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Massimiliano Bissa, Elena Quaglino, Carlo Zanotto, Elena Illiano, Valeria Rolih, Sole Pacchioni, Federica Cavallo, Carlo De Giuli Morghen, Antonia Radaelli
The control of smallpox was achieved using live vaccinia virus (VV) vaccine, which successfully eradicated the disease worldwide. As the variola virus no longer exists as a natural infection agent, mass vaccination was discontinued after 1980. However, emergence of smallpox outbreaks caused by accidental or deliberate release of variola virus has stimulated new research for second-generation vaccine development based on attenuated VV strains. Considering the closely related animal poxviruses that also arise as zoonoses, and the increasing number of unvaccinated or immunocompromised people, a safer and more effective vaccine is still required...
October 2016: Antiviral Research
Kun Zhao, Robert M Wohlhueter, Yu Li
BACKGROUND: Poxviruses constitute one of the largest and most complex animal virus families known. The notorious smallpox disease has been eradicated and the virus contained, but its simian sister, monkeypox is an emerging, untreatable infectious disease, killing 1 to 10 % of its human victims. In the case of poxviruses, the emergence of monkeypox outbreaks in humans and the need to monitor potential malicious release of smallpox virus requires development of methods for rapid virus identification...
2016: BMC Genomics
Rinat A Maksyutov, Elena V Gavrilova, Sergei N Shchelkunov
A method of one-stage rapid detection and differentiation of epidemiologically important variola virus (VARV), monkeypox virus (MPXV), and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) utilizing multiplex real-time TaqMan PCR assay was developed. Four hybridization probes with various fluorescent dyes and the corresponding fluorescence quenchers were simultaneously used for the assay. The hybridization probes specific for the VARV sequence contained FAM/BHQ1 as a dye/quencher pair; MPXV-specific, JOE/BHQ1; VZV-specific, TAMRA/BHQ2; and internal control-specific, Cy5/BHQ3...
October 2016: Journal of Virological Methods
William D Arndt, Stacy D White, Brian P Johnson, Trung Huynh, Jeffrey Liao, Heather Harrington, Samantha Cotsmire, Karen V Kibler, Jeffrey Langland, Bertram L Jacobs
Monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection fails to activate the host anti-viral protein, PKR, despite lacking a full-length homologue of the vaccinia virus (VACV) PKR inhibitor, E3. Since PKR can be activated by dsRNA produced during a viral infection, we have analyzed the accumulation of dsRNA in MPXV-infected cells. MPXV infection led to less accumulation of dsRNA than VACV infection. Because in VACV infections accumulation of abnormally low amounts of dsRNA is associated with mutations that lead to resistance to the anti-poxvirus drug isatin beta-thiosemicarbazone (IBT), we investigated the effects of treatment of MPXV-infected cells with IBT...
October 2016: Virology
Gilad Sivan, Andrea S Weisberg, Jeffrey L Americo, Bernard Moss
UNLABELLED: The anterograde pathway, from the endoplasmic reticulum through the trans-Golgi network to the cell surface, is utilized by trans-membrane and secretory proteins. The retrograde pathway, which directs traffic in the opposite direction, is used following endocytosis of exogenous molecules and recycling of membrane proteins. Microbes exploit both routes: viruses typically use the anterograde pathway for envelope formation prior to exiting the cell, whereas ricin and Shiga-like toxins and some nonenveloped viruses use the retrograde pathway for cell entry...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Virology
A Kantele, K Chickering, O Vapalahti, A W Rimoin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 2016: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
Leisha Diane Nolen, Lynda Osadebe, Jacques Katomba, Jacques Likofata, Daniel Mukadi, Benjamin Monroe, Jeffrey Doty, Christine Marie Hughes, Joelle Kabamba, Jean Malekani, Pierre Lokwa Bomponda, Jules Inonga Lokota, Marcel Pie Balilo, Toutou Likafi, Robert Shongo Lushima, Benoit Kebela Ilunga, Frida Nkawa, Elisabeth Pukuta, Stomy Karhemere, Jean-Jacques Muyembe Tamfum, Beatrice Nguete, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Andrea M McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
A 600-fold increase in monkeypox cases occurred in the Bokungu Health Zone of the Democratic Republic of the Congo during the second half of 2013; this increase prompted an outbreak investigation. A total of 104 possible cases were reported from this health zone; among 60 suspected cases that were tested, 50 (48.1%) cases were confirmed by laboratory testing, and 10 (9.6%) tested negative for monkeypox virus (MPXV) infection. The household attack rate (i.e., rate of persons living with an infected person that develop symptoms of MPXV infection) was 50%...
June 2016: Emerging Infectious Diseases
A A Sergeev, A S Kabanov, L E Bulychev, Ar A Sergeev, O V Pyankov, S A Bodnev, D O Galakhova, A S Zamedyanskaya, K A Titova, L N Shishkina, A P Agafonov, A N Sergeev
In experimental study the sensitivity of the Marmota bobak species to the monkeypox virus (MPXV) with the intranasal (i/n) infection was tested. It was demonstrated that 50% of the infective dose (ID50) of the MPXV on external clinical signs of the disease was 2.2 Ig plaque forming units (PFU). The percentage of the marmot mortality is slightly dependent on the infecting dose of the MPXV, therefore it is not possible to correctly determine the value of 50 % fatal dose (FD50) for these animals. The most pronounced external clinical signs of the disease were obtained in the marmots: pox-like skin rash throughout the surface of the body and mucous membranes, purulent discharge from the nose, lymphadenitis, discoordination, tremor of the extremities, fever, increased aggression, and ruffled fur...
2015: Voprosy Virusologii
Brett W Petersen, Tiara J Harms, Mary G Reynolds, Lee H Harrison
On June 25, 2015, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) recommended routine vaccination with live smallpox (vaccinia) vaccine (ACAM2000) for laboratory personnel who directly handle 1) cultures or 2) animals contaminated or infected with replication-competent vaccinia virus, recombinant vaccinia viruses derived from replication-competent vaccinia strains (i.e., those that are capable of causing clinical infection and producing infectious virus in humans), or other orthopoxviruses that infect humans (e...
March 18, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
Daniel Stern, Diana Pauly, Martin Zydek, Lilija Miller, Janett Piesker, Michael Laue, Fred Lisdat, Martin B Dorner, Brigitte G Dorner, Andreas Nitsche
Orthopoxvirus species like cowpox, vaccinia and monkeypox virus cause zoonotic infections in humans worldwide. Infections often occur in rural areas lacking proper diagnostic infrastructure as exemplified by monkeypox, which is endemic in Western and Central Africa. While PCR detection requires demanding equipment and is restricted to genome detection, the evidence of virus particles can complement or replace PCR. Therefore, an easily distributable and manageable antigen capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of orthopoxviruses was developed to facilitate particle detection...
2016: PloS One
Oleg Yu Mazurkov, Alexey S Kabanov, Larisa N Shishkina, Alexander A Sergeev, Maksim O Skarnovich, Nikolay I Bormotov, Maria A Skarnovich, Alena S Ovchinnikova, Ksenya A Titova, Darya O Galahova, Leonid E Bulychev, Artemiy A Sergeev, Oleg S Taranov, Boris A Selivanov, Alexey Ya Tikhonov, Evgenii L Zavjalov, Alexander P Agafonov, Alexander N Sergeev
Antiviral activity of the new chemically synthesized compound NIOCH-14 (a derivative of tricyclodicarboxylic acid) in comparison with ST-246 (the condensed derivative of pyrroledione) was observed in experiments in vitro and in vivo using orthopoxviruses including highly pathogenic ones. After oral administration of NIOCH-14 to outbred ICR mice infected intranasally with 100 % lethal dose of ectromelia virus, it was shown that 50 % effective doses of NIOCH-14 and ST-246 did not significantly differ. The 'therapeutic window' varied from 1 day before infection to 6 days post-infection (p...
May 2016: Journal of General Virology
Isaac G Sakala, Geeta Chaudhri, Anthony A Scalzo, Preethi Eldi, Timothy P Newsome, Robert M Buller, Gunasegaran Karupiah
Orthopoxviruses (OPV), including variola, vaccinia, monkeypox, cowpox and ectromelia viruses cause acute infections in their hosts. With the exception of variola virus (VARV), the etiological agent of smallpox, other OPV have been reported to persist in a variety of animal species following natural or experimental infection. Despite the implications and significance for the ecology and epidemiology of diseases these viruses cause, those reports have never been thoroughly investigated. We used the mouse pathogen ectromelia virus (ECTV), the agent of mousepox and a close relative of VARV to investigate virus persistence in inbred mice...
December 2015: PLoS Pathogens
Guenter Froeschl, Pitchou Kasongo Kayembe
Cases of monkeypox in humans are frequently reported from the Democratic Republic of Congo. The few reports from the Central African Republic have been limited to cases in the far South closely bordering the Congos. Team members of an international medical organisation have suspected clinically two human cases of MPX, associated with clinical signs of coagulopathy and haemorrhage in the North of the country. Key findings were history of a squirrel, fever and vesicular dermal eruptions. Subsequently patients developed profuse epistaxis and hematemesis, associated with clinical signs of shock...
2015: Pan African Medical Journal
Priya Ramdass, Sahil Mullick, Harold F Farber
In the vast world of skin diseases, viral skin disorders account for a significant percentage. Most viral skin diseases present with an exanthem (skin rash) and, oftentimes, an accompanying enanthem (lesions involving the mucosal membrane). In this article, the various viral skin diseases are explored, including viral childhood exanthems (measles, rubella, erythema infectiosum, and roseola), herpes viruses (herpes simplex virus, varicella zoster virus, Kaposi sarcoma herpes virus, viral zoonotic infections [orf, monkeypox, ebola, smallpox]), and several other viral skin diseases, such as human papilloma virus, hand, foot, and mouth disease, molluscum contagiosum, and Gianotti-Crosti syndrome...
December 2015: Primary Care
Magdalena Molero-Abraham, John-Paul Glutting, Darren R Flower, Esther M Lafuente, Pedro A Reche
Concerns that variola viruses might be used as bioweapons have renewed the interest in developing new and safer smallpox vaccines. Variola virus genomes are now widely available, allowing computational characterization of the entire T-cell epitome and the use of such information to develop safe and yet effective vaccines. To this end, we identified 124 proteins shared between various species of pathogenic orthopoxviruses including variola minor and major, monkeypox, cowpox, and vaccinia viruses, and we targeted them for T-cell epitope prediction...
2015: Journal of Immunology Research
Joerg Doellinger, Lars Schaade, Andreas Nitsche
Cowpox virus (CPXV) causes most zoonotic orthopoxvirus (OPV) infections in Europe and Northern as well as Central Asia. The virus has the broadest host range of OPV and is transmitted to humans from rodents and other wild or domestic animals. Increasing numbers of human CPXV infections in a population with declining immunity have raised concerns about the virus' zoonotic potential. While there have been reports on the proteome of other human-pathogenic OPV, namely vaccinia virus (VACV) and monkeypox virus (MPXV), the protein composition of the CPXV mature virion (MV) is unknown...
2015: PloS One
Elizabeth A Falendysz, Juan G Lopera, Faye Lorenzsonn, Johanna S Salzer, Christina L Hutson, Jeffrey Doty, Nadia Gallardo-Romero, Darin S Carroll, Jorge E Osorio, Tonie E Rocke
Monkeypox is a zoonosis clinically similar to smallpox in humans. Recent evidence has shown a potential risk of increased incidence in central Africa. Despite attempts to isolate the virus from wild rodents and other small mammals, no reservoir host has been identified. In 2003, Monkeypox virus (MPXV) was accidentally introduced into the U.S. via the pet trade and was associated with the Gambian pouched rat (Cricetomys gambianus). Therefore, we investigated the potential reservoir competence of the Gambian pouched rat for MPXV by utilizing a combination of in vivo and in vitro methods...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Christina L Hutson, Yoshinori J Nakazawa, Joshua Self, Victoria A Olson, Russell L Regnery, Zachary Braden, Sonja Weiss, Jean Malekani, Eddie Jackson, Mallory Tate, Kevin L Karem, Tonie E Rocke, Jorge E Osorio, Inger K Damon, Darin S Carroll
Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV...
2015: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Danielle M Tack, Mary G Reynolds
Understanding the zoonotic risk posed by poxviruses in companion animals is important for protecting both human and animal health. The outbreak of monkeypox in the United States, as well as current reports of cowpox in Europe, point to the fact that companion animals are increasingly serving as sources of poxvirus transmission to people. In addition, the trend among hobbyists to keep livestock (such as goats) in urban and semi-urban areas has contributed to increased parapoxvirus exposures among people not traditionally considered at high risk...
2011: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Irina Gates, Victoria Olson, Scott Smith, Nishi Patel, Inger Damon, Kevin Karem
Currently, a number of assays measure Orthopoxvirus neutralization with serum from individuals, vaccinated against smallpox. In addition to the traditional plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT), newer higher throughput assays are based on neutralization of recombinant vaccinia virus, expressing reporter genes such as β-galactosidase or green fluorescent protein. These methods could not be used to evaluate neutralization of variola virus, since genetic manipulations of this virus are prohibited by international agreements...
2015: PloS One
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