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latent tuberculosis disease

P Mencarini, R Bellagamba, A Oliva, P Ghirga, M L Giancola, A Corpolongo, T Ascoli Bartoli, P De Nardo, A Baiocchini, F Del Nonno, P Narciso, E Nicastri
The diagnosis of sarcoidosis in a patient living with HIV infection is an uncommon event and a challenge for clinicians. Clinical manifestations are variable and fluctuating depending to adherence to ARV therapy and to the level of CD4 count. We analyze here one chronic case in which sarcoidosis appeared clinically two years after pulmonary tuberculosis. The course of the disease was influenced and prolonged by frequent interruptions of antiretroviral therapy. Moreover the diagnosis and the decision to treat have been delayed by the need of exclusion of other pathologies, principally tuberculosis reactivation/reinfection, other mycobacterial diseases, hematologic malignancies...
2016: Respiratory Medicine Case Reports
Paula Flanagan, Joan O'Donnell, Jolita Mereckiene, Darina O'Flanagan
The risk of communicable disease transmission during air travel is of public health concern and has received much attention over the years. We retrospectively reviewed information from nine flights (≥ 8 hours) associated with infectious tuberculosis (TB) cases in Ireland between September 2011 and November 2014 to investigate whether possible transmission had occurred. Twenty-four flights notified in Ireland associated with sputum smear-positive pulmonary TB cases with a history of air travel were reviewed...
October 6, 2016: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Fatemeh Heidarnezhad, Amir Asnaashari, Seyed Abdolrahim Rezaee, Roghayeh Ghezelsofla, Kiarash Ghazvini, Narges Valizadeh, Reza Basiri, Aghigh Ziaeemehr, Somayeh Sobhani, Houshang Rafatpanah
OBJECTIVES: Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases with high mortality rates worldwide, especially in developing countries. Interleukin17 (IL-17) is an important acquired immunity cytokine, which is mainly produced by CD4(+)TH17 cells. It can recruit neutrophils and macrophages to the infected site in the lungs. IL-23 is one of the most important inducers of IL-17. In the present study, the expressions of IL-23 and IL-17 were examined in the pathogenesis of tuberculosis...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
Susmita K Singh, Anna-Maria Andersson, Rada Ellegård, Cecilia S Lindestam Arlehamn, Alessandro Sette, Marie Larsson, Olle Stendahl, Robert Blomgran
HIV coinfection is the most prominent risk factor for progression of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection into active tuberculosis (TB) disease. The mechanisms behind the increased transition from latent to active TB in coinfected individuals have not been well elucidated at the cellular level. We hypothesized that HIV infection contributes to Mtb pathogenesis by interfering with the dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immune control. Mtb-antigen processing and presentation are key events in the immune response against TB...
October 13, 2016: American Journal of Pathology
Robert W Aldridge, Dominik Zenner, Peter J White, Elizabeth J Williamson, Morris C Muzyamba, Poonam Dhavan, Davide Mosca, H Lucy Thomas, Maeve K Lalor, Ibrahim Abubakar, Andrew C Hayward
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis elimination in countries with a low incidence of the disease necessitates multiple interventions, including innovations in migrant screening. We examined a cohort of migrants screened for tuberculosis before entry to England, Wales, and Northern Ireland and tracked the development of disease in this group after arrival. METHODS: As part of a pilot pre-entry screening programme for tuberculosis in 15 countries with a high incidence of the disease, the International Organization for Migration screened all applicants for UK visas aged 11 years or older who intended to stay for more than 6 months...
October 10, 2016: Lancet
Ajay Gupta, Siddhartha Baxi, Christopher Hoyne
INTRODUCTION: Comprehensive oncology services have recently been introduced in the Northern Territory (NT) enabling delivery of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in locally advanced head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (LAHNSC). The purpose of this study is to assess feasibility, compliance and toxicity of CCRT in remote Australia. METHODS: Chart review was conducted for all patients >18 years, with biopsy-proven LAHNSC, receiving curative intent CCRT between January 2010 and September 2012...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences
Pere-Joan Cardona
A major problem with tuberculosis (TB) control is the long duration of drug therapy-both for latent and for active TB. Therapeutic vaccination has been postulated to improve this situation, and to this end there are several candidates already in clinical phases of development. These candidates follow two main designs, namely bacilli-directed therapy based on inactivated -whole or -fragmented bacillus (Mycobacterium w and RUTI) or fusion proteins that integrate non-replicating bacilli -related antigens (H56 vaccine), and host-directed therapy to reduce the tissue destruction...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Ank E Nijhawan, Princess A Iroh, Larry S Brown, Daniel Winetsky, Esmaeil Porsa
BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) disproportionately affects immigrants, HIV-infected individuals, and those living in crowded settings such as homeless shelters and correctional facilities. Although the majority of jails and prisons use a tuberculin skin test (TST) for latent tuberculosis infection (LTBI) screening, limited data exist on the clinical performance and costs of the TST compared to interferon gamma release assays (IGRAs) in this setting. METHODS: A prospective pilot study comparing cost between TST and an IGRA (QuantiFERON Gold In-tube, QFT-GIT) for the detection of LTBI in a convenience sample of inmates entering the Dallas County Jail (DCJ) was conducted June-October 2014...
October 12, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Zhuoyu Wang, Nandini Dendukuri, Lawrence Joseph
When two imperfect diagnostic tests are carried out on the same subject, their results may be correlated even after conditioning on the true disease status. While past work has focused on the consequences of ignoring conditional dependence, the degree to which conditional dependence can be induced has not been systematically studied. We examine this issue in detail by introducing a hypothetical missing covariate that affects the sensitivities of two imperfect dichotomous tests. We consider four forms for this covariate, normal, uniform, dichotomous and trichotomous...
October 11, 2016: Statistics in Medicine
Eva Polverino, Graham H Bothamley, Delia Goletti, Jan Heyckendorf, Giovanni Sotgiu, Stefano Aliberti
The breadth and quality of scientific presentations on clinical and translational research into respiratory infections at the 2015 European Respiratory Society (ERS) International Congress in Amsterdam, the Netherlands, establishes this area as one of the leadings fields in pulmonology. The host-pathogen relationship in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and the impact of comorbidities and chronic treatment on clinical outcomes in patients with pneumonia were studied. Various communications were dedicated to bronchiectasis and, in particular, to different prognostic and clinical aspects of this disease, including chronic infection with Pseudomonas and inhaled antibiotic therapy...
July 2016: ERJ Open Research
Faiz Ahmad Khan, Greg J Fox, Robyn S Lee, Mylene Riva, Andrea Benedetti, Jean-François Proulx, Shelley Jung, Karen Hornby, Marcel A Behr, Dick Menzies
BACKGROUND: Between November 2011 and November 2012, an Inuit village in Nunavik, Quebec experienced a surge in the occurrence of active TB; contact investigations showed that TB infection was highly prevalent (62.6%), particularly among those over age 14 years (78.8%). A nested case-control study showed that nutritional inadequacy was associated with acquisition of infection but not progression to disease. We performed a study to determine whether characteristics of one's dwelling were associated with 1) acquisition of newly diagnosed TB infection and 2) progression to confirmed or probable disease among those with TB infection...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Lilun Li, Bryan Ward, Margaret Cocks, Amir Kheradmand, Howard W Francis
OBJECTIVE: IgG4-related disease (IgG4-RD) is an idiopathic inflammatory condition that causes pseudotumor formation in single or multiple organs, including those of the head and neck. Temporal bone involvement is rare, with only 3 cases of unilateral temporal bone IgG4-RD described in the literature. We report the first known case of IgG4-RD of bilateral temporal bones and describe its clinical presentation, diagnosis, and treatment. METHODS: The patient was a 52-year-old man with latent tuberculosis (TB) who presented with a 10-year history of bilateral profound hearing loss and vestibular dysfunction...
October 10, 2016: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Sutapa Khatua, Abby M Geltemeyer, Anand Gourishankar
Robert Heinrich Herman Koch, a German physician and microbiologist, received Nobel Prize in 1905 for identifying the specific causative agent of Tuberculosis. During his time it was believed that TB was an inherited disease. However he was convinced that the disease was caused by a bacterium and was infectious, tested his postulates using guinea pigs, and found the causative agent to be slow growing Mycobacterium Tuberculosis.TB is the second most common cause of death from infectious diseases after HIV/AIDS...
October 10, 2016: Pediatric Research
Pawan Kumar
The intricate relationship between tuberculosis (TB) and immune system remains poorly understood. It is generally believed that weakening of the immune response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis leads to reactivation of latent infection into the active pulmonary disease. However, heterogeneous nature of TB and failure of rationally designed vaccines in clinical trials raises serious questions against the simplistic view of TB as an outcome of weakened immunity. In the wake of accumulating human TB data, it is argued here that a hyperactive antimycobacterial immune response is to blame for the pathogenesis of pulmonary TB in immunocompetent adults...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Nathan S Bertelsen, Elizabeth Selden, Polina Krass, Eva S Keatley, Allen Keller
Effective screening in primary care among asylum-seekers in the US is critical as this population grows. This study aimed to evaluate disease prevalence and screening methods in this high-risk group. Two hundred ten new clients from 51 countries, plus Tibet, who were accepted into a program for asylum seekers from 2012 to 2014 were included. Screening rates and outcomes for infectious, non-communicable, and mental illnesses were evaluated. Screening rates were highest for PTSD, depression, hepatitis B, and latent tuberculosis...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Alessandra Bua, Melania Ruggeri, Stefania Zanetti, Paola Molicotti
Multiple sclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the central nervous system characterized by damage to myelin and axons, over time leading to progressive neuronal degeneration and microglial activation. There is still no curative treatment, but during the last 20 years eight different therapies have become available including interferon beta, glatiramer acetate, teriflunomide, dimethyl fumarate, natalizumab, fingolimod, alemtuzumab, mitoxantrone and teriflunomide. Teriflunomide is an immunomodulatory drug that exerts an inhibitory effect on T cell activation in central nervous system of the patients with multiple sclerosis...
October 4, 2016: Medical Microbiology and Immunology
Lenette L Lu, Amy W Chung, Tracy R Rosebrock, Musie Ghebremichael, Wen Han Yu, Patricia S Grace, Matthew K Schoen, Fikadu Tafesse, Constance Martin, Vivian Leung, Alison E Mahan, Magdalena Sips, Manu P Kumar, Jacquelynne Tedesco, Hannah Robinson, Elizabeth Tkachenko, Monia Draghi, Katherine J Freedberg, Hendrik Streeck, Todd J Suscovich, Douglas A Lauffenburger, Blanca I Restrepo, Cheryl Day, Sarah M Fortune, Galit Alter
While a third of the world carries the burden of tuberculosis, disease control has been hindered by a lack of tools, including a rapid, point-of-care diagnostic and a protective vaccine. In many infectious diseases, antibodies (Abs) are powerful biomarkers and important immune mediators. However, in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, a discriminatory or protective role for humoral immunity remains unclear. Using an unbiased antibody profiling approach, we show that individuals with latent tuberculosis infection (Ltb) and active tuberculosis disease (Atb) have distinct Mtb-specific humoral responses, such that Ltb infection is associated with unique Ab Fc functional profiles, selective binding to FcγRIII, and distinct Ab glycosylation patterns...
October 6, 2016: Cell
Miguel Santin, Francisco Morandeira-Rego, Fernando Alcaide, Ramón Rabuñal, Luís Anibarro, Ramón Agüero-Balbín, Xavier Casas-Garcia, Elvira Pérez-Escolano, Maria D Navarro, Francisca Sánchez, Amparo Coira-Nieto, Matilde Trigo-Daporta, Amaya Martinez-Meñaca, Araceli Gonzalez-Cuevas, Maria D López-Prieto, Ángel Domínguez-Castellano, Neus Jové
OBJECTIVE: Previous reports have identified interleukin-2 (IL-2), quantified in the supernatants of QuantiFERON(®)-TB Gold In-tube (QFT) after 72 hours of incubation, as a potential biomarker for distinguishing between latent and active tuberculosis (TB). However, its validity has not been tested in an appropriate clinical cohort. METHODS: A multicentre study of 161 consecutive adult patients undergoing evaluation for active TB at eight TB Units in Spain. IFN-γ and IL-2 were assessed in the supernatant of QFT after 16-24 h and 72 h incubation...
September 16, 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Houssaine Ait Lhaj, Amine Benjelloun, Youssef Bouia, Youssef Bennouk, Yassine Mouzari, Youssef El Kamouni, Mohamed Kriet
BACKGROUND: Scleritis is a painful inflammatory process centered in the sclera that may involve the cornea and the underlying uvea. The etiology is commonly idiopathic or autoimmune but some cases are associated with systemic infection such as tuberculosis. CASE PRESENTATION: In this report, we describe an unusual case of a female Moroccan patient who had a long history of bilateral recurrent scleritis associated with peripheral keratopathy and anterior uveitis...
2016: BMC Research Notes
L Getaz, L Da Silva-Santos, H Wolff, M Vitoria, N Serre-Delcor, J C Lozano-Becerra, F Chappuis, P Albajar-Viñas
A number of infectious diseases amongst travelers and the immigrant populations are a major public health concern. Some have a long incubation period or remain asymptomatic or paucisymptomatic for many years before leading to significant clinical manifestations and/or complications. HIV, hepatitis B and C, tuberculosis or latent syphilis are among the most significant persistent diseases in migrants. Schistosomiasis and strongyloidiasis, for instance, are persistent helminthic infections that may cause significant morbidity, particularly in patients co-infected with HIV, hepatitis B and C...
October 2016: Revista Española de Sanidad Penitenciaria
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