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Monkeypox

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192435/presumptive-risk-factors-for-monkeypox-in-rural-communities-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#1
Claire A Quiner, Cynthia Moses, Benjamin P Monroe, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Jeffrey B Doty, Christine M Hughes, Andrea M McCollum, Saturnin Ibata, Jean Malekani, Emile Okitolonda, Darin S Carroll, Mary G Reynolds
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a close relative of Variola virus, is a zoonotic virus with an unknown reservoir. Interaction with infected wildlife, bites from peri-domestic animals, and bushmeat hunting are hypothesized routes of infection from wildlife to humans. Using a Risk Questionnaire, performed in monkeypox-affected areas of rural Democratic Republic of the Congo, we describe the lifestyles and demographics associated with presumptive risk factors for MPXV infection. We generated two indices to assess risk: Household Materials Index (HMI), a proxy for socioeconomic status of households and Risk Activity Index (RAI), which describes presumptive risk for animal-to-human transmission of MPXV...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039021/buccal-viral-dna-as-a-trigger-for-brincidofovir-therapy-in-the-mousepox-model-of-smallpox
#2
Ryan Crump, Maria Korom, R Mark Buller, Scott Parker
Orthopoxviruses continue to pose a significant threat to the population as potential agents of bioterrorism. An intentional release of natural or engineered variola virus (VARV) or monkeypox viruses would cause mortality and morbidity in the target population. To address this, antivirals have been developed and evaluated in animal models of smallpox and monkeypox. One such antiviral, brincidofovir (BCV, previously CMX001), has demonstrated high levels of efficacy against orthopoxviruses in animal models and is currently under clinical evaluation for prevention and treatment of diseases caused by cytomegaloviruses and adenoviruses...
March 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28003603/a-single-vaccination-of-nonhuman-primates-with-highly-attenuated-smallpox-vaccine-lc16m8-provides-long-term-protection-against-monkeypox
#3
Itoe Iizuka, Yasushi Ami, Yuriko Suzaki, Noriyo Nagata, Shuetsu Fukushi, Momoko Ogata, Shigeru Morikawa, Hideki Hasegawa, Masashi Mizuguchi, Ichiro Kurane, Masayuki Saijo
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) causes human monkeypox (human MPX), which is a similar disease with smallpox in humans. A previous study showed that a single vaccination of monkeys with LC16m8, a highly attenuated smallpox vaccine, protected them from MPX at 4-5 weeks after vaccination. In the present study, we evaluated the long-term efficacy of a single vaccination with LC16m8 in a nonhuman primate model of MPXV infection. The monkeys were inoculated with LC16m8, Lister (parental strain of LC16m8), or mock and then challenged with MPXV via the subcutaneous route at 6 and 12 months after vaccination, which we compared with either Lister or mock vaccination...
December 22, 2016: Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994107/evaluation-of-the-genexpert-for-human-monkeypox-diagnosis
#4
Daniel Li, Kimberly Wilkins, Andrea M McCollum, Lynda Osadebe, Joelle Kabamba, Beatrice Nguete, Toutou Likafi, Marcel Pie Balilo, Robert Shongo Lushima, Jean Malekani, Inger K Damon, Michael C L Vickery, Elisabeth Pukuta, Frida Nkawa, Stomy Karhemere, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Emile Wemakoy Okitolonda, Yu Li, Mary G Reynolds
Monkeypox virus (MPXV), a zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPX), is endemic in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC). Currently, diagnostic assays for human monkeypox (MPX) focus on real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays, which are typically performed in sophisticated laboratory settings. Herein, we evaluated the accuracy and utility of a multiplex MPX assay using the GeneXpert platform, a portable rapid diagnostic device that may serve as a point-of-care test to diagnose infections in endemic areas...
February 8, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27938377/rapid-and-sensitive-point-of-care-detection-of-orthopoxviruses-by-abicap-immunofiltration
#5
Daniel Stern, Victoria A Olson, Scott K Smith, Marko Pietraszczyk, Lilija Miller, Peter Miethe, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
BACKGROUND: The rapid and reliable detection of infectious agents is one of the most challenging tasks in scenarios lacking well-equipped laboratory infrastructure, like diagnostics in rural areas of developing countries. Commercially available point-of-care diagnostic tests for emerging and rare diseases are particularly scarce. RESULTS: In this work we present a point-of-care test for the detection of Orthopoxviruses (OPV). The OPV ABICAP assay detects down to 1 × 10(4) plaque forming units/mL of OPV particles within 45 min...
December 9, 2016: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27933782/integration-of-global-analyses-of-host-molecular-responses-with-clinical-data-to-evaluate-pathogenesis-and-advance-therapies-for-emerging-and-re-emerging-viral-infections
#6
Shane D Falcinelli, Daniel S Chertow, Jason Kindrachuk
Outbreaks associated with emerging and re-emerging viral pathogens continue to increase in frequency and are associated with an increasing burden to global health. In light of this, there is a need to integrate basic and clinical research for investigating the connections between molecular and clinical pathogenesis and for therapeutic development strategies. Here, we will discuss this approach with a focus on the emerging viral pathogens Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Ebola virus (EBOV), and monkeypox virus (MPXV) from the context of clinical presentation, immunological and molecular features of the diseases, and OMICS-based analyses of pathogenesis...
November 11, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783372/-twelve-cases-of-monkeypox-virus-outbreak-in-bangassou-district-central-african-republic-in-december-2015
#7
E Kalthan, J P Dondo-Fongbia, S Yambele, L R Dieu-Creer, R Zepio, C M Pamatika
An outbreak of monkeypox occurred in the district of Bangassou in 2015. The monkeypox is a re-emerging zoonosis of viral origin highly contagious. It is an eruptive fever which evolves in an epidemic manner. An investigation was held December 10, 2015, to February 10, 2016 in the focus of the epidemic. Its objective was to describe the epidemic according to the time, places and people and to determine the incidence and lethality of the disease. This was a descriptive study. The data collection was made by interview and using a linear plug composed of several sections...
December 2016: Bulletin de la Société de Pathologie Exotique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27768891/cross-neutralizing-and-protective-human-antibody-specificities-to-poxvirus-infections
#8
Iuliia Gilchuk, Pavlo Gilchuk, Gopal Sapparapu, Rebecca Lampley, Vidisha Singh, Nurgun Kose, David L Blum, Laura J Hughes, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Michael B Townsend, Ashley V Kondas, Zachary Reed, Zachary Weiner, Victoria A Olson, Erika Hammarlund, Hans-Peter Raue, Mark K Slifka, James C Slaughter, Barney S Graham, Kathryn M Edwards, Roselyn J Eisenberg, Gary H Cohen, Sebastian Joyce, James E Crowe
Monkeypox (MPXV) and cowpox (CPXV) are emerging agents that cause severe human infections on an intermittent basis, and variola virus (VARV) has potential for use as an agent of bioterror. Vaccinia immune globulin (VIG) has been used therapeutically to treat severe orthopoxvirus infections but is in short supply. We generated a large panel of orthopoxvirus-specific human monoclonal antibodies (Abs) from immune subjects to investigate the molecular basis of broadly neutralizing antibody responses for diverse orthopoxviruses...
October 20, 2016: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27637905/protection-of-mice-against-the-highly-pathogenic-vvihd-j-by-dna-and-fowlpox-recombinant-vaccines-administered-by-electroporation-and-intranasal-routes-correlates-with-serum-neutralizing-activity
#9
Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27585810/finishing-monkeypox-genomes-from-short-reads-assembly-analysis-and-a-neural-network-method
#10
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
August 31, 2016: BMC Genomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27477914/species-specific-differentiation-of-variola-monkeypox-and-varicella-zoster-viruses-by-multiplex-real-time-pcr-assay
#11
Rinat A Maksyutov, Elena V Gavrilova, Sergei N Shchelkunov
A method of one-stage rapid detection and differentiation of epidemiologically important variola virus (VARV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) utilizing multiplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay was developed. Four hybridization probes with various fluorescent dyes and the corresponding fluorescence quenchers were simultaneously used for the assay. The hybridization probes specific for the VARV sequence contained FAM/BHQ1 as a dye/quencher pair; MPXV-specific, JOE/BHQ1; VZV-specific, TAMRA/BHQ2; and internal control-specific, Cy5/BHQ3...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27467578/monkeypox-virus-induces-the-synthesis-of-less-dsrna-than-vaccinia-virus-and-is-more-resistant-to-the-anti-poxvirus-drug-ibt-than-vaccinia-virus
#12
William D Arndt, Stacy D White, Brian P Johnson, Trung Huynh, Jeffrey Liao, Heather Harrington, Samantha Cotsmire, Karen V Kibler, Jeffrey Langland, Bertram L Jacobs
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection fails to activate the host anti-viral protein, PKR, despite lacking a full-length homologue of the vaccinia virus (VACV) PKR inhibitor, E3. Since PKR can be activated by dsRNA produced during a viral infection, we have analyzed the accumulation of dsRNA in MPXV-infected cells. MPXV infection led to less accumulation of dsRNA than VACV infection. Because in VACV infections accumulation of abnormally low amounts of dsRNA is associated with mutations that lead to resistance to the anti-poxvirus drug isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone (IBT), we investigated the effects of treatment of MPXV-infected cells with IBT...
October 2016: Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27466413/retrograde-transport-from-early-endosomes-to-the-trans-golgi-network-enables-membrane-wrapping-and-egress-of-vaccinia-virus-virions
#13
Gilad Sivan, Andrea S Weisberg, Jeffrey L Americo, Bernard Moss
UNLABELLED: The anterograde pathway, from the endoplasmic reticulum through the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface, is utilized by trans-membrane and secretory proteins. The retrograde pathway, which directs traffic in the opposite direction, is used following endocytosis of exogenous molecules and recycling of membrane proteins. Microbes exploit both routes: viruses typically use the anterograde pathway for envelope formation prior to exiting the cell, whereas ricin and Shiga-like toxins and some nonenveloped viruses use the retrograde pathway for cell entry...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27404372/emerging-diseases-the-monkeypox-epidemic-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#14
EDITORIAL
A Kantele, K Chickering, O Vapalahti, A W Rimoin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27191380/extended-human-to-human-transmission-during-a-monkeypox-outbreak-in-the-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#15
Leisha Diane Nolen, Lynda Osadebe, Jacques Katomba, Jacques Likofata, Daniel Mukadi, Benjamin Monroe, Jeffrey Doty, Christine Marie Hughes, Joelle Kabamba, Jean Malekani, Pierre Lokwa Bomponda, Jules Inonga Lokota, Marcel Pie Balilo, Toutou Likafi, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Frida Nkawa, Elisabeth Pukuta, Stomy Karhemere, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Beatrice Nguete, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Andrea M McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. The household attack rate (i.e., rate of persons living with an infected person that develop symptoms of MPXV infection) was 50%...
June 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27024916/-development-of-the-disease-in-marmot-at-the-intranasal-infection-with-the-monkeypox-virus
#16
A A Sergeev, A S Kabanov, L E Bulychev, Ar A Sergeev, O V Pyankov, S A Bodnev, D O Galakhova, A S Zamedyanskaya, K A Titova, L N Shishkina, A P Agafonov, A N Sergeev
In experimental study the sensitivity of the Marmota bobak species to the monkeypox virus (MPXV) with the intranasal (i/n) infection was tested. It was demonstrated that 50% of the infective dose (ID50) of the MPXV on external clinical signs of the disease was 2.2 Ig plaque forming units (PFU). The percentage of the marmot mortality is slightly dependent on the infecting dose of the MPXV, therefore it is not possible to correctly determine the value of 50 % fatal dose (FD50) for these animals. The most pronounced external clinical signs of the disease were obtained in the marmots: pox-like skin rash throughout the surface of the body and mucous membranes, purulent discharge from the nose, lymphadenitis, discoordination, tremor of the extremities, fever, increased aggression, and ruffled fur...
2015: Voprosy Virusologii
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26985679/use-of-vaccinia-virus-smallpox-vaccine-in-laboratory-and-health-care-personnel-at-risk-for-occupational-exposure-to-orthopoxviruses-recommendations-of-the-advisory-committee-on-immunization-practices-acip-2015
#17
Brett W Petersen, Tiara J Harms, Mary G Reynolds, Lee H Harrison
On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e...
March 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26930499/development-of-a-genus-specific-antigen-capture-elisa-for-orthopoxviruses-target-selection-and-optimized-screening
#18
Daniel Stern, Diana Pauly, Martin Zydek, Lilija Miller, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Fred Lisdat, Martin B Dorner, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
Orthopoxvirus species like cowpox, vaccinia and monkeypox virus cause zoonotic infections in humans worldwide. Infections often occur in rural areas lacking proper diagnostic infrastructure as exemplified by monkeypox, which is endemic in Western and Central Africa. While PCR detection requires demanding equipment and is restricted to genome detection, the evidence of virus particles can complement or replace PCR. Therefore, an easily distributable and manageable antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of orthopoxviruses was developed to facilitate particle detection...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26861777/new-effective-chemically-synthesized-anti-smallpox-compound-nioch-14
#19
Oleg Yu Mazurkov, Alexey S Kabanov, Larisa N Shishkina, Alexander A Sergeev, Maksim O Skarnovich, Nikolay I Bormotov, Maria A Skarnovich, Alena S Ovchinnikova, Ksenya A Titova, Darya O Galahova, Leonid E Bulychev, Artemiy A Sergeev, Oleg S Taranov, Boris A Selivanov, Alexey Ya Tikhonov, Evgenii L Zavjalov, Alexander P Agafonov, Alexander N Sergeev
Antiviral activity of the new chemically synthesized compound NIOCH-14 (a derivative of tricyclodicarboxylic acid) in comparison with ST-246 (the condensed derivative of pyrroledione) was observed in experiments in vitro and in vivo using orthopoxviruses including highly pathogenic ones. After oral administration of NIOCH-14 to outbred ICR mice infected intranasally with 100 % lethal dose of ectromelia virus, it was shown that 50 % effective doses of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 did not significantly differ. The 'therapeutic window' varied from 1 day before infection to 6 days post-infection (p...
May 2016: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26700306/evidence-for-persistence-of-ectromelia-virus-in-inbred-mice-recrudescence-following-immunosuppression-and-transmission-to-na%C3%A3-ve-mice
#20
Isaac G Sakala, Geeta Chaudhri, Anthony A Scalzo, Preethi Eldi, Timothy P Newsome, Robert M Buller, Gunasegaran Karupiah
Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
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