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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767733/risk-and-timing-of-tuberculosis-among-close-contacts-of-persons-with-infectious-tuberculosis
#1
Mary R Reichler, Awal Khan, Timothy R Sterling, Hui Zhao, Joyce Moran, James McAuley, Patricia Bessler, Bonita Mangura
Background: The risk and timing of tuberculosis (TB) among recently exposed close contacts of patients with infectious TB is not well established. Methods: We prospectively enrolled culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients ≥15 years of age and their close contacts at nine health departments in the United States and Canada. Close contacts were screened and cross-matched with TB registries to identify those who developed TB. Results: TB was diagnosed in 158 (4%) of 4490 contacts to 718 index TB patients...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764370/-tuberculosis-in-advanced-hiv-infection-is-associated-with-increased-expression-of-ifn%C3%AE-and-its-downstream-targets
#2
Sheetal Verma, Peicheng Du, Damalie Nakanjako, Sabine Hermans, Jessica Briggs, Lydia Nakiyingi, Jerrold J Ellner, Yukari C Manabe, Padmini Salgame
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) is the major cause of death in Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-infected individuals. However, diagnosis of TB in HIV remains challenging particularly when HIV infection is advanced. Several gene signatures and serum protein biomarkers have been identified that distinguish active TB from latent infection. Our study was designed to assess if gene expression signatures and cytokine levels would distinguish active TB in advanced HIV. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study of whole blood RNA-Seq and plasma cytokine/chemokine analysis in HIV-infected with CD4+ T cell count of ≤ 100 cells/μl, with and without active TB...
May 15, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29761628/recent-advances-for-identification-of-new-scaffolds-and-drug-targets-for-mycobacterium-tuberculosis
#3
REVIEW
Rohan Dhiman, Ramandeep Singh
Tuberculosis (TB) is a leading cause of mortality and morbidity with an estimated 1.7 billion people latently infected with the pathogen worldwide. Clinically, TB infection presents itself as an asymptomatic infection, which gradually manifests to life threatening disease. The emergence of various drug resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and lengthy duration of chemotherapy are major challenges in the field of TB drug development. Hence, there is an urgent need to develop scaffolds that possess a novel mechanism of action, can shorten the duration of therapy, and are active against both drug resistant and susceptible strains...
May 14, 2018: IUBMB Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757355/a-prospective-study-to-monitor-for-tuberculosis-during-anti-tumour-necrosis-factor-therapy-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-and-immune-mediated-inflammatory-diseases
#4
Choon Kin Lee, Sunny H Wong, Grace Lui, Whitney Tang, Lai San Tam, Margaret Ip, Esther Hung, Minhu Chen, Justin C Wu, Siew C Ng
Background: Biologic therapies have revolutionised the treatment of immune- mediated diseases including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and rheumatological disorders. However, biologic treatments are associated with an increased risk of reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Data of regular monitoring for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) during biologic treatment are lacking. Methods: Consecutive patients eligible for biologic therapies were screened for LTBI and prospectively followed-up for 3 years...
May 11, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755013/screening-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-can-interferon-gamma-release-assays-replace-the-tuberculin-skin-test
#5
José Luis Cabriada, Rafael Ruiz-Zorrilla, Jesús Barrio, Ramón Atienza, Alain Huerta, Iago Rodríguez-Lago, Antonio Bernal, César Herrero
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Screening for latent tuberculosis infection is mandatory before starting anti-tumor necrosis factor therapy. New assays based on interferon-γ (IFN-γ) release have recently become available and may be more accurate. The aim of this study was to compare QuantiFERON-TB and tuberculin skin test in screening for latent infection in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We prospectively screened 138 patients with inflammatory bowel disease for latent tuberculosis infection with chest X-ray, tuberculin skin test, and a third-generation QuantiFERON-TB test...
May 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752996/unmasking-leading-to-a-health-care-worker-mycobacterium-tuberculosis-transmission
#6
Kerry L Holden, Craig W Bradley, Evonne T Curran, Christopher Pollard, Grace Smith, Elisabeth Holden, Patricia Glynn, Mark Garvey
BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a major health burden worldwide. The disease can present as an individual case, community outbreak or more rarely a nosocomial outbreak. Even in countries with a low prevalence such as the UK, tuberculosis (TB) presents a risk to healthcare workers (HCWs). AIM: To report an outbreak which manifested 12 months after a patient with pulmonary tuberculosis was admitted to Queen Elizabeth Hospital Birmingham (QEHB). METHODS: We present the epidemiological and outbreak investigations; the role of whole genome sequencing (WGS) in identifying the outbreak and control measures to prevent further outbreaks...
May 9, 2018: Journal of Hospital Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29749875/missed-opportunities-for-tuberculosis-prevention-among-patients-accessing-a-uk-hiv-service
#7
Hannah M Rickman, Robert F Miller, Stephen Morris-Jones, Lusha Kellgren, Simon G Edwards, Alison D Grant
United Kingdom guidelines recommend screening for and treatment of latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) in HIV-positive patients at high risk of active tuberculosis (TB) disease, but implementation is suboptimal. We investigated potential missed opportunities to identify and treat LTBI among HIV-positive patients accessing a large HIV outpatient service in London. Case records of all adult patients attending our service for HIV care diagnosed with active TB between 2011 and 2015 were reviewed to determine whether they met criteria for LTBI screening and whether screening was undertaken...
January 1, 2018: International Journal of STD & AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29746954/combined-ifn-%C3%AE-and-tnf-%C3%AE-release-assay-for-differentiating-active-tuberculosis-from-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#8
Ji Yeun Kim, Joung Ha Park, Min Chul Kim, Hye Hee Cha, Na-Young Jeon, Seong Yeon Park, Min-Jae Kim, Yong-Phil Chong, Sang Oh Lee, Sang-Ho Choi, Yang Soo Kim, Jun Hee Woo, Sung Han Kim
OBJECTIVES: The IFN-γ-release assay (IGRA) cannot differentiate active tuberculosis (TB) from latent TB infection (LTBI). We hypothesized that the TNF-α-release assay (TARA) combined with IGRA might discriminate active TB from not active TB without LTBI. METHODS: Adult patients with suspected TB, and with unrelated diseases such as herpes zoster as controls, were enrolled in an intermediate TB-burden country. Patients with confirmed or probable TB were regarded as active TB, and patients with not active TB were further classified as those having not active TB with and without LTBI based on IGRA results...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735171/high-rates-of-tuberculin-skin-test-positivity-due-to-methotrexate-therapy-false-positive-results
#9
Miguel Arias-Guillén, Marta M Sánchez Menéndez, Mercedes Alperi, Sabino Riestra-Menéndez, María Teresa González Budiño, Marta María García-Clemente, Susana Martínez-González, Ana Isabel Enríquez, Rebeca Alonso-Arias, Juan José Palacios Gutiérrez, Miguel Santibáñez, Pablo Coto-Segura, Pablo Martínez Camblor, Lucía García-Alfonso, Isla Morante, Patricio Escalante
RATIONALE: The tuberculin skin test (TST) and interferon γ release assays (IGRAs) are commonly used for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening. Unexpectedly high TST positivity rates have been reported in patients with rheumatic diseases, and methotrexate is frequently used in this population. We hypothesized that methotrexate use could be associated with false-positive TST results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether treatment with methotrexate and other factors are associated with false-positive TST results in patients with rheumatic diseases...
March 29, 2018: Seminars in Arthritis and Rheumatism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29726024/impact-of-nursing-interventions-on-adherence-to-treatment-with-antituberculosis-drugs-in-children-and-young-people-a-non-randomized-controlled-trial
#10
Eva Maria Guix-Comellas, Librada Rozas-Quesada, Eneritz Velasco-Arnaiz, Ariadna Ferres-Canals, Joan Maria Estrada-Masllorens, Enriqueta Force-Sanmartín, Antoni Noguera-Julian
AIM: To evaluate the association of a new nursing intervention on the adherence to antituberculosis treatment in a pediatric cohort (<18 years). BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis remains a public health problem worldwide. The risk of developing tuberculosis after primary infection and its severity are higher in children. Proper adherence to antituberculosis treatment is critical for disease control. DESIGN: Non-randomized controlled trial; Phase 1, retrospective (2011-2013), compared with Phase 2, prospective with intervention (2015-2016), in a referral center for pediatric tuberculosis in Spain (NCT03230409)...
May 3, 2018: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720069/how-much-does-tuberculosis-cost-an-australian-healthcare-perspective-analysis
#11
Eddie Chan, Aine Nolan, Justin Denholm
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of high morbidity in Australia, with implications for both public health and the individual. Cost analyses is relevant for programmatic evaluation of TB. There is minimal published TB cost data in the Australian setting. Patients with drug sensitive active pulmonary TB (DS-PTB) and latent TB (LTBI) were enrolled in a single tertiary referral centre to evaluate healthcare provider costs. The median cost of treating drug susceptible pulmonary TB in this case series was 11,538 AUD...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720068/national-position-statement-for-the-management-of-latent-tuberculosis-infection
#12
David Stock
The primary role of any tuberculosis (TB) control program is to ensure the prompt identification and effective treatment of active disease. The host immune system often succeeds in containing the initial (or primary) infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), but may fail to eliminate the pathogen. The persistence of viable organisms explains the potential for the development of active disease years or even decades after infection. This is known as latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) although, rather than a distinct entity, this probably represents part of a dynamic spectrum...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720065/tuberculosis-screening-in-an-aged-care-residential-facility-in-a-low-incidence-setting
#13
Nompilo Moyo, James Trauer, Peter Trevan, Ann-Marie Baker, Joseph Musemburi, Kerry McGrath, Aine Nolan, Eamon McIntyre, Jane Hulls, Justin T Denholm
Tuberculosis (TB) remains a disease of high morbidity in Australia, with implications for both public health and the individual. Cost analyses is relevant for programmatic evaluation of TB. There is minimal published TB cost data in the Australian setting. Patients with drug sensitive active pulmonary TB (DS-PTB) and latent TB (LTBI) were enrolled in a single tertiary referral centre to evaluate healthcare provider costs. The median cost of treating drug susceptible pulmonary TB in this case series was 11,538 AUD...
September 1, 2017: Communicable Diseases Intelligence Quarterly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29718223/outcomes-of-treatment-for-latent-tuberculosis-infection-in-patients-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease-receiving-biologic-therapy
#14
Guilherme P Ramos, Gregory Stroh, Badr Al-Bawardy, William A Faubion, Konstantinos A Papadakis, Patricio Escalante
Background: Treatment for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) is of particular concern in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) initiating biologic therapies to prevent tuberculosis (TB) reactivation. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of LTBI treatment in IBD patients receiving biologic therapy. Methods: There was a retrospective review of all IBD patients diagnosed with LTBI following a tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) and who received biologic therapy between 2002 and 2016...
April 26, 2018: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29709002/b-cells-response-directed-against-cut4-and-cfp21-lipolytic-enzymes-in-active-and-latent-tuberculosis-infections
#15
Wendy Rénier, Arnaud Bourdin, Pierre-Alain Rubbo, Marianne Peries, Luc Dedieu, Sophie Bendriss, Laurent Kremer, Stéphane Canaan, Dominique Terru, Sylvain Godreuil, Nicolas Nagot, Philippe Van de Perre, Edouard Tuaillon
BACKGROUND: Better understanding of the immune response directed against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is critical for development of vaccine strategies and diagnosis tests. Previous studies suggested that Mtb enzymes involved in lipid metabolism, are associated with persistence and/or reactivation of dormant bacilli. METHODS: Circulating antibodies secreting cells (ASCs), memory B cells, and antibodies directed against Cut4 (Rv3452) and CFP21 (Rv1984c) antigens were explored in subjects with either active- or latent-tuberculosis (LTB), and in Mtb-uninfected individuals...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29703963/determination-of-dehydroepiandrosterone-and-its-biologically-active-oxygenated-metabolites-in-human-plasma-evinces-a-hormonal-imbalance-during-hiv-tb-coinfection
#16
María Belén Vecchione, Javier Eiras, Guadalupe Verónica Suarez, Matías Tomás Angerami, Cecilia Marquez, Omar Sued, Graciela Ben, Héctor Miguel Pérez, Diego Gonzalez, Patricia Maidana, Viviana Mesch, María Florencia Quiroga, Andrea Claudia Bruttomesso
An estimated one third of the world's population is affected by latent tuberculosis (TB), which once active represents a leading cause of death among infectious diseases. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a main predisposing factor to TB reactivation. Individuals HIV-TB co-infected develop a chronic state of inflammation associated with hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysregulation. This results in a hormonal imbalance, disturbing the physiological levels of cortisol and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)...
April 27, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29702035/occupational-tuberculosis-in-healthcare-workers-in-sub-saharan-africa-a-systematic-review
#17
Faith O Alele, Richard C Franklin, Theophilus I Emeto, Peter Leggat
This article investigates the incidence, prevalence and factors associated with occupational tuberculosis (TB) in healthcare workers (HCWs) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Studies were extracted from MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Cochrane Library, and SCOPUS databases following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses statement from inception to the 2nd of June 2017. Twenty-one studies met the inclusion criteria. The median prevalence of latent TB infection in HCWS was 62% (IQR 22%) and the median incidence of TB disease was 3871/100,000 (IQR 9314/100,000)...
April 27, 2018: Archives of Environmental & Occupational Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698931/the-impact-of-a-public-health-department-s-expansion-from-a-one-step-to-a-two-step-refugee-screening-process-on-the-detection-and-initiation-of-treatment-of-latent-tuberculosis
#18
E M Einterz, O Younge, C Hadi
OBJECTIVES: To determine, subsequent to the expansion of a county health department's refugee screening process from a one-step to a two-step process, the change in early loss to follow-up and time to initiation of treatment of new refugees with latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI). STUDY DESIGN: Quasi-experimental, quantitative. METHODS: Review of patient medical records. RESULTS: Among 384 refugees who met the case definition of LTBI without prior tuberculosis (TB) classification, the number of cases lost to early follow-up fell from 12...
April 23, 2018: Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692996/predicting-pulmonary-tuberculosis-in-immigrants-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#19
Courtney Heffernan, Alexander Doroshenko, Mary Lou Egedahl, James Barrie, Ambikaipakan Senthilselvan, Richard Long
Our objective was to investigate whether pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) can be predicted from features of a targeted medical history and basic laboratory investigations in immigrants. A retrospective cohort of 391 foreign-born adults referred to the Edmonton Tuberculosis Clinic (Edmonton, AB, Canada) was studied using multiple logistic regression analysis to predict PTB. Seven characteristics of disease were used as explanatory variables. Cross-validation assessed performance. Each predictor was tested on two outcomes: "culture-positive" and "smear-positive"...
April 2018: ERJ Open Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29692316/extended-screening-for-infectious-diseases-among-newly-arrived-asylum-seekers-from-africa-and-asia-verona-province-italy-april-2014-to-june-2015
#20
Dora Buonfrate, Federico Gobbi, Valentina Marchese, Chiara Postiglione, Geraldo Badona Monteiro, Giovanni Giorli, Giuseppina Napoletano, Zeno Bisoffi
Background and aimManagement of health issues presented by newly-arrived migrants is often limited to communicable diseases even though other health issues may be more prevalent. We report the results of infectious disease screening proposed to 462 recently-arrived asylum seekers over 14 years of age in Verona province between April 2014 and June 2015. Methods: Screening for latent tuberculosis (TB) was performed via tuberculin skin test (TST) and/or QuantiFERON-TB Gold in-tube assay and/or chest X-ray. An ELISA was used to screen for syphilis...
April 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
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