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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102970/microbiomes-in-respiratory-health-and-disease-an-asia-pacific-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Sanjay H Chotirmall, Shaan L Gellatly, Kurtis F Budden, Micheál Mac Aogain, Shakti D Shukla, David L A Wood, Philip Hugenholtz, Kevin Pethe, Philip M Hansbro
There is currently enormous interest in studying the role of the microbiome in health and disease. Microbiome's role is increasingly being applied to respiratory diseases, in particular COPD, asthma, cystic fibrosis and bronchiectasis. The changes in respiratory microbiomes that occur in these diseases and how they are modified by environmental challenges such as cigarette smoke, air pollution and infection are being elucidated. There is also emerging evidence that gut microbiomes play a role in lung diseases through the modulation of systemic immune responses and can be modified by diet and antibiotic treatment...
February 2017: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102887/clinical-trial-of-nintedanib-in-patients-with-recurrent-or-metastatic-salivary-gland-cancer-of-the-head-and-neck-a-multicenter-phase-2-study-korean-cancer-study-group-hn14-01
#2
Youjin Kim, Su Jin Lee, Ji Yun Lee, Se-Hoon Lee, Jong-Mu Sun, Keunchil Park, Ho Jung An, Jae Yong Cho, Eun Joo Kang, Ha-Young Lee, Jinsoo Kim, Bhumsuk Keam, Hye Ryun Kim, Kyoung Eun Lee, Moon Young Choi, Ki Hyeong Lee, Myung-Ju Ahn
BACKGROUND: Salivary gland cancers (SGCs) are uncommon and account for less than 5% of all head and neck cancers, but they are histologically heterogeneous. No specific therapy, including targeted agents, has consistently improved clinical outcomes in recurrent/metastatic SGC. Recent studies suggest that vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) and platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) play important roles in SGC. Nintedanib is a potent small-molecule, triple-receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor (VEGFR1, VEGFR2, and VEGFR3; fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 [FGFR1], FGFR2, and FGFR3; and PDGFRα and PDGFRß)...
January 19, 2017: Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102546/ataluren-and-similar-compounds-specific-therapies-for-premature-termination-codon-class-i-mutations-for-cystic-fibrosis
#3
REVIEW
Aisha A Aslam, Colin Higgins, Ian P Sinha, Kevin W Southern
BACKGROUND: Cystic fibrosis is a common life-shortening genetic disorder in the Caucasian population (less common in other ethnic groups) caused by the mutation of a single gene that codes for the production of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator protein. This protein coordinates the transport of salt (and bicarbonate) across cell surfaces and the mutation most notably affects the airways. In the lungs of people with cystic fibrosis, defective protein results in a dehydrated surface liquid and compromised mucociliary clearance...
January 19, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102223/global-and-local-selection-acting-on-the-pathogen-stenotrophomonas-maltophilia-in-the-human-lung
#4
Hattie Chung, Tami D Lieberman, Sara O Vargas, Kelly B Flett, Alexander J McAdam, Gregory P Priebe, Roy Kishony
Bacterial populations diversify during infection into distinct subpopulations that coexist within the human body. Yet, it is unknown to what extent subpopulations adapt to location-specific selective pressures as they migrate and evolve across space. Here we identify bacterial genes under local and global selection by testing for spatial co-occurrence of adaptive mutations. We sequence 552 genomes of the pathogen Stenotrophomonas maltophilia across 23 sites of the lungs from a patient with cystic fibrosis. We show that although genetically close isolates colocalize in space, distant lineages with distinct phenotypes separated by adaptive mutations spread throughout the lung, suggesting global selective pressures...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101147/a-double-gallbladder-with-a-common-bile-duct-stone-treated-by-laparoscopy-accompanied-by-choledochoscopy-via-the-cystic-duct-a-case-report
#5
Wei Yu, Huisheng Yuan, Shi Cheng, Ying Xing, Wenmao Yan
A double gallbladder is a rare congenital malformation. The present study describes a case of double gallbladder with secondary common bile duct stones. By way of laparoscopic choledochoscopy, the exploration and removal of a common bile duct stone was performed through the cystic duct. The process involved a primary suture of the cystic duct and was performed without using a T-tube, and completed a surgical removal of the gallbladder. The present case was successfully treated by laparoscopic surgery. From a review of previous studies published in the English language, this study, to the best of our knowledge, is the first report of such a case...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100948/malignant-proliferating-trichilemmal-tumour-of-the-scalp-with-intra-cranial-extension-and-lung-metastasis-a-case-report
#6
Lancelot Lobo, Amol Dilip Amonkar, V V S M Kumar Dontamsetty
Malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumour (MPTT) is a rare cutaneous tumour predominantly affecting the scalp, eyelids, neck and face of elderly women. It is a large, solitary, multilobulated lesion that may arise within a pilar cyst. These tumours are largely benign, often cystic and are characterized by trichilemmal keratinisation. However at times, the tumour has an aggressive clinical course and a propensity for distant metastasis. We report a case of a 29-year-old male who presented with a scalp swelling...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100929/quantitative-computed-tomography-analysis-of-the-airways-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis-using-automated-software-correlation-with-spirometry-in-the-evaluation-of-severity
#7
Marcel Koenigkam Santos, Danilo Lemos Cruvinel, Marcelo Bezerra de Menezes, Sara Reis Teixeira, Elcio de Oliveira Vianna, Jorge Elias Júnior, José Antonio Baddini Martinez
OBJECTIVE: To perform a quantitative analysis of the airways using automated software, in computed tomography images of patients with cystic fibrosis, correlating the results with spirometric findings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-four patients with cystic fibrosis were studied-20 males and 14 females; mean age 18 ± 9 years-divided into two groups according to the spirometry findings: group I (n = 21), without severe airflow obstruction (forced expiratory volume in first second [FEV1] > 50% predicted), and group II (n = 13), with severe obstruction (FEV1 ≤ 50% predicted)...
November 2016: Radiologia Brasileira
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100601/the-use-of-selective-fungal-culture-media-increases-detection-rates-of-fungi-in-the-cystic-fibrosis-respiratory-tract
#8
Gina Hong, Heather B Miller, Sarah Allgood, Richard Lee, Noah Lechtzin, Sean X Zhang
The prevalence of fungi in the respiratory tract of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients has risen. However, fungal surveillance is not routinely performed in most clinical centers in the United States, which may lead to an underestimation of the true prevalence of the problem. We conducted a prospective study comparing fungal detection rates for clinically important fungi (CIF) defined as Aspergillus species, Scedosporium species, Trichosporon species, and Exophiala dermatitidis in CF sputum using standard bacterial culture media and selective-fungal culture media, including Sabouraud dextrose agar with gentamicin (SDA), inhibitory mold agar (IMA), and brain-heart infusion agar (BHI) with chloramphenicol and gentamicin...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100363/-hyper-ige-syndrome-in-adulthood-a-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
J M Jin, Y C Sun, Y Liu, X F Liu, G J Liu, J Y Han, H Zeng
Objective: To describe the clinical features of hyper-IgE syndrome (HIES), with emphasis on refractory pulmonary cystic lesions as the initial presentation in adulthood. Methods: A case of HIES presenting with pulmonary cystic lesions in an adult patient was retrospectively analyzed. We used "hyper-IgE syndrome" as the Chinese keywords, "hyper-IgE syndrome, China" as the English keywords to retrieve the literature from Wanfang database/CNKI database and Pubmed database until April 2016. The clinical data were pooled and analyzed...
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100357/-hemoptysis-in-adults-with-bronchiectasis-correlation-with-disease-severity-and-exacerbation-risk
#10
W J Guan, J J Yuan, Y H Gao, H M Li, N S Zhong, R C Chen
Objective: To investigate the association between hemoptysis and disease severity and risks of acute exacerbations in patients with bronchiectasis. Methods: Between September 2012 and January 2014, we recruited 148 patients (56 males, 92 females, mean age: 44.6 years) with clinically stable bronchiectasis, who were classified into hemoptysis group (36 males, 70 females, mean age: 45.6 years) and non-hemoptysis group (20 males, 22 females, mean age: 41.8 years). We inquired the past history, and evaluated chest imaging characteristics, lung function, cough sensitivity assessed using capsaicin cough challenge tests, and airway inflammation...
January 12, 2017: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100229/surveillance-of-life-long-antibiotics-a-review-of-antibiotic-prescribing-practices-in-an-australian-healthcare-network
#11
Jillian S Y Lau, Christopher Kiss, Erika Roberts, Kylie Horne, Tony M Korman, Ian Woolley
BACKGROUND: The rise of antimicrobial use in the twentieth century has significantly reduced morbidity due to infection, however it has also brought with it the rise of increasing resistance. Some patients are on prolonged, if not "life-long" course of antibiotics. The reasons for this are varied, and include non-infectious indications. We aimed to study the characteristics of this potential source of antibiotic resistance, by exploring the antibiotic dispensing practices and describing the population of patients on long-term antibiotic therapy...
January 18, 2017: Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100217/variation-in-branchial-expression-among-insulin-like-growth-factor-binding-proteins-igfbps-during-atlantic-salmon-smoltification-and-seawater-exposure
#12
Jason P Breves, Chelsea K Fujimoto, Silas K Phipps-Costin, Ingibjörg E Einarsdottir, Björn Thrandur Björnsson, Stephen D McCormick
BACKGROUND: In preparation for migration from freshwater to marine habitats, Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.) undergo smoltification, a transformation that includes the acquisition of hyposmoregulatory capacity. The growth hormone (Gh)/insulin-like growth-factor (Igf) axis promotes the development of branchial ionoregulatory functions that underlie ion secretion. Igfs interact with a suite of Igf binding proteins (Igfbps) that modulate hormone activity. In Atlantic salmon smolts, igfbp4,-5a,-5b1,-5b2,-6b1 and-6b2 transcripts are highly expressed in gill...
January 18, 2017: BMC Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099811/nanomolar-potency-aminophenyl-1-3-5-triazine-activators-of-the-cystic-fibrosis-transmembrane-conductance-regulator-cftr-chloride-channel-for-pro-secretory-therapy-of-dry-eye-diseases
#13
Sujin Lee, Puay-Wah Phuan, Christian M Felix, Joseph-Anthony Tan, Marc H Levin, Alan S Verkman
Dry eye disorders are a significant health problem for which limited therapeutic options are available. CFTR is a major pro-secretory chloride channel at the ocular surface. We previously identified, by high-throughput screening, aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine CFTRact-K089 (1) that activated CFTR with EC50 ~250 nM, which when delivered topically increased tear fluid secretion in mice and showed efficacy in an experimental dry eye model. Here, functional analysis of aminophenyl-1,3,5-triazine analogs elucidated structure-activity relationships for CFTR activation and identified substantially more potent analogs than 1...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099258/patient-preferences-for-management-of-cystic-neoplasms-of-the-pancreas-a-cross-sectional-survey-study
#14
Dhruv Verma, Karl K Kwok, Bechien U Wu
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine how patient anxiety, knowledge, and cancer worry influence preferences for management of pancreatic cysts. METHODS: We performed a prospective, cross-sectional study using a disease-specific survey instrument. We included patients older than 18 years who were diagnosed with a pancreatic cyst. A telephone survey instrument was developed to assess baseline anxiety using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), knowledge regarding pancreatic cysts, cancer worry, and patient preferences using a standard gamble...
January 18, 2017: Pancreas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099226/computed-tomography-in-cystic-fibrosis-combining-low-dose-techniques-and-iterative-reconstruction
#15
Johannes Kahn, David Kaul, Ulrich Grupp, Georg Böning, Diane Renz, Doris Staab, Vera Schreiter, Florian Streitparth
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of iterative reconstruction (IR) and low-kilovolt technique on dose reduction and image quality of chest computed tomography scans obtained in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). METHODS: A total of 124 CF patients were examined; group A (n = 63) was examined with a dose reduction protocol using IR and group B (n = 61) with a standard protocol using filtered back projection. Further subgroups with tube voltage modulations were established...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Computer Assisted Tomography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099079/lymphangioleiomyomatosis-a-monogenic-model-of-malignancy
#16
Vera P Krymskaya, Francis X McCormack
Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM) is a rare, low-grade, metastasizing neoplasm that arises from an unknown source, spreads via the lymphatics, and targets the lungs. All pulmonary structures become infiltrated with benign-appearing spindle and epithelioid cells (LAM cells) that express smooth-muscle and melanocyte-lineage markers, harbor mTOR-activating mutations in tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) genes, and recruit abundant stromal cells. Elaboration of lymphangiogenic growth factors and matrix remodeling enzymes by LAM cells enables their access to lymphatic channels and likely drives the cystic lung remodeling that often culminates in respiratory failure...
January 14, 2017: Annual Review of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098399/myb-cd117-and-sox-10-expression-in-cutaneous-adnexal-tumors
#17
Mara Therese P Evangelista, Jeffrey P North
BACKGROUND: Elevated MYB expression has been documented in adenoid cystic carcinoma (ACC), cylindroma, and spiradenoma, but the specificity of this finding is unknown. CD117 and SOX-10 expression also occurs in some cutaneous adnexal tumors. This study assesses MYB, CD117, and SOX-10 expression in cutaneous adnexal tumors. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 184 benign adnexal tumors (140 eccrine/apocrine, 40 follicular, and 10 sebaceous), and 30 malignant adnexal tumors was performed with MYB, SOX-10, and CD117 immunostaining...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097783/type-iii-pleuropulmonary-blastoma-in-a-dicer1-germline-mutation-carrier-the-management-of-residual-lung-cystic-lesions
#18
Ana M Fita, Esther Llinares-Riestra, Ernesto Doménech-Abellán, Mar Bermúdez-Cortés, Ana M Galera-Miñarro, Agueda Bas-Bernal, José L Fuster-Soler
Pleuropulmonary blastoma (PPB) is a rare malignancy of childhood. It often represents a manifestation of a hereditary tumor predisposition syndrome (DICER1 syndrome). Because of its malignant potential, surgical resection of cystic lung lesions is recommended in germline DICER1 mutation carriers. We present a case of a 3-year-old male child with type III PPB successfully managed with ifosfamide, vincristine, actinomycin-D, and doxorubicin (IVADo) chemotherapy and surgery. A heterozygous germline pR688X mutation of DICER1 gene was demonstrated...
January 18, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097642/adrenal-cyst-with-both-m%C3%A3-llerian-and-mesothelial-differentiation-a-clinicopathological-and-immunohistochemical-study-with-implications-for-histogenesis
#19
Łukasz Koperski, Benedykt Szczepankiewicz, Paweł Pihowicz, Łukasz Fus, Ewa Wolińska, Barbara Górnicka
True epithelial-lined cysts are rare forms of adrenal cystic lesions, the pathogenesis of which is still not fully understood. In this report we present a case of an adrenal cyst diagnosed incidentally on imaging in a 31-year-old, previously healthy, obese woman. Due to non-specific hormonal disorders and enlargement of the lesion, a right-sided laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed. The cyst was lined predominantly by ciliated cuboidal-to-columnar, Müllerian-type epithelium, and focally by flat-to-cuboidal, mesothelium-like lining...
January 18, 2017: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097632/acquisition-and-adaptation-of-the-airway-microbiota-in-the-early-life-of-cystic-fibrosis-patients
#20
REVIEW
Sébastien Boutin, Alexander H Dalpke
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a genetic disease in which bacterial infections of the airways play a major role in the long-term clinical outcome. In recent years, a number of next-generation sequencing (NGS)-based studies aimed at deciphering the structure and composition of the airways' microbiota. It was shown that the nasal cavity of CF patients displays dysbiosis early in life indicating a failure in the first establishment of a healthy microbiota. In contrast, within the conducting and lower airways, the establishment occurs normally first, but is sensitive to future dysbiosis including chronic infections with classical pathogens in later life...
December 2017: Molecular and Cellular Pediatrics
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