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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774865/strengthening-of-surveillance-during-monkeypox-outbreak-republic-of-the-congo-2017
#1
Reena H Doshi, Sarah Anne J Guagliardo, Angelie Dzabatou-Babeaux, Camille Likouayoulou, Nestor Ndakala, Cynthia Moses, Victoria Olson, Andrea M McCollum, Brett W Petersen
Reports of 10 suspected cases of monkeypox in Likouala Department, Republic of the Congo, triggered an investigation and response in March 2017 that included community education and surveillance strengthening. Increasing numbers of outbreaks suggest that monkeypox virus is becoming a more prevalent human pathogen. Diverse approaches are necessary for disease control and prevention.
June 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757202/genome-sequences-of-akhmeta-virus-an-early-divergent-old-world-orthopoxvirus
#2
Jinxin Gao, Crystal Gigante, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Pengbo Liu, Shiyuyun Tang, Kimberly Wilkins, Kun Zhao, Whitni Davidson, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Marika Geleishvili, Maka Kokhreidze, Darin S Carroll, Ginny Emerson, Yu Li
Annotated whole genome sequences of three isolates of the Akhmeta virus (AKMV), a novel species of orthopoxvirus (OPXV), isolated from the Akhmeta and Vani regions of the country Georgia, are presented and discussed. The AKMV genome is similar in genomic content and structure to that of the cowpox virus (CPXV), but a lower sequence identity was found between AKMV and Old World OPXVs than between other known species of Old World OPXVs. Phylogenetic analysis showed that AKMV diverged prior to other Old World OPXV...
May 12, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29747868/should-we-be-already-worried-about-monkeypox
#3
Jordi Reina, Núria Reina
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 7, 2018: Medicina Clínica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676720/mutagenic-repair-of-double-stranded-dna-breaks-in-vaccinia-virus-genomes-requires-cellular-dna-ligase-iv-activity-in-the-cytosol
#4
Rutger David Luteijn, Ingo Drexler, Geoffrey L Smith, Robert Jan Lebbink, Emmanuel J H J Wiertz
Poxviruses comprise a group of large dsDNA viruses that include members relevant to human and animal health, such as variola virus, monkeypox virus, cowpox virus and vaccinia virus (VACV). Poxviruses are remarkable for their unique replication cycle, which is restricted to the cytoplasm of infected cells. The independence from the host nucleus requires poxviruses to encode most of the enzymes involved in DNA replication, transcription and processing. Here, we use the CRISPR/Cas9 genome engineering system to induce DNA damage to VACV (strain Western Reserve) genomes...
April 20, 2018: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29619921/reemergence-of-human-monkeypox-in-nigeria-2017
#5
Adesola Yinka-Ogunleye, Olusola Aruna, Dimie Ogoina, Neni Aworabhi, Womi Eteng, Sikiru Badaru, Amina Mohammed, Jeremiah Agenyi, E N Etebu, Tamuno-Wari Numbere, Adolphe Ndoreraho, Eduard Nkunzimana, Yahyah Disu, Mahmood Dalhat, Patrick Nguku, Abdulaziz Mohammed, Muhammad Saleh, Andrea McCollum, Kimberly Wilkins, Ousmane Faye, Amadou Sall, Christian Happi, Nwando Mba, Olubumi Ojo, Chikwe Ihekweazu
In Nigeria, before 2017 the most recent case of human monkeypox had been reported in 1978. By mid-November 2017, a large outbreak caused by the West African clade resulted in 146 suspected cases and 42 laboratory-confirmed cases from 14 states. Although the source is unknown, multiple sources are suspected.
June 17, 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573840/investigation-of-an-outbreak-of-monkeypox-in-an-area-occupied-by-armed-groups-central-african-republic
#6
E Kalthan, J Tenguere, S G Ndjapou, T A Koyazengbe, J Mbomba, R M Marada, P Rombebe, P Yangueme, M Babamingui, A Sambella, E R Nakoune
BACKGROUND: Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by an Orthopoxvirus of the Poxviridae family. Human infections are often severe and are a public health problem. PATIENTS AND METHOD: We conducted a monkeypox outbreak investigation of suspected case patients in five villages of the Alindao-Mingala Health District following blood sample confirmation of the virus by the Institut Pasteur in Bangui. We aimed to determine disease characteristics, to describe the context and the risk factors, and to measure the incidence and case fatality...
March 21, 2018: Médecine et Maladies Infectieuses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551886/evolution-of-synonymous-codon-usage-bias-in-west-african-and-central-african-strains-of-monkeypox-virus
#7
Sudeesh Karumathil, Nimal T Raveendran, Doss Ganesh, Sampath Kumar Ns, Rahul R Nair, Vijaya R Dirisala
The evolution of bias in synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes and the factors influencing its diversification have not been reported so far. In this study, various trends associated with synonymous codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes were investigated, and the results are reported. Identification of factors that influence codon usage in chosen monkeypox viral genomes was done using various codon usage indices, such as the relative synonymous codon usage, the effective number of codons, and the codon adaptation index...
2018: Evolutionary Bioinformatics Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29546750/emergence-of-monkeypox-in-west-africa-and-central-africa-1970%C3%A2-2017
#8
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 16, 2018: Relevé épidémiologique Hebdomadaire
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543790/emergence-of-monkeypox-west-and-central-africa-1970-2017
#9
Kara N Durski, Andrea M McCollum, Yoshinori Nakazawa, Brett W Petersen, Mary G Reynolds, Sylvie Briand, Mamoudou Harouna Djingarey, Victoria Olson, Inger K Damon, Asheena Khalakdina
The recent apparent increase in human monkeypox cases across a wide geographic area, the potential for further spread, and the lack of reliable surveillance have raised the level of concern for this emerging zoonosis. In November 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO), in collaboration with CDC, hosted an informal consultation on monkeypox with researchers, global health partners, ministries of health, and orthopoxvirus experts to review and discuss human monkeypox in African countries where cases have been recently detected and also identify components of surveillance and response that need improvement...
March 16, 2018: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510577/loss-of-actin-based-motility-impairs-ectromelia-virus-release-in-vitro-but-is-not-critical-to-spread-in-vivo
#10
Melanie Laura Duncan, Jacquelyn Horsington, Preethi Eldi, Zahrah Al Rumaih, Gunasegaran Karupiah, Timothy P Newsome
Ectromelia virus (ECTV) is an orthopoxvirus and the causative agent of mousepox. Like other poxviruses such as variola virus (agent of smallpox), monkeypox virus and vaccinia virus (the live vaccine for smallpox), ECTV promotes actin-nucleation at the surface of infected cells during virus release. Homologs of the viral protein A36 mediate this function through phosphorylation of one or two tyrosine residues that ultimately recruit the cellular Arp2/3 actin-nucleating complex. A36 also functions in the intracellular trafficking of virus mediated by kinesin-1...
March 5, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29495547/modulating-vaccinia-virus-immunomodulators-to-improve-immunological-memory
#11
REVIEW
Jonas D Albarnaz, Alice A Torres, Geoffrey L Smith
The increasing frequency of monkeypox virus infections, new outbreaks of other zoonotic orthopoxviruses and concern about the re-emergence of smallpox have prompted research into developing antiviral drugs and better vaccines against these viruses. This article considers the genetic engineering of vaccinia virus (VACV) to enhance vaccine immunogenicity and safety. The virulence, immunogenicity and protective efficacy of VACV strains engineered to lack specific immunomodulatory or host range proteins are described...
February 28, 2018: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446492/bayesian-reconstruction-of-the-evolutionary-history-and-cross-species-transition-of-variola-virus-and-orthopoxviruses
#12
Gianguglielmo Zehender, Alessia Lai, Carla Veo, Annalisa Bergna, Massimo Ciccozzi, Massimo Galli
Variola virus (VARV), the causative agent of smallpox, is an exclusively human virus belonging to the genus Orthopoxvirus, which includes many other viral species covering a wide range of mammal hosts, such as vaccinia, cowpox, camelpox, taterapox, ectromelia, and monkeypox virus. The tempo and mode of evolution of Orthopoxviruses were reconstructed using a Bayesian phylodynamic framework by analysing 80 hemagglutinin sequences retrieved from public databases. Bayesian phylogeography was used to estimate their putative ancestral hosts...
June 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29410823/ghosts-of-infections-past-using-archival-samples-to-understand-a-century-of-monkeypox-virus-prevalence-among-host-communities-across-space-and-time
#13
Madeline S Tiee, Ryan J Harrigan, Henri A Thomassen, Thomas B Smith
Infectious diseases that originate from multiple wildlife hosts can be complex and problematic to manage. A full understanding is further limited by large temporal and spatial gaps in sampling. However, these limitations can be overcome, in part, by using historical samples, such as those derived from museum collections. Here, we screened over 1000 museum specimens collected over the past 120 years to examine the historical distribution and prevalence of monkeypox virus (MPXV) in five species of African rope squirrel ( Funisciurus sp...
January 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29401327/beyond-the-dirty-dozen-a-proposed-methodology-for-assessing-future-bioweapon-threats
#14
Theodore J Cieslak, Mark G Kortepeter, Ronald J Wojtyk, Hugo-Jan Jansen, Ricardo A Reyes, James O Smith
Background: Defense policy planners and countermeasure developers are often faced with vexing problems involving the prioritization of resources and efforts. This is especially true in the area of Biodefense, where each new emerging infectious disease outbreak brings with it questions regarding the causative agent's potential for weaponization. Recent experience with West Nile Virus, Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome, Monkeypox, and H1N1 Influenza highlights this problem. Appropriately, in each of these cases, the possibility of bioterrorism was raised, although each outbreak ultimately proved to have a natural origin...
January 1, 2018: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231870/improving-the-care-and-treatment-of-monkeypox-patients-in-low-resource-settings-applying-evidence-from-contemporary-biomedical-and-smallpox-biodefense-research
#15
REVIEW
Mary G Reynolds, Andrea M McCollum, Beatrice Nguete, Robert Shongo Lushima, Brett W Petersen
Monkeypox is a smallpox-like illness that can be accompanied by a range of significant medical complications. To date there are no standard or optimized guidelines for the clinical management of monkeypox (MPX) patients, particularly in low-resource settings. Consequently, patients can experience protracted illness and poor outcomes. Improving care necessitates developing a better understanding of the range of clinical manifestations-including complications and sequelae-as well as of features of illness that may be predictive of illness severity and poor outcomes...
December 12, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204136/suppression-of-poxvirus-replication-by-resveratrol
#16
Shuai Cao, Susan Realegeno, Anil Pant, Panayampalli S Satheshkumar, Zhilong Yang
Poxviruses continue to cause serious diseases even after eradication of the historically deadly infectious human disease, smallpox. Poxviruses are currently being developed as vaccine vectors and cancer therapeutic agents. Resveratrol is a natural polyphenol stilbenoid found in plants that has been shown to inhibit or enhance replication of a number of viruses, but the effect of resveratrol on poxvirus replication is unknown. In the present study, we found that resveratrol dramatically suppressed the replication of vaccinia virus (VACV), the prototypic member of poxviruses, in various cell types...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29155663/frameworks-for-preventing-detecting-and-controlling-zoonotic-diseases
#17
Miriam L Shiferaw, Jeffrey B Doty, Giorgi Maghlakelidze, Juliette Morgan, Ekaterine Khmaladze, Otar Parkadze, Marina Donduashvili, Emile Okitolonda Wemakoy, Jean-Jacques Muyembe, Leopold Mulumba, Jean Malekani, Joelle Kabamba, Theresa Kanter, Linda Lucy Boulanger, Abraham Haile, Abyot Bekele, Meseret Bekele, Kasahun Tafese, Andrea A McCollum, Mary G Reynolds
Preventing zoonotic diseases requires coordinated actions by government authorities responsible for human and animal health. Constructing the frameworks needed to foster intersectoral collaboration can be approached in many ways. We highlight 3 examples of approaches to implement zoonotic disease prevention and control programs. The first, rabies control in Ethiopia, was implemented using an umbrella approach: a comprehensive program designed for accelerated impact. The second, a monkeypox program in Democratic Republic of the Congo, was implemented in a stepwise manner, whereby incremental improvements and activities were incorporated into the program...
December 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100534/validation-of-a-pan-orthopox-real-time-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-and-quantification-of-viral-genomes-from-nonhuman-primate-blood
#18
Eric M Mucker, Christopher Hartmann, Donna Hering, Wendy Giles, David Miller, Robert Fisher, John Huggins
BACKGROUND: In 1980, smallpox disease was eradicated from nature and Variola virus, the etiological agent of smallpox, was confined to two laboratories, one located in Russia (Moscow) later moved to VECTOR (Novosibirsk, Siberia) and one in the United States (CDC Atlanta). Vaccinations among the general public ceased shortly after the successful eradication campaign, resulting in an increasingly immunologically susceptible population. Because of the possibility of intentional reintroduction of Variola virus and the emergence of other pathogenic poxviruses, there is a great need for the development of medical countermeasures to treat poxvirus disease...
November 3, 2017: Virology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029238/toward-understanding-the-outcomes-of-monkeypox-infection-in-human-pregnancy
#19
Neville K Kisalu, John L Mokili
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029147/maternal-and-fetal-outcomes-among-pregnant-women-with-human-monkeypox-infection-in-the-democratic-republic-of-congo
#20
Placide K Mbala, John W Huggins, Therese Riu-Rovira, Steve M Ahuka, Prime Mulembakani, Anne W Rimoin, James W Martin, Jean-Jacques T Muyembe
Human monkeypox is an endemic disease in rain-forested regions of central Democratic Republic of Congo. We report fetal outcomes for 1 of 4 pregnant women who participated in an observational study at the General Hospital of Kole (Sankuru Province), where 222 symptomatic subjects were followed between 2007 and 2011. Of the 4 pregnant women, 1 gave birth to a healthy infant, 2 had miscarriages in the first trimester, and 1 had fetal death, with the macerated stillborn showing diffuse cutaneous maculopapillary skin lesions involving the head, trunk and extremities, including palms of hands and soles of feet...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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