analyses found positive relationships between public self-consciousness and the strength of various self-presentational motives for why people chose the clothes they wore each day...
July 14, 2018: Journal of Personality
R Parisi, R T Webb, C E Kleyn, M J Carr, N Kapur, C E M Griffiths, D M Ashcroft
BACKGROUND: Psychological distress among people with psoriasis may lead to elevated risks of suicide and non-fatal self-harm. OBJECTIVES: To investigate psychiatric comorbidity, psychotropic medication prescribing and risk of suicidality in people with psoriasis. METHODS: A cohort of patients with psoriasis (1998-2014) was delineated using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, with linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics and Office for National Statistics mortality records...
July 14, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
April R Christensen, Tara E Cook, Robert M Arnold
Over the past 20 years, physicians have shifted from viewing a patient's request for prayer as a violation of professional boundaries to a question deserving nuanced understanding of the patient's needs and the clinician's boundaries. In this case, Mrs. C's request for prayer can reflect religious distress, anxiety about her clinical circumstances, or a desire to better connect with her physician. These different needs suggest that it is important to understand the request before responding. To do this well requires that Dr...
July 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Corinna L Schultz, Melissa A Alderfer
BACKGROUND: Management of pediatric cancer entails frequent laboratory and radiology testing to monitor response to treatment, side effects, and possible relapse of disease. Little is known about how caregivers of children with cancer would like to receive results of these tests and whether on-line patient portals may meet those preferences. PROCEDURES: One-on-one semistructured interviews were conducted with 19 caregivers of children with cancer purposively sampled for breadth on demographic characteristics...
July 14, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
Elizabeth Wall-Wieler, Leslie L Roos, Marni Brownell, Nathan C Nickel, Dan Chateau, Kendra Nixon
Objectives This study examines whether mothers involved with child protection services (CPS) at the birth of their first child had higher rates of postpartum depression and anxiety. Methods A retrospective cohort of mothers whose first child was born in Manitoba, Canada between April 1, 1995 and March 31, 2015 is used. Postpartum depression and anxiety among mothers whose first child was placed in care at birth (n = 776) was compared with mothers who received services from CPS (but whose children were not placed in care) (n = 4,270), and a 3:1 matched group of mothers who had no involvement with CPS in the first year of their firstborn's life (n = 2,328)...
July 13, 2018: Maternal and Child Health Journal
Lining Yang, Xinyu Zhou, Juncai Pu, Lanxiang Liu, Pim Cuijpers, Yuqing Zhang, Hanping Zhang, Shuai Yuan, Teng Teng, Lu Tian, Peng Xie
Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is highly prevalent and persistent in children and adolescents. However, evidence for the efficacy and acceptability of psychological interventions for SAD in children and adolescents remains unclear. Seven electronic databases (PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, Web of Science, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and ProQuest) were searched. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared psychological interventions for SAD with control conditions in children and adolescents were included. Primary outcomes were the efficacy (mean change in anxiety symptom scores) and acceptability (dropouts for all reasons)...
July 13, 2018: European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
W Brad Hubbard, Margaret Lashof-Sullivan, Shaylen Greenberg, Carly Norris, Joseph Eck, Erin Lavik, Pamela VandeVord
Explosions account for 79% of combat related injuries and often lead to polytrauma, a majority of which include blast-induced traumatic brain injuries (bTBI). These injuries lead to internal bleeding in multiple organs and, in the case of bTBI, long term neurological deficits. Currently, there are no treatments for internal bleeding beyond fluid resuscitation and surgery. There is also a dearth of treatments for TBI. We have developed a novel approach using hemostatic nanoparticles that encapsulate an anti-inflammatory, dexamethasone, to stop the bleeding and reduce inflammation after injury...
July 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Lizzy Mm Boots, Marjolein E de Vugt, Gertrudis Ijm Kempen, Frans Rj Verhey
BACKGROUND: The benefits of electronic health support for dementia caregivers are increasingly recognized. Reaching caregivers of people with early-stage dementia could prevent high levels of burden and psychological problems in the later stages. OBJECTIVE: The current study evaluates the effectiveness of the blended care self-management program, Partner in Balance, compared to a control group. METHODS: A single-blind randomized controlled trial with 81 family caregivers of community-dwelling people with mild dementia was conducted...
July 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Michelle Liou, Jih-Fu Hsieh, Jonathan Evans, I-Wen Su, Siddharth Nayak, Juin-Der Lee, Alexander N Savostyanov
Recent research has found a relationship between heart rate variability (HRV) and cognitive control mechanisms underlying various experimental tasks. This study explored the interaction between gender and resting-state HRV in brain oscillatory activity during visual recognition of linguistic ambiguity while taking state and trait anxiety scores into account. It is well known that stress or anxiety increases arousal levels, particularly under uncertainty situations. We tasked 50 young Mandarin speakers (26 women; average age 26...
July 10, 2018: Brain Research
Marion Imbert-Bouteille, Frédéric Tran Mau Them, Julien Thevenon, Thomas Guignard, Vincent Gatinois, Jean-Baptiste Riviere, Anne Boland, Vincent Meyer, Jean-François Deleuze, Elodie Sanchez, Florence Apparailly, David Geneviève, Marjolaine Willems
Alazami syndrome (AS) (MIM# 615071) is an autosomal recessive microcephalic primordial dwarfism (PD) with recognizable facial features and severe intellectual disability due to depletion or loss of function variants in LARP7. To date, 15 patients with AS have been reported. Here we describe two consanguineous Algerian sisters with Alazami PD due to LARP7 homozygous pathogenic variants detected by whole exome sequencing. By comparing these two additional cases with those previously reported, we strengthen the key features of AS: severe growth restriction, severe intellectual disability and some distinguishing facial features such as broad nose, malar hypoplasia, wide mouth, full lips and abnormally set teeth...
July 10, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
H Acosta, A Jansen, B Nuscheler, T Kircher
The successful recovery from affective loss (i.e. bereavement, relationship breakup) has been linked to Adult Attachment Style (AAS), a personality trait. Up to now, the association between AAS, affective loss experiences and brain gray matter volume is unclear. In 192 healthy subjects we investigated the association between MRI brain gray matter volume, applying voxel based morphometry, AAS (Relationship Scales Questionnaire, subscales "avoidance" (AV) and "anxiety" (ANX)), and number of affective losses within the last 5 years (AL; List of Threatening Experiences Questionnaire)...
July 10, 2018: Neuroscience
Maureen L Petrunich-Rutherford, Francisca Garcia, George Battaglia
Increasing evidence suggests that multiple factors can produce effects on the immature brain that are distinct and more long-lasting than those produced in adults. The hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN) is a region integral to the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and is affected by anxiety, depression, and drugs used to treat these disorders, yet receptor signaling mechanisms operative in hypothalamus prior to maturation remain to be elucidated. In peripubertal male rats, systemic injection of the selective serotonin 1A (5-HT1A ) receptor agonist (+)8-OH-DPAT (0...
July 10, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Ryan A Macke, Ravi Ghanta, Sandra Starnes, Alden H Harken
The final year of cardiothoracic surgery residency is an exciting time for most trainees because it marks the culmination of many years of hard work and dedication. However, it is not uncommon for trainees to also experience some degree of anxiety or uncertainty, particularly when it comes to understanding the necessary steps and finer details involved in seeking out and securing that much anticipated and well-deserved first job. This article explores the philosophy, strategy, and etiquette essential to navigating the various stages of one's initial job search, providing valuable information and perspective to those hoping to find a position that is best suited to one's skill set, needs, and long-term career goals...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Jamie C Sergeant, Kimme L Hyrich, James Anderson, Kamilla Kopec-Harding, Holly F Hope, Deborah P M Symmons, Anne Barton, Suzanne M M Verstappen
BACKGROUND: Methotrexate (MTX) remains the disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug of first choice in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) but response varies. Predicting non-response to MTX could enable earlier access to alternative or additional medications and control of disease progression. We aimed to identify baseline predictors of non-response to MTX and combine these into a prediction algorithm. METHODS: This study included patients recruited to the Rheumatoid Arthritis Medication Study (RAMS), a UK multi-centre prospective observational study of patients with RA or undifferentiated polyarthritis, commencing MTX for the first time...
July 13, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
E Ahnemark, M Di Schiena, A-C Fredman, E Medin, J K Söderling, Y Ginsberg
BACKGROUND: This observational, cross-sectional, retrospective chart review aimed to identify factors determining health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in adults with newly diagnosed attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in Sweden. METHODS: Adult participants with a new clinical diagnosis of ADHD were enrolled from two specialist outpatient clinics in Stockholm, Sweden, from 2013 to 2015. Data extracted from patient records included demographics, clinical characteristics and comorbid psychiatric diagnoses identified using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (MINI)...
July 13, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Livia Savarese, Maria Bova, Raffaella De Falco, Maria Domenica Guarino, Raffaele De Luca Picione, Angelica Petraroli, Riccardo Senter, Claudia Traverso, Matteo Zabotto, Andrea Zanichelli, Eugenio Zito, Maria Alessio, Mauro Cancian, Marco Cicardi, Adriana Franzese, Roberto Perricone, Gianni Marone, Paolo Valerio, Maria Francesca Freda
BACKGROUND: Hereditary angioedema with C1-inhibitor deficiency (C1-INH-HAE) is characterized by recurrent edema of unpredictable frequency and severity. Stress, anxiety, and low mood are among the triggering factors most frequently reported. Impaired regulation and processing of emotions, also known as alexithymia, may influence outcomes. The aim of this study was to confirm the presence of alexithymia and stress in children with C1-INH-HAE, to determine whether they are also present in children affected by other chronic diseases, and to investigate their relationship with C1-INH-HAE severity...
July 13, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Jake Linardon, Ellen E Fitzsimmons-Craft, Leah Brennan, Mary Barillaro, Denise E Wilfley
OBJECTIVE: Dropout is one factor that might limit the effectiveness of interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT). Improved understanding of IPT dropout is an important research priority. This meta-analysis examined dropout rates from IPT in randomized controlled trials. METHOD: Seventy-two trials met inclusion criteria. RESULTS: The weighted mean dropout rate from IPT was 20.6% (95% CI = 17.4-24.2). Dropout rates were similar for depressive (20...
July 13, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
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