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Cancer of prostate biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775158/microrna-expression-in-tumour-tissue-and-plasma-in-patients-with-newly-diagnosed-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#1
Ahmed Hussein Zedan, Torben Frøstrup Hansen, Jannie Assenholt, Mindaugas Pleckaitis, Jonna Skov Madsen, Palle Jörn Sloth Osther
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer among men in the western world. Clinical practice is continuously challenged by the pitfalls of the available diagnostic tools. microRNAs may represent promising biomarkers in many types of human cancers, including prostate cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate microRNA expression in tumour tissue and matched plasma in a cohort of patients with primary metastatic prostate cancer. The relative expression of 12 microRNAs was assessed in diagnostic needle biopsies from the prostate and matched plasma samples in two prospective cohorts (screening cohorts) comprising 21 patients with metastatic prostate cancer and 25 control patients...
May 2018: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772540/hsp70-and-gama-semino-protein-as-possible-prognostic-marker-of-prostate-cancer
#2
Sanjay Kumar, Sanjeev Gurshaney, Yori Adagunodo, Erica Gage, Shezreen Qadri, Mahak Sharma, Shalie Malik, Upender Manne, Udai P Singh, Rajesh Singh, Manoj K Mishra
In the United States, Prostate Cancer (PCa) is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality in men. PCa resulted in abnormal growth and function of prostate gland such as secretion of high level of gamma-seminoprotein (gama-SM)/Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) which could be detected in the blood. Beside gama-SM protein, the levels of heat shock proteins (Hsp70) were also observed significantly high. Therefore, gama-SM and Hsp70 are unique proteins with high potential for PCa therapeutics and diagnostics. High level of Hsp70 suppresses apoptosis, thus allowing PCa cells to exist; however, depletion of Hsp70 induces apoptosis in PCa cells...
June 1, 2018: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771460/targeting-prostate-cancer-prostate-specific-membrane-antigen-based-diagnosis-and-therapy
#3
REVIEW
Till Wüstemann, Uwe Haberkorn, John Babich, Walter Mier
The high incidence rates of prostate cancer (PCa) raise demand for improved therapeutic strategies. Prostate tumors specifically express the prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA), a membrane-bound protease. As PSMA is highly overexpressed on malignant prostate tumor cells and as its expression rate correlates with the aggressiveness of the disease, this tumor-associated biomarker provides the possibility to develop new strategies for diagnostics and therapy of PCa. Major advances have been made in PSMA targeting, ranging from immunotherapeutic approaches to therapeutic small molecules...
May 17, 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769196/an-in-vivo-screen-identifies-pygo2-as-a-driver-for-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#4
Xin Lu, Xiaolu Pan, Chang-Jiun Wu, Di Zhao, Shan Feng, Yong Zang, Rumi Lee, Sunada Khadka, Samirkumar B Amin, Eun-Jung Jin, Xiaoying Shang, Pingna Deng, Yanting Luo, William R Morgenlander, Jacqueline Weinrich, Xuemin Lu, Shan Jiang, Qing Chang, Nora M Navone, Patricia Troncoso, Ronald A DePinho, Y Alan Wang
Advanced prostate cancer displays conspicuous chromosomal instability and rampant copy number aberrations, yet the identity of functional drivers resident in many amplicons remain elusive. Here, we implemented a functional genomics approach to identify new oncogenes involved in prostate cancer progression. Through integrated analyses of focal amplicons in large prostate cancer genomic and transcriptomic datasets as well as genes upregulated in metastasis, 276 putative oncogenes were enlisted into an in vivo gain-of-function tumorigenesis screen...
May 16, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767255/bioinformatic-analyses-reveal-the-key-pathways-and-genes-in-the-cxcr4-mediated-mesenchymal-subtype-of-glioblastoma
#5
Li Yi, Luqing Tong, Tao Li, Long Hai, Iruni Roshanie Abeysekera, Zhennan Tao, Haiwen Ma, Peidong Liu, Yang Xie, Jiabo Li, Feng Yuan, Shengping Yu, Xuejun Yang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the most lethal types of tumour, despite severe treatment methods. The Cancer Genome Atlas has categorised GBMs into proneural, neural, classical and mesenchymal subtypes; the mesenchymal subgroup has the worst prognosis. CXCR4 has been reported as selectively overexpressed in the mesenchymal subtype and positively associated with MES markers. However, to the best of our knowledge the underlying mechanisms regarding how CXCR4 may regulate mesenchymal GBM are still unknown...
May 11, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767248/combined-treatment-with-pi3k-inhibitor-bkm120-and-parp-inhibitor-olaparib-is-effective-in-inhibiting-the-gastric-cancer-cells-with-arid1a-deficiency
#6
Lin Yang, Guanghai Yang, Yingjun Ding, Yu Huang, Shunfang Liu, Lei Zhou, Wenjie Wei, Jing Wang, Guangyuan Hu
Dual blockade of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) has been revealed to be an effective treatment strategy for breast, ovarian and prostate cancer. However, the efficacy of this combination for the treatment of gastric cancer, and potential predictive therapeutic biomarkers remain unclear. Recent evidence suggests that the deficiency of AT-rich interactive domain containing protein 1A (ARID1A), which is a crucial chromatin remodeling gene, sensitizes tumor cells to PI3K and PARP inhibitors...
May 16, 2018: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765153/cox-2-mediates-pro-tumorigenic-effects-of-pkc%C3%AE%C2%B5-in-prostate-cancer
#7
Rachana Garg, Jorge M Blando, Carlos J Perez, Priti Lal, Michael D Feldman, Emer M Smyth, Emanuela Ricciotti, Tilo Grosser, Fernando Benavides, Marcelo G Kazanietz
The pro-oncogenic kinase PKCε is overexpressed in human prostate cancer and cooperates with loss of the tumor suppressor Pten for the development of prostatic adenocarcinoma. However, the effectors driving PKCε-mediated phenotypes remain poorly defined. Here, using cellular and mouse models, we showed that PKCε overexpression acts synergistically with Pten loss to promote NF-κB activation and induce cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, phenotypic traits which are also observed in human prostate tumors. Targeted disruption of PKCε from prostate cancer cells impaired COX-2 induction and PGE2 production...
May 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29764892/intense-exercise-for-survival-among-men-with-metastatic-castrate-resistant-prostate-cancer-interval-gap4-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-phase-iii-study-protocol
#8
Robert U Newton, Stacey A Kenfield, Nicolas H Hart, June M Chan, Kerry S Courneya, James Catto, Stephen P Finn, Rosemary Greenwood, Daniel C Hughes, Lorelei Mucci, Stephen R Plymate, Stephan F E Praet, Emer M Guinan, Erin L Van Blarigan, Orla Casey, Mark Buzza, Sam Gledhill, Li Zhang, Daniel A Galvão, Charles J Ryan, Fred Saad
INTRODUCTION: Preliminary evidence supports the beneficial role of physical activity on prostate cancer outcomes. This phase III randomised controlled trial (RCT) is designed to determine if supervised high-intensity aerobic and resistance exercise increases overall survival (OS) in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Participants (n=866) must have histologically documented metastatic prostate cancer with evidence of progressive disease on androgen deprivation therapy (defined as mCRPC)...
May 14, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29760869/metabolic-alterations-in-urine-extracellular-vesicles-are-associated-to-prostate-cancer-pathogenesis-and-progression
#9
Marc Clos-Garcia, Ana Loizaga-Iriarte, Patricia Zuñiga-Garcia, Pilar Sánchez-Mosquera, Ana Rosa Cortazar, Esperanza González, Verónica Torrano, Cristina Alonso, Miriam Pérez-Cormenzana, Aitziber Ugalde-Olano, Isabel Lacasa-Viscasillas, Azucena Castro, Felix Royo, Miguel Unda, Arkaitz Carracedo, Juan M Falcón-Pérez
Urine contains extracellular vesicles (EVs) that concentrate molecules and protect them from degradation. Thus, isolation and characterisation of urinary EVs could increase the efficiency of biomarker discovery. We have previously identified proteins and RNAs with differential abundance in urinary EVs from prostate cancer (PCa) patients compared to benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH). Here, we focused on the analysis of the metabolites contained in urinary EVs collected from patients with PCa and BPH. Targeted metabolomics analysis of EVs was performed by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry...
2018: Journal of Extracellular Vesicles
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29757368/the-long-noncoding-rna-landscape-of-neuroendocrine-prostate-cancer-and-its-clinical-implications
#10
Varune Rohan Ramnarine, Mohammed Alshalalfa, Fan Mo, Noushin Nabavi, Nicholas Erho, Mandeep Takhar, Robert Shukin, Sonal Brahmbhatt, Alexander Gawronski, Maxim Kobelev, Mannan Nouri, Dong Lin, Harrison Tsai, Tamara L Lotan, R Jefferey Karnes, Mark A Rubin, Amina Zoubeidi, Martin E Gleave, Cenk Sahinalp, Alexander W Wyatt, Stanislav V Volik, Himisha Beltran, Elai Davicioni, Yuzhuo Wang, Colin C Collins
Background: Treatment induced neuroendocrine prostate cancer (tNEPC) is an aggressive variant of late-stage metastatic castrate resistant (mCRPC) prostate cancer that commonly arises through neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD). Treatment options are limited, ineffective, and for most patients, results in death in less than a year. We previously developed a first-in-field patient-derived xenograft (PDX) model of NEtD. Longitudinal deep transcriptome profiling of this model enabled monitoring of dynamic transcriptional changes during NEtD and in the context of androgen deprivation...
May 10, 2018: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29755696/the-use-of-long-non-coding-rnas-as-prognostic-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets-in-prostate-cancer
#11
REVIEW
Cristian Arriaga-Canon, Inti Alberto De La Rosa-Velázquez, Rodrigo González-Barrios, Rogelio Montiel-Manríquez, Diego Oliva-Rico, Francisco Jiménez-Trejo, Carlo Cortés-González, Luis A Herrera
Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths. The most used biomarker to detect prostate cancer is Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA), whose levels are measured in serum. However, it has been recently established that molecular markers of cancer should not be based solely on genes and proteins but should also reflect other genomic traits; long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) serve this purpose. lncRNAs are transcripts of >200 bases that do not encode proteins and that have been shown to display abnormal expression profiles in different types of cancer...
April 17, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29752463/personalization-of-prostate-cancer-therapy-through-phosphoproteomics
#12
REVIEW
Wei Yang, Michael R Freeman, Natasha Kyprianou
Castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) remains incurable despite the approval of several new treatments. Identification of new biomarkers and therapeutic targets to enable personalization of CRPC therapy, with the aim of maximizing therapeutic responses and minimizing toxicity in patients, is urgently needed. Prostate cancer progression and therapeutic resistance are frequently driven by aberrantly activated kinase signalling pathways that are amenable to pharmacological inhibition. Personalized phosphoproteomics, which enables the analysis of signalling networks in individual tumours, is a promising approach to advance personalized therapy by discovering biomarkers of pathway activity and clinically actionable targets...
May 11, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748958/functional-roles-and-potential-clinical-application-of-mirna-345-5p-in-prostate-cancer
#13
Ilker Tinay, Mingyue Tan, Bin Gui, Lillian Werner, Adam S Kibel, Li Jia
BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which negatively regulate gene expression and impact prostate cancer (PCa) growth and progression. Circulating miRNAs are stable and detectable in cell-free body fluids, such as serum. Investigation of circulating miRNAs presents great potential in uncovering new insights into the roles of miRNAs in PCa diagnosis and therapy. METHODS: Using TaqMan miRNA quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), we compared the expression levels of five miRNAs (miR-193a-3p, miR-9-3p, miR-335-5p, miR-330-3p, and miR-345-5p) in serum samples from 20 normal individuals without cancer, 25 patients with localized disease, 25 patients with hormone-naïve or hormone sensitive metastatic disease, and 25 patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
May 10, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744254/an-integrated-view-of-the-role-of-mir-130b-301b-mirna-cluster-in-prostate-cancer
#14
Rafael Sebastián Fort, Cecilia Mathó, Carolina Oliveira-Rizzo, Beatriz Garat, José Roberto Sotelo-Silveira, María Ana Duhagon
Prostate cancer is a major health problem worldwide due to its high incidence morbidity and mortality. There is currently a need of improved biomarkers, capable to distinguish mild versus aggressive forms of the disease, and thus guide therapeutic decisions. Although miRNAs deregulated in cancer represent exciting candidates as biomarkers, its scientific literature is frequently fragmented in dispersed studies. This problem is aggravated for miRNAs belonging to miRNA gene clusters with shared target genes. The miRNA cluster composed by hsa-mir-130b and hsa-mir-301b precursors was recently involved in prostate cancer pathogenesis, yet different studies assigned it opposite effects on the disease...
2018: Experimental Hematology & Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29741566/circulating-tumor-cell-increase-as-a-biomarker-of-disease-progression-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-with-low-baseline-ctc-counts
#15
D Lorente, D Olmos, J Mateo, D Dolling, D Bianchini, G Seed, P Flohr, M Crespo, I Figueiredo, S Miranda, H I Scher, L W M M Terstappen, J S de Bono
Background: The development of treatment response and surrogate biomarkers for advanced prostate cancer care is an unmet clinical need. Patients with baseline circulating tumor cell counts (BLCTCs)<5/7.5 mL represent a good prognosis subgroup, but are non-evaluable for response assessment (decrease in CTCs). The aim of the study is to determine the value of any increase in CTCs (CTC Progression) as an indicator of progression in prostate cancer patients with low pre-treatment CTCs (<5)...
May 7, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29740090/next-generation-sequencing-of-urine-exfoliated-cells-an-approach-of-prostate-cancer-micrornas-research
#16
Gabriella Guelfi, Giovanni Cochetti, Valentina Stefanetti, Danilo Zampini, Silvana Diverio, Andrea Boni, Ettore Mearini
There is emerging evidence that microRNAs (miRNAs) dysregulation is involved in the genesis and the progression of Prostate Cancer (PCa), thus potentially increasing their use in urological clinical practice. This is the first pilot study which utilizes Illumina Deep Sequencing to examine the entire miRNAs spectrum existent in urine exfoliated prostate cells (UEPCs) of PCa patients. A total of 11 male patients with histological diagnosis of PCa were enrolled in the present study. First-catch urine (30 mL) was collected following a prostate massage...
May 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739368/impact-of-early-changes-in-serum-biomarkers-following-androgen-deprivation-therapy-on-clinical-outcomes-in-metastatic-hormone-sensitive-prostate-cancer
#17
Hiromi Sato, Shintaro Narita, Norihiko Tsuchiya, Atsushi Koizumi, Taketoshi Nara, Sohei Kanda, Kazuyuki Numakura, Hiroshi Tsuruta, Atsushi Maeno, Mitsuru Saito, Takamitsu Inoue, Shigeru Satoh, Kyoko Nomura, Tomonori Habuchi
BACKGROUND: Less evidence is known about the role of early changes in serum biomarker after androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) in patients with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC). Here we evaluated the impact of pre-treatment prognostic factors and early changes in serum biomarkers on prostate specific antigen (PSA) progression-free and overall survival rates in mHSPC. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 60 mHSPC patients (median age 72 years) treated with ADT whose laboratory data at baseline and following 12 weeks were available...
May 8, 2018: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29734838/discordant-prostate-specific-antigen-test-results-despite-who-assay-standardization
#18
Martin Boegemann, Christian Arsov, Boris Hadaschik, Kathleen Herkommer, Florian Imkamp, Jerzy-Roch Nofer, Joachim Gerß, Peter Albers, Axel Semjonow
INTRODUCTION: Total PSA (tPSA) and free PSA (fPSA) are the most commonly used biomarkers for early detection of prostate cancer. Despite standardization efforts, many available PSA assays may still produce discordant results. In the present study, we compared four PSA assays calibrated to the WHO standards 96/670 and 96/668 for tPSA and fPSA, respectively. METHODS: Within the scope of the Prostate Cancer Early Detection Study Based on a ''Baseline'' PSA Value in Young Men (PROBASE), we tested tPSA and fPSA in serum samples from 50 patients in the four different PROBASE sites using four WHO-calibrated assays from Roche (Elecsys, Cobas), Beckman-Coulter (Access-II) and Siemens (ADVIA Centaur)...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Markers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732345/automatic-prostate-cancer-segmentation-using-kinetic-analysis-in-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri
#19
S Navaei Lavasani, A Mostaar, M Ashtiyani
Background: Dynamic contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) provides functional information on the microcirculation in tissues by analyzing the enhancement kinetics which can be used as biomarkers for prostate lesions detection and characterization. Objective: The purpose of this study is to investigate spatiotemporal patterns of tumors by extracting semi-quantitative as well as wavelet-based features, both extracted from pixel-based time-signal intensity curves to segment prostate lesions on prostate DCE-MRI...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Physics & Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29732279/racial-disparities-and-considerations-for-active-surveillance-of-prostate-cancer
#20
REVIEW
Song Jiang, Vikram Narayan, Christopher Warlick
Active surveillance (AS) for the management of low-risk prostate cancer has been increasing and in the general population appears safe, allowing for a reduction in the harms of prostate cancer screening such as overtreatment. African-American (AA) men have overall worse outcomes from prostate cancer compared to Caucasian-American (CA) men for a variety of socioeconomic, cultural and possibly biologic reasons, thus complicating the use of AS in this population. Strategies for optimizing care and mitigating risk in this population include pursuing close surveillance with steadfast patient compliance, the use of multiparametric MRI with targeted biopsies including the anterior prostate to reduce the risk of undersampling, as well as a judicious and thoughtful incorporation of novel molecular biomarkers for risk stratification...
April 2018: Translational Andrology and Urology
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