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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516869/recommendations-for-infectious-disease-screening-in-migrants-to-western-europe-with-inflammatory-arthropathies-before-starting-biologic-agents-results-from-a-multidisciplinary-task-force-of-four-european-societies-sir-ser-simet-semtsi-facing-the-lar
#1
Filippo Bartalesi, Carlo Scirè, Ana Requena-Méndez, Miguel Angel Abad, Dora Buonfrate, Roberto Caporali, Fabrizio Conti, Federico Diaz-Gonzalez, Cruz Fernández-Espartero, Carmen Martinez-Fernandez, Marta Mascarello, Elena Generali, Giovanni Minisola, Aldo Morrone, Jose Muñoz, Patricia Richi, Gariffalia Sakellariou, Joaquin Salas Coronas, Michele Spinicci, Francesco Castelli, Alessandro Bartoloni, Zeno Bisoffi, Francisco Gimenez-Sanchez, Santiago Muñoz-Fernandez, Marco Matucci-Cerinic
OBJECTIVES: Inflammatory arthritis needs infectious disease screening before starting a biologic agent, however, few data are known about migrant patients, who represent a peculiar population which requires a multidisciplinary approach among international health specialists and should also be considered by health authorities. For this reason, the Italian and Spanish Societies of Rheumatology (SIR and SER) and Tropical Medicine (SIMET and SEMTSI) promoted a multidisciplinary task force in order to produce specific recommendations about screening and advices to be considered in migrant patients with inflammatory arthritis candidate to receive biological therapy, according to their geographical origin...
May 8, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512556/pediatric-tuberculosis-in-northern-sardinia
#2
Maria Grazia Clemente, Elena Dore, Lidia Abis, Paola Molicotti, Stefania Zanetti, Paolina Olmeo, Roberto Antonucci
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Migration flux is an increasing phenomenon in Italy, and it raises several public health issues and concerns in pediatric infectious diseases. This study investigated the clinical characteristics and outcomes of a pediatric population at high-risk for tuberculosis (TB) and the potential role of immigration as a risk factor. DESIGN: We performed an observational retrospective study of children referred to the only Pediatric Infectious Diseases Unit for Northern Sardinia over a 6-year-period (2009-2014)...
2017: Mediterranean Journal of Hematology and Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501036/tuberculosis-in-liver-transplant-recipients-a-report-of-eight-cases-during-a-five-year-period
#3
Diana Póvoas, João Machado, Rui Perdigoto, Ana Morbey, Júlio Veloso, Helena Glória, Élia Mateus, Américo Martins, Fernando Maltez, Eduardo Barroso
INTRODUCTION: Tuberculosis incidence in Portugal ranged from 20 to 22 cases per 100 000 inhabitants between 2010 and 2014. Tuberculosis incidence in liver transplant recipients is not precisely known, but it is estimated to be higher than among the general population. Tuberculosis in liver transplant recipients is particularly challenging because of the atypical clinical presentation and side effects of the antibacillary drugs and their potential interactions with immunosuppressive therapies...
January 31, 2017: Acta Médica Portuguesa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495854/role-of-apoptosis-and-autophagy-in-tuberculosis
#4
Adam Lam, Rohan Prabhu, Christine M Gross, Lee Ann Riesenberg, Vinodkumar Singh, Saurabh Aggarwal
Tuberculosis (TB) is one of the oldest known human diseases and is transmitted by the bacteria, Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). TB has a rich history with evidence of TB infections dating back to 5,800 B.C. TB is unique in its ability to remain latent in an individual for decades, with the possibility of later reactivation, causing widespread systemic symptoms. Currently, it is estimated that more than one-third of the world's population (about 2 billion people) are infected with Mtb. Prolonged periods of therapy and complexity of treatment regimens, especially in active infection, have led to poor compliance in patients being treated for TB...
May 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495525/latent-tuberculosis-infection-the-final-frontier-of-tuberculosis-elimination-in-the-usa
#5
REVIEW
Philip A LoBue, Jonathan H Mermin
Since 1989, the USA has been pursuing the goal of tuberculosis elimination. After substantial progress during the past two decades, the rate of tuberculosis cases in the USA each year has now levelled off and remains well above the elimination threshold. Both epidemiological data and modelling underline the necessity of addressing latent tuberculosis infection if further progress is to be made in eliminating the disease. In this Personal View we explore next steps towards elimination. Given the estimated prevalence of latent tuberculosis infection, compared with the limited testing and treatment that currently occur, a major new effort is required...
May 8, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490367/vitamin-d-deficiency-among-smear-positive-pulmonary-tuberculosis-patients-and-their-tuberculosis-negative-household-contacts-in-northwest-ethiopia-a-case-control-study
#6
Belay Tessema, Feleke Moges, Dereje Habte, Nebiyu Hiruy, Shewaye Yismaw, Kassahun Melkieneh, Yewulsew Kassie, Belaineh Girma, Muluken Melese, Pedro G Suarez
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin that increases the immunity against tuberculosis (TB), decreases the re-activation of latent TB and reduces the severity of active TB disease. Epidemiological studies on the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency, and its association with TB showed inconsistent results in different countries. This study was aimed to determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and its association with TB in Northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted among smear positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients and their household contacts without symptoms suggestive of TB...
May 11, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487426/digitally-barcoding-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-reveals-in-vivo-infection-dynamics-in-the-macaque-model-of-tuberculosis
#7
Constance J Martin, Anthony M Cadena, Vivian W Leung, Philana Ling Lin, Pauline Maiello, Nathan Hicks, Michael R Chase, JoAnne L Flynn, Sarah M Fortune
Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis causes a spectrum of outcomes; the majority of individuals contain but do not eliminate the infection, while a small subset present with primary active tuberculosis (TB) disease. This variability in infection outcomes is recapitulated at the granuloma level within each host, such that some sites of infection can be fully cleared while others progress. Understanding the spectrum of TB outcomes requires new tools to deconstruct the mechanisms underlying differences in granuloma fate...
May 9, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484042/a-proteomic-signature-of-dormancy-in-an-actinobacterium-micrococcus-luteus
#8
Sujina Mali, Morgan Mitchell, Spencer Havis, Abiodun Bodunrin, Jonathan Rangel, Gabriella Olson, William R Widger, Steven J Bark
Dormancy is a protective state where diverse bacteria including M. tuberculosis, S. aureus, T. pallidum (syphilis), and B. burgdorferi (Lyme Disease) curtail metabolic activity to survive external stresses including antibiotics. Evidence suggests dormancy consists of a continuum of interrelated states including viable but nonculturable (VBNC) and persistence states. VBNC and persistence contribute to antibiotic tolerance, reemergence from latent infections, and even quorum sensing and biofilm formation. Previous studies indicate that the protein mechanisms regulating persistence and VBNC states are not well understood...
May 8, 2017: Journal of Bacteriology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28475642/mhc-ib-molecule-qa-1-presents-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-peptide-antigens-to-cd8-t-cells-and-contributes-to-protection-against-infection
#9
Yao Bian, Shaobin Shang, Sarah Siddiqui, Jie Zhao, Simone A Joosten, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Harvey Cantor, Chyung-Ru Wang
A number of nonclassical MHC Ib molecules recognizing distinct microbial antigens have been implicated in the immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). HLA-E has been identified to present numerous Mtb peptides to CD8+ T cells, with multiple HLA-E-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) and regulatory T cell lines isolated from patients with active and latent tuberculosis (TB). In other disease models, HLA-E and its mouse homolog Qa-1 can act as antigen presenting molecules as well as regulators of the immune response...
May 5, 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458043/targeting-isocitrate-lyase-for-the-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis
#10
REVIEW
Ram Prasad Bhusal, Ghader Bashiri, Brooke X C Kwai, Jonathan Sperry, Ivanhoe K H Leung
Tuberculosis (TB) is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis that can remain dormant for many years before becoming active. One way to control and eliminate TB is the identification and treatment of latent TB, preventing infected individuals from developing active TB and thus eliminating the subsequent spread of the disease. Isocitrate lyase (ICL) is involved in the mycobacterial glyoxylate and methylisocitrate cycles. ICL is important for the growth and survival of M. tuberculosis. ICL is not present in humans and is therefore a potential therapeutic target for the development of anti-TB agents...
April 27, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448542/diminished-plasma-levels-of-common-%C3%AE-chain-cytokines-in-pulmonary-tuberculosis-and-reversal-following-treatment
#11
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Vaithilingam V Banurekha, Dina Nair, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: The immune response to tuberculosis (TB) is T cell dependent. T cells are the major facilitators of protection and effector functions with CD4+ T cells being the most important players, followed by CD8+ T cells. The common γ-chain cytokines IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 play a vital role in peripheral T cell growth and survival. However, the role of common γ-chain cytokines in pulmonary TB (PTB) is poorly understood. AIM AND METHODS: To examine the association of circulating common γ-chain cytokines with TB disease or infection, we examined the systemic levels of IL-2, IL-7, IL-15, and IL-21 in individuals with PTB, latent TB (LTB) or no TB infection (NTB)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444886/detection-of-mycobacterium-avium-subsp-paratuberculosis-in-non-human-primates
#12
Kim Fechner, Kerstin Mätz-Rensing, Karen Lampe, Franz-Josef Kaup, Claus-Peter Czerny, Jenny Schäfer
BACKGROUND: Due to a sporadic occurrence of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) in non-human primates (NHP), the susceptibility of different NHP to MAP should be investigated. METHODS: Fecal and tissue samples (ileum, ileocecal lymph node, bone marrow) of 20 animals (seven species) were analyzed by IS900-based PCRs and sequenced. Samples of MAP PCR positive NHP were further cultivated. RESULTS: MAP DNA was detectable in two animals; the ileum of a cottontop tamarin and the bone marrow of a common marmoset...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431845/infection-prevention-and-control-and-the-refugee-population-experiences-from-the-university-of-louisville-global-health-center
#13
Ruth M Carrico, Linda Goss, Timothy L Wiemken, Rahel S Bosson, Paula Peyrani, William A Mattingly, Allison Pauly, Rebecca A Ford, Stanley Kotey, Julio A Ramirez
BACKGROUND: During 2016, approximately 140,000 individuals entered the United States as part of the federal government refugee resettlement program and established themselves in communities in virtually every state. No national database regarding refugee health currently exists; therefore, little is known about existing infectious diseases, conditions, and cultural practices that impact successful acculturation. The objective of this report is to identify what is currently known about refugees and circumstances important to infection prevention and control with respect to their roles as new community members, employees, and consumers of health care...
April 18, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430824/suppressors-of-cytokine-signaling-in-tuberculosis
#14
Shih-Wei Lee, Chi-Wei Liu, Jia-Ying Hu, Li-Mei Chiang, Chih-Pin Chuu, Lawrence Shih-Hsin Wu, Yung-Hsi Kao
Tuberculosis (TB), a global disease mainly infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains leading public health problem worldwide. Suppressors of cytokine signaling (SOCSs) play important roles in the protection against microbial infection. However, the relationship between members of the SOCS family and tuberculosis infection remains unclear. Using peripheral blood mononuclear cells, we investigated the mRNA expression profiles of SOCS subfamilies among active TB, latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI), and healthy individuals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417858/-18-f-fdg-pet-ct-imaging-of-thoracic-and-extrathoracic-tuberculosis-in-children
#15
REVIEW
Matthieu Pelletier-Galarneau, Patrick Martineau, Lionel S Zuckier, Xuan Pham, Raymond Lambert, Sophie Turpin
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a major health problem, affecting approximately one-third of the world׳s population. The tubercle bacillus can affect virtually any organ of the human body and if left untreated can lead to severe morbidity and death. Diagnosis of active TB is challenging, especially in children. As a "great imitator," the disease can mimic numerous other pathologies, both clinically and at imaging. Although recognition of active TB is crucial to initiate adequate treatment in a timely fashion, thereby preventing transmission of disease, differentiation of active and quiescent disease is not always straightforward...
May 2017: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414762/transcriptional-networks-are-associated-with-resistance-to-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-infection
#16
Chetan Seshadri, Nafiseh Sedaghat, Monica Campo, Glenna Peterson, Richard D Wells, Gregory S Olson, David R Sherman, Catherine M Stein, Harriet Mayanja-Kizza, Ali Shojaie, W Henry Boom, Thomas R Hawn
RATIONALE: Understanding mechanisms of resistance to M. tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans could identify novel therapeutic strategies as it has for other infectious diseases, such as HIV. OBJECTIVES: To compare the early transcriptional response of M.tb-infected monocytes between Ugandan household contacts of tuberculosis patients who demonstrate clinical resistance to M.tb infection (cases) and matched controls with latent tuberculosis infection. METHODS: Cases (n = 10) and controls (n = 18) were selected from a long-term household contact study in which cases did not convert their tuberculin skin test (TST) or develop tuberculosis over two years of follow up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28409555/treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#17
REVIEW
Connie A Haley
There are approximately 56 million people who harbor Mycobacterium tuberculosis that may progress to active tuberculosis (TB) at some point in their lives. Modeling studies suggest that if only 8% of these individuals with latent TB infection (LTBI) were treated annually, overall global incidence would be 14-fold lower by 2050 compared to incidence in 2013, even in the absence of additional TB control measures. This highlights the importance of identifying and treating latently infected individuals, and that this intervention must be scaled up to achieve the goals of the Global End TB Strategy...
April 2017: Microbiology Spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406884/use-of-video-directly-observed-therapy-for-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection-johnson-county-kansas-2015
#18
Elizabeth Lawlor Holzschuh, Stacie Province, Krystle Johnson, Caitlin Walls, Cathy Shemwell, Gary Martin, Amy Showalter, Jennifer Dunlay, Andrew Conyers, Phil Griffin, Nancy Tausz
Tuberculosis (TB) is caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis and is spread from person to person through the air. TB can be spread in congregate settings, such as school environments, to varying degrees, based on factors including duration of contact and air ventilation (1); therefore, evaluating potential contacts and exposures can be challenging. In February 2015, a student at a Kansas high school received a diagnosis of active pulmonary TB disease. Screening of 385 (91%) school contacts, four (100%) household contacts, and 19 (90%) social contacts resulted in the identification of 50 persons with latent TB infection...
April 14, 2017: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399977/acute-kidney-injury-during-treatment-for-latent-tuberculous-infection-with-rifampin
#19
J M Wortham, M Goggin, C Mora, L Vandehey, L Manangan, K M Powell
Treatment for latent tuberculous infection (LTBI) is a key strategy for the elimination of tuberculosis. Rare adverse reactions associated with LTBI treatment have been reported. We report the only case of acute kidney injury reported to Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance for LTBI treatment-related adverse events. The patient experienced rapid intravascular hemolysis, resulting in heme pigment nephropathy; he was hospitalized and received three hemodialysis treatments, but recovered without sequelae...
May 1, 2017: International Journal of Tuberculosis and Lung Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28395400/an-opposing-view-on-including-high-school-students-in-a-latent-tuberculosis-infection-control-program-in-korea
#20
Jong-Myon Bae
The Korea Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention (KCDC) has announced a control program against latent Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection (LTBI), for a "TB-safe country" this year with the goal of a "TB-free Korea" by 2025. The program includes high school students as one target group; however, some school health teachers and parents have expressed their opposition to this. The 2015 World Health Organization guidelines do not recommend inclusion of asymptomatic high school students in LTBI control programs...
2017: Epidemiology and Health
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