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L X Zhang, Y M Balani, Sophia Trinh, Henry M Kronenberg, Yiming Mu
Objective: To investigate the distinct effects of intermittent and continuous administration of parathyroid hormone (PTH) on bone and mesenchymal stem cell (MSC). Methods: Six weeks old mice with C57/BL6J background and SOX9-creERT/Td-tomato/Osteocalcin-GFP genotype were divided into 6 groups: intermittent administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous injection with PTH 500 μg·kg-1 ·d-1 ), continuous administration and withdraw group (subcutaneous implantation of PTH pump, 80 μg·kg-1 ·d-1, with a rate of 0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
X L Wang, J Wang, D L Mu, D X Wang
Objective: To investigate the effect of dexmedetomidine adding to ropivacaine for continuous femoral nerve block on the improvement of postoperative sleep quality in elderly patients after total knee arthroplasty. Methods: One hundred and sixty patients aged 60 years or older in Jishuitan Hospital scheduled for single total knee arthroplasty between Nov. 2016 and Jun. 2017 were recruited. All patients received spinal anesthesia and were randomized to receive either combined ropivacaine and dexmedetomidine (0...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Y H Ma, J Wu, B Jia, J X Xue, T L Wang
Objective: The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of ultrasound-guided continuous fascia iliaca compartment block combined with oral analgesics for pre-operative pain control in elderly patients with hip fracture. Methods: One hundred and sixteen patients with hip fractures in Xuan Wu Hospital of Capital Medical University during Dec. 2015 to Dec. 2016 were included. These patients were randomized into 2 groups: control group (group C) (receiving the traditional analgesia: tramadol 50 mg and paracetamol 500 mg tid, po from admission to surgery), study group (group S) (receiving ultrasound-guided continuous fascia iliaca compartment block combined with oral analgesics for pre-operative pain control from admission to surgery)...
March 13, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Sara J Czaja, Chin Chin Lee, Dolores Perdomo, David Loewenstein, Marina Bravo, Jerad H Moxley PhD, Richard Schulz
Background and Objectives: Family caregivers (CGs) are critical to the provision of long-term services and support for older adults. Numerous intervention programs to alleviate CG distress have been developed and evaluated yet few have been implemented in community settings. This paper describes and presents outcomes from Community REACH, a community implementation of the evidence-based Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregiver Health (REACH) II program. Research Design and Methods: Community REACH involved a partnership between REACH II investigators and United HomeCare Services (UHCS), a nonprofit home health organization that provides home health, personal care, companion, and respite services...
March 19, 2018: Gerontologist
M Malvezzi, G Carioli, P Bertuccio, P Boffetta, F Levi, C La Vecchia, E Negri
Background: We projected cancer mortality statistics for 2018 for the European Union (EU) and its six more populous countries, using the most recent available data. We focused on colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: We obtained cancer death certification data from stomach, colorectum, pancreas, lung, breast, uterus, ovary, prostate, bladder, leukaemia, and total cancers from the World Health Organisation database and projected population data from Eurostat...
March 19, 2018: Annals of Oncology: Official Journal of the European Society for Medical Oncology
Ondrej Balvín, Warren Booth
For over two decades, the bed bug, Cimex lectularius L. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae) has been undergoing a dramatic global resurgence, likely in part to the evolution of mechanisms conferring resistance to insecticides. One such mechanism is knock-down resistance (kdr), resulting from nonsynonymous mutations within the voltage-gated sodium channel (VGSC) gene. To date, three mutations have been identified in C. lectularius, V419L, L925I, and I936F. Using Sanger sequencing, the frequency and distribution of these VGSC mutations across 131 populations collected from the bat-associated and human-associated lineages of C...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Maureen Mackintosh, Julius Mugwagwa, Geoffrey Banda, Paula Tibandebage, Jires Tunguhole, Samuel Wangwe, Mercy Karimi Njeru
The benefits of local production of pharmaceuticals in Africa for local access to medicines and to effective treatment remain contested. There is scepticism among health systems experts internationally that production of pharmaceuticals in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) can provide competitive prices, quality and reliability of supply. Meanwhile low-income African populations continue to suffer poor access to a broad range of medicines, despite major international funding efforts. A current wave of pharmaceutical industry investment in SSA is associated with active African government promotion of pharmaceuticals as a key sector in industrialization strategies...
March 19, 2018: Health Policy and Planning
Xin Li, Adeline Gadzinsky, Liying Gong, Haijun Tong, Virginie Calderon, Yue Li, Daisuke Kitamura, Ulf Klein, Wallace Y Langdon, Fajian Hou, Yong-Rui Zou, Hua Gu
Selective expansion of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells in germinal centers (GCs) is a key event in antibody affinity maturation. GC B cells with improved affinity can either continue affinity-driven selection or exit the GC to differentiate into plasma cells (PCs) or memory B cells. Here we found that deleting E3 ubiquitin ligases Cbl and Cbl-b (Cbls) in GC B cells resulted in the early exit of high-affinity antigen-specific B cells from the GC reaction and thus impaired clonal expansion. Cbls were highly expressed in GC light zone (LZ) B cells, where they promoted the ubiquitination and degradation of Irf4, a transcription factor facilitating PC fate choice...
March 20, 2018: Immunity
Geoffrey H Tison, José M Sanchez, Brandon Ballinger, Avesh Singh, Jeffrey E Olgin, Mark J Pletcher, Eric Vittinghoff, Emily S Lee, Shannon M Fan, Rachel A Gladstone, Carlos Mikell, Nimit Sohoni, Johnson Hsieh, Gregory M Marcus
Importance: Atrial fibrillation (AF) affects 34 million people worldwide and is a leading cause of stroke. A readily accessible means to continuously monitor for AF could prevent large numbers of strokes and death. Objective: To develop and validate a deep neural network to detect AF using smartwatch data. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this multinational cardiovascular remote cohort study coordinated at the University of California, San Francisco, smartwatches were used to obtain heart rate and step count data for algorithm development...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Cardiology
Erika L Rangel, Douglas S Smink, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Gifty Kwakye, Marguerite Changala, Adil H Haider, Gerard M Doherty
Importance: Although family priorities influence specialty selection and resident attrition, few studies describe resident perspectives on pregnancy during surgical training. Objective: To directly assess the resident experience of childbearing during training. Design, Setting, and Participants: A self-administered 74-question survey was electronically distributed in January 2017 to members of the Association of Women Surgeons, to members of the Association of Program Directors in Surgery listserv, and through targeted social media platforms...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Surgery
João Manuel Graveto, Cristina Santos, Paulo Santos Costa, Elisabete Fernandes, Susana Alarico, Nádia Osório, Helena Albano, Vânia Oliveira
OBJECTIVE: To describe the determining factors in hand hygiene management among nurses and identify associated collective health challenges. METHOD: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Data were collected using a questionnaire that was applied in four internal medicine units of a hospital of reference in Portugal. RESULTS: The sample was composed of 50 nurses aged 26 to 55 years (mean age of 34.88 years); 80% were women, 58% had a Bachelor's degree, and had 5-30 years of nursing practice (X̄ =11...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Ester do Nascimento Ribas, Elizabeth Bernardino, Liliana Muller Larocca, Paulo Poli Neto, Gisele Knop Aued, Camilla Pinheiro Cristaldi da Silva
OBJECTIVE: to identify the profile of the counter-referred patients by the "nurse liaison" and to describe the experience of the professionals who participated in the project. METHOD: intervention research, with twelve nursing nurses from a hospital and an Emergency Care Unit, and 26 nurses from Primary Health Care. Data were obtained through questionnaires and counter-referral forms. RESULTS: Out of 43 counter-referred individuals, 62...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
Nathalia Saber de Andrade, Ana Maria Félix André, Victor Hugo Perches Ferreira, Lincoln Eduardo Villela Vieira de Castro Ferreira
BACKGROUND: - Conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy is the best method for evaluation of the upper gastrointestinal tract, but it has limitations for the identification of the major duodenal papilla, even after the use of the straightening maneuver. Side-viewing duodenoscope is recommended for optimal examination of major duodenal papilla in patients at high risk for lesions in this region. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the use of the biopsy forceps during conventional esophagogastroduodenoscopy as an additional tool to the straightening maneuver, in the evaluation of the major duodenal papilla...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
Feng Liang, Christian Giordano, Dong Shang, Qian Li, Basil J Petrof
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by progressive muscle weakness which is ultimately fatal, most often due to involvement of the diaphragm. Macrophage infiltration of dystrophic muscles has been strongly linked to muscle damage and fibrosis in DMD. We hypothesized that cenicriviroc (CVC), a dual chemokine receptor (CCR2/CCR5) antagonist currently under clinical evaluation for other diseases, could prevent macrophage accumulation and blunt disease progression in the diaphragms of mdx mice (genetic homologue of DMD)...
2018: PloS One
Alan Taitz, M Florencia Assaneo, Natalia Elisei, Mónica Trípodi, Laurent Cohen, Jacobo D Sitt, Marcos A Trevisan
Sound-symbolic word classes are found in different cultures and languages worldwide. These words are continuously produced to code complex information about events. Here we explore the capacity of creative language to transport complex multisensory information in a controlled experiment, where our participants improvised onomatopoeias from noisy moving objects in audio, visual and audiovisual formats. We found that consonants communicate movement types (slide, hit or ring) mainly through the manner of articulation in the vocal tract...
2018: PloS One
Naouel Eddaikra, Khatima Ait-Oudhia, Ihcen Kherrachi, Bruno Oury, Farida Moulti-Mati, Razika Benikhlef, Zoubir Harrat, Denis Sereno
BACKGROUND: In Algeria, the treatment of visceral and cutaneous leishmanioses (VL and CL) has been and continues to be based on antimony-containing drugs. It is suspected that high drug selective pressure might favor the emergence of chemoresistant parasites. Although treatment failure is frequently reported during antimonial therapy of both CL and VL, antimonial resistance has never been thoroughly investigated in Algeria. Determining the level of antimonial susceptibility, amongst Leishmania transmitted in Algeria, is of great importance for the development of public health policies...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Joseph R Fauver, James Weger-Lucarelli, Lawrence S Fakoli, Kpehe Bolay, Fatorma K Bolay, Joseph W Diclaro, Doug E Brackney, Brian D Foy, Mark D Stenglein, Gregory D Ebel
BACKGROUND: Novel surveillance strategies are needed to detect the rapid and continuous emergence of infectious disease agents. Ideally, new sampling strategies should be simple to implement, technologically uncomplicated, and applicable to areas where emergence events are known to occur. To this end, xenosurveillance is a technique that makes use of blood collected by hematophagous arthropods to monitor and identify vertebrate pathogens. Mosquitoes are largely ubiquitous animals that often exist in sizable populations...
March 21, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Chiara Clementi, François Littmann, Lorenzo Capineri
Several countries are planning to store nuclear spent fuel in long term geological repositories, preserved by copper canisters with an iron insert. This new approach involves many challenging problems and one is to satisfy safeguards requirements: the Continuity of Knowledge (CoK) of the fuel must be kept from the encapsulation plant up to the final repository. To date, no measurement system has been suggested for a unique identification and authentication. Following the list of the most important safeguards, safety and security requirements for copper canisters identification and authentication, a review of conventional tagging technologies and measurement systems for nuclear items is reported in this paper...
March 21, 2018: Sensors
Christiana Leimena, Hongyu Qiu
Hypertension is a complex, multifactorial disease that involves the coexistence of multiple risk factors, environmental factors and physiological systems. The complexities extend to the treatment and management of hypertension, which are still the pursuit of many researchers. In the last two decades, various genes have emerged as possible biomarkers and have become the target for investigations of specialized drug design based on its risk factors and the primary cause. Owing to the growing technology of microarrays and next-generation sequencing, the non-protein-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have increasingly gained attention, and their status of redundancy has flipped to importance in normal cellular processes, as well as in disease progression...
March 21, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Youkyung Bae, Gwenlyn Pfeil
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the feasibility/effectiveness of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to document velopharyngeal (VP) structural changes induced by continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy. OUTCOME MEASURES: Changes in velar length and thickness, levator veli palatini (LVP) length and thickness, velar volume, and intravelar muscular proportion along the course of CPAP therapy participation (Pre-CPAP, Post-CPAP, and withdrawal). RESULTS: Velar and LVP lengths remained nearly the same, with the median changes (Δ) less than 0...
January 1, 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
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