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Cancer of prostate biomarkers

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28543353/effect-of-pathologic-revision-and-ki67-and-erg-immunohistochemistry-on-predicting-radical-prostatectomy-outcome-in-men-initially-on-active-surveillance
#1
Leonard P Bokhorst, Monique J Roobol, Chris H Bangma, Geert J van Leenders
OBJECTIVE: To investigate if pathologic biopsy reevaluation and implementation of immunohistochemical biomarkers could improve prediction of radical prostatectomy outcome in men initially on active surveillance. METHODS: Biopsy specimens from diagnosis until switching to radical prostatectomy in men initially on active surveillance in the Dutch part of the Prostate cancer Research International Active Surveillance (PRIAS) study were collected and revised by a single pathologist...
May 24, 2017: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540598/parp-inhibitors-in-prostate-cancer
#2
REVIEW
Praveen Ramakrishnan Geethakumari, Matthew J Schiewer, Karen E Knudsen, Wm Kevin Kelly
The genomic landscape of metastatic prostate cancer (mPCa) reveals that up to 90% of patients harbor actionable mutations and >20% have somatic DNA repair gene defects (DRD). This provides the therapeutic rationale of PARP inhibition (PARPi) to achieve "synthetic lethality" in treating this fatal disease. Clinical trials with PARP inhibitors have shown significant response rates up to 88% for PCa patients having DRD like BRCA1/2 or ATM mutations. The FDA has awarded "breakthrough designation" to develop the PARPi olaparib in treating this subset of metastatic PCa patients...
June 2017: Current Treatment Options in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540248/long-non-coding-rnas-new-frontiers-for-advancing-personalized-cancer-medicine-in-prostate-cancer
#3
EDITORIAL
Alireza Fotouhi Ghiam, Danny Vesprini, Stanley K Liu
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are a group of non-coding transcripts of more than 200 nucleotides that play important biological and clinical roles in prostate cancer (PCa) tumorigenesis, progression and metastasis. They have also shown potential as a biomarker in the diagnosis and prognosis of this disease. LncRNA prostate cancer associated transcript-14 (PCAT-14) was recently identified as a novel prognostic biomarker in PCa, whose low expression was associated with poor outcomes. Here, we briefly discuss future perspectives and clinical applications of lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic targets for PCa...
April 2017: Translational Andrology and Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536143/aurora-kinase-a-promotes-ar-degradation-via-the-e3-ligase-chip
#4
James M Larner, Sukumar Sarkar, David L Brautigan
Reducing the levels of the androgen receptor (AR) is one of the most viable approaches to combat castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Previously, we observed that proteasomal-dependent degradation of AR in response to 2-methoxyestradiol (2-ME) depends primarily on the E3 ligase C-terminus of HSP70-interacting protein (STUB1/CHIP). Here, 2-ME stimulation activates CHIP by phosphorylation via Aurora kinase A (AURKA). Aurora A kinase inhibitors and RNAi knockdown of Aurora A transcript selectively blocked CHIP phosphorylation and AR degradation...
May 23, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534535/the-potential-of-organoids-in-urological-cancer-research
#5
REVIEW
Shangqian Wang, Dong Gao, Yu Chen
Technical advances in the development of organoid systems enable cell lines, primary adult cells, or stem or progenitor cells to develop into diverse, multicellular entities, which can self-renew, self-organize, and differentiate. These 3D organoid cultures have proven to be of value in increasing our understanding of the biology of disease and offer the potential of regenerative and genetic therapies. The successful application of 3D organoids derived from adult tissue into urological cancer research can further our understanding of these diseases and could also provide preclinical cancer models to realize the precision medicine paradigm by therapeutic screening of individual patient samples ex vivo...
May 23, 2017: Nature Reviews. Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530704/upregulation-of-cyp17a1-by-sp1-mediated-dna-demethylation-confers-temozolomide-resistance-through-dhea-mediated-protection-in-glioma
#6
J-Y Chuang, W-L Lo, C-Y Ko, S-Y Chou, R-M Chen, K-Y Chang, J-J Hung, W-C Su, W-C Chang, T-I Hsu
Steroidogenesis-mediated production of neurosteroids is important for brain homeostasis. Cytochrome P450 17A1 (CYP17A1), which converts pregnenolone to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) in endocrine organs and the brain, is required for prostate cancer progression and acquired chemotherapeutic resistance. However, whether CYP17A1-mediated DHEA synthesis is involved in brain tumor malignancy, especially in glioma, the most prevalent brain tumor, is unknown. To investigate the role of CYP17A1 in glioma, we determined that CYP17A1 expression is significantly increased in gliomas, which secrete more DHEA than normal astrocytes...
May 22, 2017: Oncogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529342/circulating-tumor-cells-and-serum-levels-of-mmp-2-mmp-9-and-vegf-as-markers-of-the-metastatic-process-in-patients-with-high-risk-of-metastatic-progression
#7
Marketa Skerenova, Veronika Mikulova, Otakar Capoun, Tomas Zima, Petra Tesarova
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Metastases are a severe complication in cancer patients and biomarkers predicting their progression are still lacking for specific groups of patients. HER2 positive breast cancer (HER2 BC) patients on trastuzumab therapy are at risk of the development of unpredictable and often fatal central nervous system (CNS) metastases and castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) patients urgently need a marker of disease progression during therapy. Proposed metastatic markers: circulating tumor cells (CTC), serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), 9 (MMP-9) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were prospectively studied to confirm their utility in these two narrowly defined groups of cancer patients...
May 16, 2017: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527622/genome-wide-copy-number-analysis-reveals-candidate-gene-loci-that-confer-susceptibility-to-high-grade-prostate-cancer
#8
Prevathe Poniah, Shamsul Mohd Zain, Azad Hassan Abdul Razack, Shanggar Kuppusamy, Shankar Karuppayah, Hooi Sian Eng, Zahurin Mohamed
BACKGROUND: Two key issues in prostate cancer (PCa) that demand attention currently are the need for a more precise and minimally invasive screening test owing to the inaccuracy of prostate-specific antigen and differential diagnosis to distinguish advanced vs. indolent cancers. This continues to pose a tremendous challenge in diagnosis and prognosis of PCa and could potentially lead to overdiagnosis and overtreatment complications. Copy number variations (CNVs) in the human genome have been linked to various carcinomas including PCa...
May 17, 2017: Urologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527407/mechanisms-of-resistance-to-systemic-therapy-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Giuseppe Galletti, Benjamin I Leach, Linda Lam, Scott T Tagawa
Patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCPRC) now have an unprecedented number of approved treatment options, including chemotherapies (docetaxel, cabazitaxel), androgen receptor (AR)-targeted therapies (enzalutamide, abiraterone), a radioisotope (radium-223) and a cancer vaccine (sipuleucel-T). However, the optimal treatment sequencing pathway is unknown, and this problem is exacerbated by the issues of primary and acquired resistance. This review focuses on mechanisms of resistance to AR-targeted therapies and taxane-based chemotherapy...
May 8, 2017: Cancer Treatment Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525372/overexpression-of-a-novel-candidate-oncogene-kif14-correlates-with-tumor-progression-and-poor-prognosis-in-prostate-cancer
#10
Yixiang Zhang, Yeqing Yuan, Pei Liang, Zhaoxia Zhang, Xiaojing Guo, Ligang Xia, Yingying Zhao, Xing-Sheng Shu, Shengkun Sun, Ying Ying, Yingduan Cheng
Prostate cancer (PCa) is the second leading cause of death from cancer in men. The mechanism underlying tumorigenesis and development of PCa is largely unknown. Here, we identified Kinesin family member 14 (KIF14) as a novel candidate oncogene in PCa. We found that KIF14 was overexpressed in multiple PCa cell lines and primary PCa tissues. Knockdown of KIF14 in DU145 and PC3 prostate cancer cells suppressed cell proliferation, induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Transcriptome analysis by RNA-sequencing demonstrated that KIF4 suppression led to transcriptional changes of genes involved in p53 and TGF-beta signaling pathway...
May 2, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524006/circulating-tumor-cells-a-reliable-biomarker-for-prostate-cancer-treatment-assessment
#11
Chiara Ciccarese, Rodolfo Montironi, Michelangelo Fiorentino, Guido Martignoni, Matteo Brunelli, Roberto Iacovelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Marina Scarpelli, Holger Moch, Giampaolo Tortora, Francesco Massari
Prostate cancer is a common malignancy with highly molecular heterogeneity responsible for a wide spectrum of clinical behavior. To date, several treatment options are available, whose selection is currently based mainly on clinical criteria. Given the weakness of conventional imaging and PSA assay, the identification of a prognostic and predictive biomarker for choosing the appropriate treatment and monitoring its efficacy is a very topical issue in prostate cancer management. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have substantial promise for early tumor diagnosis, disease recurrence and metastatic spread monitoring as well as for biological tumor characterization, thus representing a reliable translational real-time biomarkers of prostate cancer...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524004/urinary-biomarkers-for-prostate-cancer
#12
Francesca Giunchi, Chiara Ciccarese, Rodolfo Montironi, Marina Scarpelli, Antonio Lopez-Beltran, Liang Cheng, Holger Moch, Francesco Massari, Michelangelo Fiorentino
Urine may represent a convenient source of biomarkers for the early detection of prostate cancer (PCa) since contains secreted prostatic products and exfoliated tumor cells. Furthermore urine are easy to collect with non-invasive procedures and they are repeatable. Several urinary biomarkers for PCa have been proposed in the past but only one (PCA3) has been approved for clinical use and even this is not widely utilized in the routine practice. Most of these, particularly the proteins, were abandoned due to lack of confirmation...
May 18, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28522740/initial-experience-with-volumetric-68-ga-psma-i-t-pet-ct-for-assessment-of-whole-body-tumor-burden-as-a-quantitative-imaging-biomarker-in-patients-with-prostate-cancer
#13
Sebastian Schmuck, Christoph A von Klot, Christoph Henkenberens, Jan M Sohns, Hans Christiansen, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Tobias L Ross, Frank M Bengel, Thorsten Derlin
A quantitative imaging biomarker is desirable to provide a comprehensive measure of whole-body tumor burden in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, and to standardize the evaluation of treatment-related changes. Therefore, we evaluated whether prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) ligand positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) may be applied to provide PSMA-derived volumetric parameters for quantification of whole-body tumor burden. Methods: 101 patients who underwent a (68)Ga-PSMA I&T PET/CT because of increasing prostate specific antigen (PSA) levels after radical prostatectomy were included in this retrospective analysis...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521441/the-context-of-prostate-cancer-genomics-in-personalized-medicine
#14
Yanling Liu
Prostate cancer is one of the most common types of cancer in males. Heterogeneous genomic aberrations may lead to prostate cancer onset, progression and metastasis. This heterogeneity also contributes to the variety in cancer risk and outcomes, different drug responses and progression, observed between individual patients. Classical prognostic factors, including prostate-specific antigen, Gleason Score and clinical tumor staging, are not sufficient to portray the complexity of a clinically relevant cancer diagnosis, risk prognosis, treatment choice and therapy monitoring...
May 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512731/active-surveillance-for-prostate-cancer-how-to-do-it-right
#15
REVIEW
Juan D Garisto, Laurence Klotz
Prostate cancer is the most common malignancy affecting men. There has been a nearly 70% increase in new prostate cancer cases, mostly classified as low risk, that have been diagnosed in early stages as a consequence of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) screening. Data regarding the natural history of this disease confirm the clinical insignificance of low-grade prostate cancer, which is associated with scant or no metastatic dissemination. Active surveillance is a conservative management approach, conducted for those patients with "low-risk" or "favorable-risk" disease, which avoids long-term adverse effects on the patient's quality of life...
May 15, 2017: Oncology (Williston Park, NY)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512267/exploratory-investigation-of-psca-protein-expression-in-primary-breast-cancer-patients-reveals-a-link-to-her2-neu-overexpression
#16
Theresa Link, Friederike Kuithan, Armin Ehninger, Jan Dominik Kuhlmann, Michael Kramer, Andreas Werner, Axel Gatzweiler, Barbara Richter, Gerhard Ehninger, Gustavo Baretton, Michael Bachmann, Pauline Wimberger, Katrin Friedrich
BACKGROUND: Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA) has been suggested as biomarker and therapeutic target for prostate cancer. Recent advances showed that PSCA is up-regulated in other cancer entities, such as bladder or pancreatic cancer. However, the clinical relevance of PSCA-expression in breast cancer patients has not yet been established and is therefore addressed by the current study. METHODS: PSCA-protein expression was assessed in 405 breast cancer patients, using immunohistochemistry (PSCA antibody MB1) and tissue microarrays...
April 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512253/infiltrating-myeloid-cells-exert-pro-tumorigenic-actions-via-neutrophil-elastase
#17
Irina Lerman, Maria de la Luz Garcia-Hernandez, Javier Rangel-Moreno, Luis Chiriboga, Chunliu Pan, Kent L Nastiuk, John J Krolewski, Aritro Sen, Stephen R Hammes
Tissue infiltration and elevated peripheral circulation of granulocytic myeloid-derived cells is associated with poor outcomes in prostate cancer (PCa) and other malignancies. Although myeloid-derived cells have the ability to suppress T-cell function, little is known about the direct impact of these innate cells on prostate tumor growth. Here it is reported that granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are the predominant tumor infiltrating cells in PCa xenografts established in athymic nude mice...
May 16, 2017: Molecular Cancer Research: MCR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511652/ing3-promotes-prostate-cancer-growth-by-activating-the-androgen-receptor
#18
Arash Nabbi, Urszula L McClurg, Subhash Thalappilly, Amal Almami, Mahsa Mobahat, Tarek A Bismar, Olivier Binda, Karl T Riabowol
BACKGROUND: The androgen receptor (AR) is a major driver of prostate cancer, and increased AR levels and co-activators of the receptor promote the development of prostate cancer. INhibitor of Growth (ING) proteins target lysine acetyltransferase or lysine deacetylase complexes to the histone H3K4Me3 mark of active transcription, to affect chromatin structure and gene expression. ING3 is a stoichiometric member of the TIP60 lysine acetyltransferase complex implicated in prostate cancer development...
May 16, 2017: BMC Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510469/outer-dense-fiber-proteins-bridging-between-male-infertility-and-cancer
#19
Faezeh Azizi, Soudeh Ghafouri-Fard
BACKGROUND: The similarities between gametogenic and carcinogenesis processes have been noted for more than decades. Among prominent similarities between these two processes is expression of a group of antigens, namely cancer-testis antigens in both the testes and various cancer tissues. Outer dense fiber (ODF) proteins are testis-specific proteins localized to sperm tails and involved in sperm motility. METHODS: We performed a computerized search of the MEDLINE/PUBMED databases with keywords "outer dense fiber, ODF, cancer, testis, gametogenesis and infertility"...
May 2017: Archives of Iranian Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28510291/associations-between-rna-splicing-regulatory-variants-of-stemness-related-genes-and-racial-disparities-in-susceptibility-to-prostate-cancer
#20
Yanru Wang, Jennifer A Freedman, Hongliang Liu, Patricia G Moorman, Terry Hyslop, Daniel J George, Norman H Lee, Steven R Patierno, Qingyi Wei
Evidence suggests that cells with a stemness phenotype play a pivotal role in oncogenesis, and prostate cells exhibiting this phenotype have been identified. We used two genome-wide association study (GWAS) datasets of African descendants, from the Multiethnic/Minority Cohort Study of Diet and Cancer (MEC) and the Ghana Prostate Study, as well as two GWAS datasets of non-Hispanic whites, from the Prostate, Lung, Colorectal and Ovarian (PLCO) Cancer Screening Trial and the Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3), to analyze the associations between genetic variants of stemness-related genes and racial disparities in susceptibility to prostate cancer...
May 16, 2017: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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