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Cancer of prostate biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337887/up-regulation-of-mir-888-5p-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cell-lines-and-its-effect-on-malignant-characteristics-of-cells
#1
E Hao, J Yu, S Xie, W Zhang, G Wang
MicroRNA (miRNA) expression has been linked to the molecular pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The aberrant expression of miRNA is involved in the processes of tumorigenesis and cancer progression. According to the latest research, miR-888-5p is associated with strong cancer-promoting effect. For instance, miR-888-5p is up-regulated in prostate cancer and breast cancer. Nevertheless, the role of miR-888-5p in HCC has not been investigated to date. In this study, we found that miR-888-5p levels in four HCC cell lines (SMMC7721, HepG2, Huh-7 and Bel7402) were significantly up-regulated compared with human hepatocyte cell line (HHL-5)...
January 2017: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331050/first-in-human-clinical-trial-of-oral-onc201-in-patients-with-refractory-solid-tumors
#2
Mark N Stein, Joseph R Bertino, Howard L Kaufman, Tina Mayer, Rebecca Moss, Ann Silk, Nancy Chan, Jyoti Malhotra, Lorna Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Joseph Aisner, Robert D Aiken, Bruce G Haffty, Robert S DiPaola, Tracie Saunders, Andrew Zloza, Sherri Damare, Yasmeen Beckett, Bangning Yu, Saltanat Najmi, Christian Gabel, Siobhan Dickerson, Ling Zheng, Wafik S El-Deiry, Joshua Allen, Martin Stogniew, Wolfgang Oster, Janice M Mehnert
Purpose ONC201 is a small molecule selective antagonist of the G protein-coupled receptor DRD2 that is the founding member of the imipridone class of compounds. A first-in-human phase I study of ONC201 was conducted to determine its recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Experimental Design This open-label study treated 10 patients during dose escalation with histologically-confirmed advanced solid tumors. Patients received ONC201 orally once every 3 weeks, defined as one cycle, at doses from 125 to 625 mg using an accelerated titration design...
March 22, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330676/stromal-gene-expression-is-predictive-for-metastatic-primary-prostate-cancer
#3
Fan Mo, Dong Lin, Mandeep Takhar, Varune Rohan Ramnarine, Xin Dong, Robert H Bell, Stanislav V Volik, Kendric Wang, Hui Xue, Yuwei Wang, Anne Haegert, Shawn Anderson, Sonal Brahmbhatt, Nicholas Erho, Xinya Wang, Peter W Gout, James Morris, R Jeffrey Karnes, Robert B Den, Eric A Klein, Edward M Schaeffer, Ashley Ross, Shancheng Ren, S Cenk Sahinalp, Yingrui Li, Xun Xu, Jun Wang, Jian Wang, Martin E Gleave, Elai Davicioni, Yinghao Sun, Yuzhuo Wang, Colin C Collins
BACKGROUND: Clinical grading systems using clinical features alongside nomograms lack precision in guiding treatment decisions in prostate cancer (PCa). There is a critical need for identification of biomarkers that can more accurately stratify patients with primary PCa. OBJECTIVE: To identify a robust prognostic signature to better distinguish indolent from aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: To develop the signature, whole-genome and whole-transcriptome sequencing was conducted on five PCa patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models collected from independent foci of a single primary tumor and exhibiting variable metastatic phenotypes...
March 19, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323658/changing-face-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-the-law-of-diminishing-returns-holds-true
#4
Ulka N Vaishampayan
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prostate cancer presents with a multitude of faces. It ranges from localized cancers staying quiescent for many years during active surveillance to the raging diffuse liver metastases causing terminal disease. The incidence of metastatic disease is increasing. This review will highlight some of the recent developments as well as ongoing challenges of managing advanced prostate cancer. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant strides are being made in managing metastatic prostate cancer...
March 18, 2017: Current Opinion in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28322234/propsa-and-the-prostate-health-index-as-predictive-markers-for-aggressiveness-in-low-risk-prostate-cancer-results-from-an-international-multicenter-study
#5
I Heidegger, H Klocker, R Pichler, A Pircher, W Prokop, E Steiner, C Ladurner, E Comploj, A Lunacek, D Djordjevic, A Pycha, E Plas, W Horninger, J Bektic
BACKGROUND: One of the major challenges in prostate cancer (PCa) treatment is distinguishing insignificant PCa from those forms that need active treatment. We evaluated the impact of PSA isoforms on risk stratification in patients with low-risk PCa as well as in active surveillance (AS) candidates who underwent radical prostatectomy. METHODS: A total of 112 patients with biopsy confirmed Gleason score (GS) 6 PCa of four different international institutions were prospectively enrolled in the study...
March 21, 2017: Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320379/mirnas-associated-with-prostate-cancer-risk-and-progression
#6
REVIEW
Hung N Luu, Hui-Yi Lin, Karina Dalsgaard Sørensen, Olorunseun O Ogunwobi, Nagi Kumar, Ganna Chornokur, Catherine Phelan, Dominique Jones, LaCreis Kidd, Jyotsna Batra, Kosj Yamoah, Anders Berglund, Robert J Rounbehler, Mihi Yang, Sang Haak Lee, Nahyeon Kang, Seung Joon Kim, Jong Y Park, Giuliano Di Pietro
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy among men in the US. Though considerable improvement in the diagnosis of prostate cancer has been achieved in the past decade, predicting disease outcome remains a major clinical challenge. Recent expression profiling studies in prostate cancer suggest microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve as potential biomarkers for prostate cancer risk and disease progression. miRNAs comprise a large family of about 22-nucleotide-long non-protein coding RNAs, regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally and participate in the regulation of numerous cellular processes...
March 20, 2017: BMC Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318726/low-risk-prostate-cancer-identification-management-and-outcomes
#7
REVIEW
Marco Moschini, Peter R Carroll, Scott E Eggener, Jonathan I Epstein, Markus Graefen, Rodolfo Montironi, Christopher Parker
CONTEXT: The incidence of low-risk prostate cancer (PCa) has increased as a consequence of prostate-specific antigen testing. OBJECTIVE: In this collaborative review article, we examine recent literature regarding low-risk PCa and the available prognostic and therapeutic options. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: We performed a literature review of the Medline, Embase, and Web of Science databases. The search strategy included the terms: prostate cancer, low risk, active surveillance, focal therapy, radical prostatectomy, watchful waiting, biomarker, magnetic resonance imaging, alone or in combination...
March 15, 2017: European Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317618/mir-1-a-potential-predictive-biomarker-for-recurrence-in-prostate-cancer-after-radical-prostatectomy
#8
Wei Wei, Jiangyong Leng, Hongxiang Shao, Weidong Wang
BACKGROUND: Increasing evidence suggests that aberrant microRNAs expressions are significantly associated with cancer progression. Previous studies have reported that the relative expression of miR-1 is significantly downregulated in recurrent prostate cancer (PCa) samples when compared with nonrecurrent PCa tissues. However, whether miR-1 can serve as a novel predictive biomarker for PCa recurrence still remains unclear. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The patients with clinically localized PCa who underwent radical prostatectomy by the same medical team at the Department of Urology, Ningbo No...
April 2017: American Journal of the Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314325/mic1-gdf15-as-a-bone-metastatic-disease-biomarker
#9
Jindra Windrichova, Radka Fuchsova, Radek Kucera, Ondrej Topolcan, Ondrej Fiala, Jindrich Finek, Dagmar Slipkova
AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate MIC1/GDF15 as a biomarker in the monitoring of bone metastases occurrence. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The assessed group included patients diagnosed with: prostate cancer, breast cancer, lung cancer and colorectal cancer. Patients were divided into two groups based on the scintigraphy of the occurrence of bone metastases. Group 0 contained 55 patients without bone metastases, that served as the control group. Group 1 contained 75 patients with bone metastases...
March 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301631/androgen-receptor-function-and-androgen-receptor-targeted-therapies-in-breast-cancer-a-review
#10
Miho Kono, Takeo Fujii, Bora Lim, Meghan Sri Karuturi, Debasish Tripathy, Naoto T Ueno
Importance: The androgen receptor (AR) pathway is emerging as a potential therapeutic target in breast cancer. To date, AR-targeted drugs have been approved only for treatment of prostate cancer; however, AR-targeted treatment for breast cancer is an area of active investigation. Through review of preclinical studies, retrospective clinical studies, and clinical trials, we examined the biology of AR and AR-related pathways, the potential for AR-targeted therapies in breast cancer, and potential biomarkers for AR-targeted treatments...
March 16, 2017: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299719/the-non-coding-transcriptome-of-prostate-cancer-implications-for-clinical-practice
#11
REVIEW
Irene V Bijnsdorp, Martin E van Royen, Gerald W Verhaegh, Elena S Martens-Uzunova
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common type of cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in men. Despite extensive research, the molecular mechanisms underlying PCa initiation and progression remain unclear, and there is increasing need of better biomarkers that can distinguish indolent from aggressive and life-threatening disease. With the advent of advanced genomic technologies in the last decade, it became apparent that the human genome encodes tens of thousands non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) with yet to be discovered function...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Diagnosis & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295408/circulating-tumor-cells-as-a-marker-for-progression-free-survival-in-metastatic-castration-na%C3%A3-ve-prostate-cancer
#12
Andreas Josefsson, Anna Linder, Despina Flondell Site, Giacomo Canesin, Anna Stiehm, Aseem Anand, Anders Bjartell, Jan-Erik Damber, Karin Welén
BACKGROUND: Analysis of circulating tumor cells (CTC) is a promising prognostic marker in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The aim of this study was to investigate CTC detection and phenotyping as prognostic biomarkers for response to primary androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) of metastatic prostate cancer (PC). METHODS: PC patients presenting with a prostate specific antigen (PSA) >80 ng/ml and/or metastatic disease, intended for ADT were enrolled in the study...
March 10, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28293631/urinary-biomarker-panel-to-improve-accuracy-in-predicting-prostate-biopsy-result-in-chinese-men-with-psa-4-10%C3%A2-ng-ml
#13
Yongqiang Zhou, Yun Li, Xiangnan Li, Minjun Jiang
This study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and clinical performance of a panel of urinary biomarkers to diagnose prostate cancer (PCa) in Chinese men with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL. A total of 122 patients with PSA levels between 4 and 10 ng/mL who underwent consecutive prostate biopsy at three hospitals in China were recruited. First-catch urine samples were collected after an attentive prostate massage. Urinary mRNA levels were measured by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR)...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292742/fatty-acid-synthesis-intermediates-represent-novel-noninvasive-biomarkers-of-prostate-cancer-chemoprevention-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate
#14
Krishna B Singh, Shivendra V Singh
Increased de novo synthesis of fatty acids is a distinctive feature of prostate cancer, which continues to be a leading cause of cancer-related deaths among American men. Therefore, inhibition of de novo fatty acid synthesis represents an attractive strategy for chemoprevention of prostate cancer. We have shown previously that dietary feeding of phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC), a phytochemical derived from edible cruciferous vegetables such as watercress, inhibits incidence and burden of poorly-differentiated prostate cancer in Transgenic Adenocarcinoma of Mouse Prostate (TRAMP) model...
March 14, 2017: Cancer Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291739/a-radiobiological-model-of-metastatic-burden-reduction-for-molecular-radiotherapy-application-to-patients-with-bone-metastases
#15
Ana M Denis-Bacelar, Sarah J Chittenden, Iain Murray, Antigoni Divoli, V Ralph McCready, David P Dearnaley, Joe M O'Sullivan, Bernadette Johnson, Glenn D Flux
Skeletal tumour burden is a biomarker of prognosis and survival in cancer patients. This study proposes a novel method based on the linear quadratic model to predict the reduction in metastatic tumour burden as a function of the absorbed doses delivered from molecular radiotherapy treatments. The range of absorbed doses necessary to eradicate all the bone lesions and to reduce the metastatic burden was investigated in a cohort of 22 patients with bone metastases from castration-resistant prostate cancer. A metastatic burden reduction curve was generated for each patient, which predicts the reduction in metastatic burden as a function of the patient mean absorbed dose, defined as the mean of all the lesion absorbed doses in any given patient...
April 7, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290184/ultrasound-contrast-enhanced-study-as-an-imaging-biomarker-for-anti-cancer-drug-treatment-preliminary-study-with-paclitaxel-in-a-xenograft-mouse-tumor-model-secondary-publication
#16
Hak Jong Lee, Sung Il Hwang, Jonghoe Byun, Hoon Young Kong, Hyun Sook Jung, Mira Kang
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess tumor angiogenesis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) of human prostate cancer cells (PC3) that were implanted in mice before and after paclitaxel injection. Methods: Twelve mice were injected with human prostate cancer cells (PC3). The mice were grouped into two groups; one was the paclitaxel-treated group (n=6) and the other was the control group (n=6). Before administering paclitaxel into the peritoneal cavity, baseline CEUS was performed after the administration of 500 μL (1×108 microbubbles) of contrast agent...
February 14, 2017: Ultrasonography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289080/microrna-applications-for-prostate-ovarian-and-breast-cancer-in-the-era-of-precision-medicine
#17
Bethany Smith, Priyanka Agarwal, Neil A Bhowmick
The high degree of conservation in microRNA from Caenorhabditis elegans to humans has enabled relatively rapid implementation of findings in model systems to the clinic. The convergence of the capacity for genomic screening being implemented in the prevailing precision medicine initiative and the capabilities of microRNA to address these changes holds significant promise. However, prostate, ovarian, and breast cancers are heterogeneous and face issues of evolving therapeutic resistance. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) signaling axis plays an important role in the progression of each of these cancers, in part through microRNA regulation, and reciprocally, microRNA regulation of TGF-ß actions...
March 13, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288658/prostate-cancer-treated-with-brachytherapy-an-exploratory-study-of-dose-dependent-biomarkers-and-quality-of-life
#18
Sarah O S Osman, Simon Horn, Darren Brady, Stephen J McMahon, Ahamed B Mohamed Yoosuf, Darren Mitchell, Karen Crowther, Ciara A Lyons, Alan R Hounsell, Kevin M Prise, Conor K McGarry, Suneil Jain, Joe M O'Sullivan
BACKGROUND: Low-dose-rate permanent prostate brachytherapy (PPB) is an attractive treatment option for patients with localised prostate cancer with excellent outcomes. As standard CT-based post-implant dosimetry often correlates poorly with late treatment-related toxicity, this exploratory (proof of concept) study was conducted to investigate correlations between radiation - induced DNA damage biomarker levels, and acute and late bowel, urinary, and sexual toxicity. METHODS: Twelve patients treated with (125)I PPB monotherapy (145Gy) for prostate cancer were included in this prospective study...
March 14, 2017: Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283782/prostate-transitional-zone-volume-based-nomogram-for-predicting-prostate-cancer-and-high-progression-prostate-cancer-in-a-real-world-population
#19
Yanqing Wang, Shaowei Xie, Xun Shangguan, Jiahua Pan, Yinjie Zhu, Zhixiang Xin, Fan Xu, Xiaoguang Shao, Liancheng Fan, Jianjun Sha, Qiang Liu, Baijun Dong, Wei Xue
PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of prostate volume (PV), transitional zone volume (TZV), and prostate volume index (PVI, the ratio of TZV to peripheral zone volume) in the identification of men at risk of prostate cancer (PCa) and high-progression PCa (HPPCa) at the initial biopsy (IBX) in a real-world population. METHODS: From Jul 2014 to Aug 2016, data on 1144 patients who had undergone the initial prostate biopsies were prospectively collected and analyzed...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283654/a-model-based-personalized-cancer-screening-strategy-for-detecting-early-stage-tumors-using-blood-borne-biomarkers
#20
Sharon Seiko Hori, Amelie M Lutz, Ramasamy Paulmurugan, Sanjiv S Gambhir
An effective cancer blood biomarker screening strategy must distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive tumors at an early, intervenable time. However, for blood-based strategies to be useful, the quality and quantiy of the biomarker shed into the blood and its relationship to tumor growth or progression must be validated. To study how blood biomarker levels correlate with early-stage viable tumor growth in an mouse model of human cancer, we monitored early tumor growth of engineered human ovarian cancer cells (A2780) implanted orthotopically into nude mice...
March 10, 2017: Cancer Research
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