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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102654/tuberculosis-and-tuberculin-skin-test-reactivity-in-pediatric-patients-with-celiac-disease
#1
Nafiye Urganci, Derya Kalyoncu
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to determine tuberculin skin test reactivity and associated factors in pediatric patients with celiac disease (CD). METHODS: Tuberculin skin test (TST) was performed on 28 patients with CD aged from 1 year to 15 years (mean, 6.64±4.8) and 28 healthy age and sex-matched children. The association between TST reactivity and parameters such as age, gender, malnutrition, clinical presentation, compliance to gluten free diet and response to hepatitis A and B vaccinations were determined...
February 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087945/innate-immune-responses-to-tuberculosis
#2
Jeffrey S Schorey, Larry S Schlesinger
Tuberculosis remains one of the greatest threats to human health. The causative bacterium, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is acquired by the respiratory route. It is exquisitely adapted to humans and is a prototypic intracellular pathogen of macrophages, with alveolar macrophages being the primary conduit of infection and disease. However, M. tuberculosis bacilli interact with and are affected by several soluble and cellular components of the innate immune system which dictate the outcome of primary infection, most commonly a latently infected healthy human host, in whom the bacteria are held in check by the host immune response within the confines of tissue granuloma, the host histopathologic hallmark...
December 2016: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086846/stochastic-agent-based-modeling-of-tuberculosis-in-canadian-indigenous-communities
#3
Ashleigh R Tuite, Victor Gallant, Elaine Randell, Annie-Claude Bourgeois, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: In Canada, active tuberculosis (TB) disease rates remain disproportionately higher among the Indigenous population, especially among the Inuit in the north. We used mathematical modeling to evaluate how interventions might enhance existing TB control efforts in a region of Nunavut. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based model of TB transmission that captured the unique household and community structure. Evaluated interventions included: (i) rapid treatment of active cases; (ii) rapid contact tracing; (iii) expanded screening programs for latent TB infection (LTBI); and (iv) reduced household density...
January 13, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079759/the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-assay-in-neuro-ophthalmology
#4
Leanne M Little, Mohammed Rigi, Ayman Suleiman, Stacy V Smith, Edward A Graviss, Rod Foroozan, Andrew G Lee
BACKGROUND: Although QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT-GIT) testing is regularly used to detect infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, its utility in a patient population with a low risk for tuberculosis (TB) has been questioned. The following is a cohort study analyzing the efficacy of QFT-GIT testing as a method for detection of active TB disease in low-risk individuals in a neuro-ophthalmologic setting. METHODS: Ninety-nine patients from 2 neuro-ophthalmology centers were identified as having undergone QFT-GIT testing between January 2012 and February 2016...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076011/pulmonary-tuberculosis-role-of-radiology-in-diagnosis-and-management
#5
Arun C Nachiappan, Kasra Rahbar, Xiao Shi, Elizabeth S Guy, Eduardo J Mortani Barbosa, Girish S Shroff, Daniel Ocazionez, Alan E Schlesinger, Sharyn I Katz, Mark M Hammer
Tuberculosis is a public health problem worldwide, including in the United States-particularly among immunocompromised patients and other high-risk groups. Tuberculosis manifests in active and latent forms. Active disease can occur as primary tuberculosis, developing shortly after infection, or postprimary tuberculosis, developing after a long period of latent infection. Primary tuberculosis occurs most commonly in children and immunocompromised patients, who present with lymphadenopathy, pulmonary consolidation, and pleural effusion...
January 2017: Radiographics: a Review Publication of the Radiological Society of North America, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074660/optimizing-the-management-of-children-with-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#6
E Venturini, C Tersigni, E Chiappini, M de Martino, L Galli
The management of latent tuberculosis (LTBI) in children represents an important issue for paediatricians because of the disease burden, the lack of a gold standard for the diagnosis and the high annual risk of progression to active disease. Areas covered: A review of English language articles on LTBI in children, published between the 1(st) of January 2010 and the 1(st) of July 2016, was conducted using multiple keywords and standardized terminology in PubMed database. This review provides an updated overview of the available tests for LTBI diagnosis in children, management strategies and treatment options...
January 11, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069953/c-type-lectin-receptor-dcir-modulates-immunity-to-tuberculosis-by-sustaining-type-i-interferon-signaling-in-dendritic-cells
#7
Anthony Troegeler, Ingrid Mercier, Céline Cougoule, Danilo Pietretti, André Colom, Carine Duval, Thien-Phong Vu Manh, Florence Capilla, Renaud Poincloux, Karine Pingris, Jérôme Nigou, Jörg Rademann, Marc Dalod, Frank A W Verreck, Talal Al Saati, Geanncarlo Lugo-Villarino, Bernd Lepenies, Denis Hudrisier, Olivier Neyrolles
Immune response against pathogens is a tightly regulated process that must ensure microbial control while preserving integrity of the infected organs. Tuberculosis (TB) is a paramount example of a chronic infection in which antimicrobial immunity is protective in the vast majority of infected individuals but can become detrimental if not finely tuned. Here, we report that C-type lectin dendritic cell (DC) immunoreceptor (DCIR), a key component in DC homeostasis, is required to modulate lung inflammation and bacterial burden in TB...
January 9, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065665/unbiased-identification-of-blood-based-biomarkers-for-pulmonary-tuberculosis-by-modeling-and-mining-molecular-interaction-networks
#8
Awanti Sambarey, Abhinandan Devaprasad, Abhilash Mohan, Asma Ahmed, Soumya Nayak, Soumya Swaminathan, George D'Souza, Anto Jesuraj, Chirag Dhar, Subash Babu, Annapurna Vyakarnam, Nagasuma Chandra
Efficient diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) is met with multiple challenges, calling for a shift of focus from pathogen-centric diagnostics towards identification of host-based multi-marker signatures. Transcriptomics offer a list of differentially expressed genes, but cannot by itself identify the most influential contributors to the disease phenotype. Here, we describe a computational pipeline that adopts an unbiased approach to identify a biomarker signature. Data from RNA sequencing from whole blood samples of TB patients were integrated with a curated genome-wide molecular interaction network, from which we obtain a comprehensive perspective of variations that occur in the host due to TB...
February 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058538/factors-influencing-the-choice-of-first-and-second-line-biologic-therapy-for-the-treatment-of-rheumatoid-arthritis-real-life-data-from-the-italian-lorhen-registry
#9
Sara Monti, Catherine Klersy, Roberto Gorla, Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini, Fabiola Atzeni, Raffaele Pellerito, Enrico Fusaro, Giuseppe Paolazzi, Pier Andrea Rocchetta, Ennio Giulio Favalli, Antonio Marchesoni, Roberto Caporali
According to international recommendations, the selection of the biologic disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug (bDMARD) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is mainly left to the clinician's preference. We analyzed the real-life factors influencing the first-line choice or the switching strategy, focusing on the prescription of abatacept (ABA) or tocilizumab (TCZ) compared to TNFα inhibitors (TNFi). Patients enrolled in the Lombardy Rheumatology Network (LORHEN) Registry after January 1, 2010, when all considered bDMARD agents were available, were included...
January 5, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052967/official-american-thoracic-society-infectious-diseases-society-of-america-centers-for-disease-control-and-prevention-clinical-practice-guidelines-diagnosis-of-tuberculosis-in-adults-and-children
#10
David M Lewinsohn, Michael K Leonard, Philip A LoBue, David L Cohn, Charles L Daley, Ed Desmond, Joseph Keane, Deborah A Lewinsohn, Ann M Loeffler, Gerald H Mazurek, Richard J O'Brien, Madhukar Pai, Luca Richeldi, Max Salfinger, Thomas M Shinnick, Timothy R Sterling, David M Warshauer, Gail L Woods
BACKGROUND: Individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) may develop symptoms and signs of disease (tuberculosis disease) or may have no clinical evidence of disease (latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI]). Tuberculosis disease is a leading cause of infectious disease morbidity and mortality worldwide, yet many questions related to its diagnosis remain. METHODS: A task force supported by the American Thoracic Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and Infectious Diseases Society of America searched, selected, and synthesized relevant evidence...
January 15, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046053/human-and-mouse-hematopoietic-stem-cells-are-a-depot-for-dormant-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#11
Julia Tornack, Stephen T Reece, Wolfgang M Bauer, Alexis Vogelzang, Silke Bandermann, Ulrike Zedler, Georg Stingl, Stefan H E Kaufmann, Fritz Melchers
An estimated third of the world's population is latently infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), with no clinical signs of tuberculosis (TB), but lifelong risk of reactivation to active disease. The niches of persisting bacteria during latent TB infection remain unclear. We detect Mtb DNA in peripheral blood selectively in long-term repopulating pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (LT-pHSCs) as well as in mesenchymal stem cells from latently infected human donors. In mice infected with low numbers of Mtb, that do not develop active disease we, again, find LT-pHSCs selectively infected with Mtb...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043609/personalized-information-system-for-the-control-of-tuberculosis-in-resource-limited-settings-a-simplistic-proposal-approach
#12
Benjamin D Thumamo Pokam, Prisca W Guemdjom
Passive case finding remains the mainstay of tuberculosis (TB) control in several resource-limited countries. Although TB prevalence and mortality rates have declined in recent years, an estimated 3 million cases a year still go undetected and/or unreported, and delays in the diagnosis and treatment of TB continue to be widespread. It has been shown that identifying and treating individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) prevents progression to active TB disease and is one of the key components of TB control strategies...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043594/incidence-of-tuberculosis-among-children-living-in-contact-with-smear-positive-tuberculosis-advantages-and-limits-of-the-quantiferon-tb-gold-in-tube-test
#13
Djohar Hannoun, Fadila Boulahbal
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Children living in contact with smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) patients are highly exposed to TB infection. Our objective was to estimate the incidence of TB in children living in contact with a Smear Positive (M+) pulmonary tuberculosis (PTM+) index case during 2years following exposure. METHODS: This was a descriptive, cohort, prospective, multicenter study of children aged from 6months to 15years in contact with a PTM+ case. The recruitment of children has been based on the diagnosed PTM+ index case and taken in charge by the Services of Control of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases located in Algiers during 2014...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043581/common-features-of-tuberculosis-and-sarcoidosis
#14
Esmaeil Mortaz, Mohammad Reza Masjedi, Atefeh Abedini, Soheila Matroodi, Arda Kiani, Dina Soroush, Ian M Adcock
Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Despite the availability of novel therapeutic approaches, TB is considered as one of the leading causes of death due to infectious diseases worldwide. Alveolar macrophages are the first line of defense against M. tuberculosis; they ingest and sequester the bacilli within granulomatous structures. Control and resolution of the infection requires activated T lymphocytes as well as Th1 cytokines. There are two forms of TB: active TB and latent TB...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043514/modulation-of-interferon-gamma-response-to-quantiferon-tb-plus-detected-by-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay-in-patients-with-active-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#15
Elisa Petruccioli, Valentina Vanini, Teresa Chiacchio, Daniela M Cirillo, Fabrizio Palmieri, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-γ-release assays (IGRAs) are designed for the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) infection. The new IGRA called QuantiFERON-TB Plus (QFT-Plus) is based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) detection of IFN-γ following Myobacterium tuberculosis-antigen stimulation with TB1 and TB2 antigens. TB1 elicits a cell-mediated immune response by CD4 T cells and TB2 elicits a response from both CD4 and CD8 T cells. Here, we characterized variations IFN-γ release detected by ELISA to QFT-IT and QFT-Plus in patients with active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) at baseline and during or after specific treatment (follow-up)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043513/modulation-of-cd4-and-cd8-response-to-quantiferon-tb-plus-in-patients-with-active-tuberculosis-and-latent-tuberculosis-infection-followed-over-time-during-treatment
#16
Teresa Chiacchio, Elisa Petruccioli, Ilaria Pepponi, Valentina Vanini, Gina Gualano, Daniela Cirillo, Fabrizio Palmieri, Giuseppe Ippolito, Delia Goletti
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: Interferon (IFN)-γ release assays (IGRA) are designed for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB) infection. The new IGRA, QuantiFERON-TB Plus (QFT-Plus), is based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection of IFN-γ after stimulation with Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB1 and TB2 antigens. TB1 elicits a cellular-mediated immune (CMI) response by CD4 T cells, and TB2 contains peptides recognized by both CD4 and CD8 T cells. The aim of the study is to characterize the CMI to QFT-Plus peptides in active TB and latent TB infection (LTBI) at baseline and during or after specific treatment (follow-up)...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043500/design-and-development-of-novel-inhibitors-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis
#17
Rudraraju Srilakshmi Reshma, Perumal Yogeeswari, Dharmarajan Sriram
OBJECTIVE/BACKGROUND: "The captain of all these men of death", is the apt sobriquet for the age-old disease tuberculosis (TB). Despite the availability of many drugs, cases of increasing resistance in the forms of multi-drug and extensively drug-resistant TB and persistence [characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)] make the eradication of TB a nightmare. Approval of bedaquiline by the Food and Drug Administration focused attention on quinoline scaffolds for development of new anti-TB agents...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043486/tuberculosis-in-children
#18
Ali Akbar Velayati
Tuberculosis (TB) is the main cause of infection-related death in the world. Children make up ∼5-15% of all TB cases. Severe forms of disease such as meningitis and disseminated form are more common in children. Due to current estimates of World Health Organization (WHO) in 2015, one million children suffer from TB around the world; of these, it is estimated that more than 136,000 die a year. One study estimated 67million children with latent TB which develops to active form with the rate of ∼850,000 each year...
December 2016: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009090/tuberculosis-screening-using-igra-and-chest-computed-tomography-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-a-retrospective-study
#19
Dongjuan Song, Jinlu Tong, Jiangchen Peng, Chenwen Cai, Xitao Xu, Mingming Zhu, Zhihua Ran, Qing Zheng
BACKGROUND: The prevalence and risk factors of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in Chinese patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is still poorly understood. Furthermore, the role of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) test is controversial in serial testing. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in Shanghai and all the IBD patients who had been investigated for LTBI by T-SPOT.TB between December 2011 and January 2016 were enrolled in the study...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Digestive Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002883/cholesterol-metabolism-a-potential-therapeutic-target-in-mycobacteria
#20
REVIEW
Areej Abuhammad
Tuberculosis (TB), although a curable disease, has remained one of the most difficult infections to treat. Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis.) infects 10 million people worldwide and kills 1.5 million people each year. Reactivation of latent infection is the major cause of TB. Cholesterol is a critical carbon source during latent infection. Catabolism of cholesterol contributes to the pool of propionyl-CoA, a precursor that is incorporated into lipid virulence factors. The M. tuberculosis genome contains a large regulon of cholesterol catabolic genes suggesting that the microorganism can utilise host sterol for infection and persistence...
December 21, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
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