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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458153/eus-guided-transluminal-interventions
#1
Uzma D Siddiqui, Michael J Levy
The role of endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) has transitioned from a diagnostic to a therapeutic one over the past 40 years. With the advent of curvilinear array echoendoscopes in the 1990's with an accessory channel, multiple tools and devices have been developed and utilized for a variety of transluminal interventions. EUS provides a viable option and is becoming the procedure of choice for many interventions including bile and pancreatic duct drainage, guiding angiotherapy, pancreatic fluid collection management, gallbladder drainage, and creating a gastrojejunostomy...
February 16, 2018: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458137/bisphenol-a-alters-oocyte-maturation-by-prematurely-closing-gap-junctions-in-the-cumulus-cell-oocyte-complex
#2
Deyanira Guadalupe Acuña-Hernández, Laura Arreola-Mendoza, Ramsés Santacruz-Márquez, Sihomara Patricia García-Zepeda, Lyda Yuliana Parra-Forero, Jesús Alberto Olivares-Reyes, Isabel Hernández-Ochoa
In ovarian follicles, cumulus cells communicate with the oocyte through gap junction intercellular communication (GJIC), to nurture the oocyte and control its meiosis arrest and division. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a monomer found in polycarbonate-made containers that can induce functional alterations, including impaired oocyte meiotic division and reduced molecule transfer in GJIC. However, how BPA alters oocyte meiotic division is unclear. We investigated whether BPA effects on oocyte meiotic division were correlated with reduced transfer in GJIC...
February 16, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457995/validation-of-a-brazilian-portuguese-version-of-the-transition-readiness-assessment-questionnaire-traq-in-a-population-of-transitional-youth-with-chronic-rheumatologic-disorders
#3
Catherine G Anelli, Claudio A Len, Maria T Terreri, Gleice C S Russo, Andreas O Reiff
OBJECTIVE: To translate and validate the Brazilian Portuguese version of the Transition Readiness Assessment Questionnaire in a population of adolescents and young adults with chronic rheumatologic disorders. This questionnaire evaluates the patient's readiness for making the transition from the pediatric health service to adult care. METHODS: The four-phase methodology for the translation and validation of generic questionnaires was followed, including translation, back-translation, pilot testing and clinical validation of the final tool...
February 16, 2018: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457986/effect-of-oral-stimulation-on-feeding-performance-and-weight-gain-in-preterm-neonates-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#4
Pareshkumar A Thakkar, H R Rohit, Rashmi Ranjan Das, Ukti P Thakkar, Amitabh Singh
Background In preterm infants, oral stimulation enhances muscle tone and movement which facilitates normal oral motor developmental patterns improving oral feeding performance. Aim To study the effects on feeding performance, transition to independent oral feeding, weight gain and length of hospital stay of an oral stimulation programme in preterm neonates. Study design This randomised controlled trial was conducted in a tertiary care teaching hospital over a period of 10 months. Altogether, 102 preterm neonates (30-34 weeks gestation) were randomised into the intervention group (oro-motor stimulation for 5 min twice a day, n = 51) or the control group (routine care only, n = 51)...
February 19, 2018: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457904/conflict-in-the-mechanism-and-kinetics-of-the-barrierless-reaction-between-sh-and-no-2-radicals
#5
Ramanpreet Kaur, Vikas
There are some unsettled issues regarding the mechanism and kinetics of an important atmospheric reaction of NO2 radical with the SH radical. The existing mechanism is based on the formation of HSO and NO radicals, both of which can result only along one barrierless channel. However, the detection of NO radical has never been reported though the formation of HSO radical has been followed in some studies to determine the rate constants. The latter are mainly obtained by monitoring the SH decay, but rate constants are reported to be highly conflicting among the existing studies reporting its value ranging from 10-10 to 10-12 cm3 molecule-1 sec-1 ...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457902/multicolor-luminescence-switching-and-controllable-thermally-activated-delayed-fluorescence-turn-on-turn-off-in-carbazole-quinoxaline-carbazole-triads
#6
Ramin Pashazadeh, Piotr Henryk Pander, Algirdas Lazauskas, Fernando B Dias, Juozas Vidas Grazulevicius
In this work we report a series of thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) molecules with mechanochromic luminescence (MCL) properties and reversible TADF turn on/off properties in solid state that are induced by the transition between amorphous and crystalline states. Additionally, multicolor altering through external stimulus is demonstrated. All the studied compounds exhibited recovery of the initial states associated with narrower emission spectra. TADF OLEDs fabricated by solution processing rendered high external quantum efficiency up to 10...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457865/nucleophilic-substitution-in-solution-activation-strain-analysis-of-weak-and-strong-solvent-effects
#7
Trevor A Hamlin, Bas van Beek, Lando P Wolters, F Matthias Bickelhaupt
We have quantum chemically studied the effect of various polar and apolar solvents on the shape of the potential energy surface (PES) of a diverse collection of archetypal nucleophilic substitution reactions at carbon, silicon, phosphorus, and arsenic using density functional theory at OLYP/TZ2P. In the gas phase, all our model SN2 reactions have single-well PESs, except for SN2@C which has a double-well energy profile. The presence of the solvent can have a significant effect on the shape of the PES and thus on the nature of the SN2 process...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457853/mesenchymal-epithelial-transition-of-pancreatic-cancer-cells-at-perineural-invasion-sites-is-induced-by-schwann-cells
#8
Yoko Fujii-Nishimura, Ken Yamazaki, Yohei Masugi, Junya Douguchi, Yutaka Kurebayashi, Naoto Kubota, Hidenori Ojima, Minoru Kitago, Masahiro Shinoda, Akinori Hashiguchi, Michiie Sakamoto
Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) promotes invasion and metastasis of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, the importance of its reverse process, mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET), for PDAC remains unclear. We aimed to characterize the histological finding "focal differentiation" in PDAC at perineural invasion sites in the context of MET and to investigate the role of Schwann cells in inducing tumor MET. Tumor differentiation and immunohistochemical expressions of E-cadherin, SMAD3, and vimentin at perineural invasion sites were examined in 168 PDAC tissues...
February 19, 2018: Pathology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457838/bax-inhibitor-1-protects-from-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-by-limiting-ire1%C3%AE-signaling
#9
Cynthia Lebeaupin, Déborah Vallée, Déborah Rousseau, Stéphanie Patouraux, Stéphanie Bonnafous, Gilbert Adam, Frederic Luciano, Carmelo Luci, Rodolphe Anty, Antonio Iannelli, Sandrine Marchetti, Guido Kroemer, Sandra Lacas-Gervais, Albert Tran, Philippe Gual, Béatrice Bailly-Maitre
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent metabolic dysfunction, inflammation and cell death underlie the transition from steatosis to steatohepatitis (NASH). Bax inhibitor-1 (BI-1), a negative regulator of the ER stress sensor IRE1α, has yet to be explored in NAFLD as a hepatoprotective agent. We hypothesized that the genetic ablation of BI-1 would render the liver vulnerable to NASH due to unrestrained IRE1α signaling...
February 19, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457730/cryo-spectroscopy-studies-of-intact-light-harvesting-antennas-reveal-empirical-electronic-energy-transitions-in-two-cyanobacteria-species
#10
Albert Collins Nganou Assonkeng, Noam Adir, Martin Mkandawire
Understanding of electronic energy transition (EET) mechanisms from the light-harvesting unit to the reaction centre in a natural system has been limited by; (a) the use of conventional transient time-resolved spectroscopy at room temperature, which result in high signal-to-noise ratio; and (b) examining extracts instead of intact light-harvesting units. Here, we report previously unknown differences and new insight in EET of two cyanobacteria species, Acaryochloris marina and Thermosynechoccocus vulvanus, which have been found only after using Uv-vis, hole-burning and fluorescence spectroscopy at ultra-low temperature and examining their intact light-harvesting unit, phycobilisomes (PBS)...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457729/assessing-interactions-between-a-polytopic-membrane-protein-and-lipid-bilayers-using-differential-scanning-calorimetry-and-solid-state-nmr
#11
James R Banigan, Maureen Leninger, Ampon Sae Her, Nathaniel J Traaseth
It is known that the lipid composition within a cellular membrane can influence membrane protein structure and function. In this Article, we investigated how structural changes to a membrane protein upon substrate binding can impact the lipid bilayer. To carry out this study, we reconstituted the secondary active drug transporter EmrE into a variety of phospholipid bilayers varying in headgroup and chain length and carried out differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and solid-state NMR experiments. The DSC results revealed a difference in cooperativity of the lipid phase transition for drug-free EmrE protonated at glutamic acid 14 (i...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457687/substrate-binding-drives-active-site-closing-of-human-blood-group-b-galactosyltransferase-as-revealed-by-hot-spot-labeling-and-nmr-experiments
#12
Thomas Peters, Sophie Weissbach, Friedemann Flügge
Crystallography has shown that human blood group A (GTA) and B (GTB) glycosyltransferases undergo transitions between "open", "semi-closed", and "closed" conformations upon substrate binding. However, the time scales of corresponding conformational reorientations are unknown. Crystal structures show that Trp and Met residues are located at "conformational hot spots" of the enzymes. Therefore, we have utilized 15N-side chain labeling of Trp residues, and 13C-methyl labeling of Met residues to study substrate induced conformational transitions of GTB...
February 19, 2018: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457662/efficient-catalytic-enantioselective-hydroxyamination-of-%C3%AE-aryl-%C3%AE-cyanoacetates-with-2-nitrosopyridines
#13
Xiaoming Feng, Jingchuan Zhang, Kai Fu, Lili Lin, Yan Lu, Xiaohua Liu
The highly enantioselective totally N-selective hydroxyamination reaction of α-aryl-α-cyanoacetates with 2-nitrosopyridines was realized by using a chiral N,N'-dioxide/Mg(OTf)2 complex as catalyst, which enriches the nitroso chemistry. A variety of 2-cyano-2-[hydroxyl(pyrydin-2-yl)amino]acetates with quaternary stereocenters and potential antibacterial activities were obtained in excellent yields with good to excellent ee values under as low as 0.05 mol% catalyst loading. The products could be easily transformed to useful α-amino amides and 1,2-diamines...
February 19, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457634/-cooperative-collapse-of-the-denatured-state-revealed-through-clausius-clapeyron-analysis-of-protein-denaturation-phase-diagrams
#14
Alexander Tischer, Venkata R Machha, Jörg Rösgen, Matthew Auton
Protein phase diagrams have a unique potential to identify the presence of additional thermodynamic states even when non-2-state character is not readily apparent from the experimental observables used to follow protein unfolding transitions. Two-state analysis of the von Willebrand factor A3 domain has previously revealed a discrepancy in the calorimetric enthalpy obtained from thermal unfolding transitions as compared with Gibbs-Helmholtz analysis of free energies obtained from the Linear Extrapolation Method (Tischer and Auton, Prot Sci 2013; 22(9):1147-60)...
February 19, 2018: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457586/origin-of-distorted-1t-phase-res-2-first-principles-study
#15
Ji-Hae Choi, Seung-Hoon Jhi
Group-VIIB transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are known to be stabilized solely in a distorted 1T phase termed as 1T″ phase, which is compared to many stable or metastable phases in other TMDCs. Using first-principles calculations, we study the structural origin of 1T″ phase group-VIIB TMDCs. We find that quasi 1D Peierls-like instability is responsible for the transition to the 1T″ phase ReS2 monolayer from the 1T' phase, another distorted 1T phase. Two half-filled bands in 1T'-ReS2 make sharp peaks in the Lindhard function that prompt the charge density wave (CDW) phase with large band gap opening...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457308/single-carbon-fibers-with-a-macroscopic-thickness-3d-highly-porous-carbon-nanotube-coating
#16
Mingchu Zou, Wenqi Zhao, Huaisheng Wu, Hui Zhang, Wenjing Xu, Liusi Yang, Shiting Wu, Yunsong Wang, Yijun Chen, Lu Xu, Anyuan Cao
Carbon fiber (CF) grafted with a layer of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) plays an important role in composite materials and other fields; to date, the applications of CNTs@CF multiscale fibers are severely hindered by the limited amount of CNTs grafted on individual CFs and the weak interfacial binding force. Here, monolithic CNTs@CF fibers consisting of a 3D highly porous CNT sponge layer with macroscopic-thickness (up to several millimeters), which is directly grown on a single CF, are fabricated. Mechanical tests reveal high sponge-CF interfacial strength owing to the presence of a thin transitional layer, which completely inhibits the CF slippage from the matrix upon fracture in CNTs@CF fiber-epoxy composites...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457283/direct-visualization-of-the-reversible-o-2-o-redox-process-in-li-rich-cathode-materials
#17
Xiang Li, Yu Qiao, Shaohua Guo, Zhenming Xu, Hong Zhu, Xiaoyu Zhang, Yang Yuan, Ping He, Masayoshi Ishida, Haoshen Zhou
Conventional cathodes of Li-ion batteries mainly operate through an insertion-extraction process involving transition metal redox. These cathodes will not be able to meet the increasing requirements until lithium-rich layered oxides emerge with beyond-capacity performance. Nevertheless, in-depth understanding of the evolution of crystal and excess capacity delivered by Li-rich layered oxides is insufficient. Herein, various in situ technologies such as X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy are employed for a typical material Li1...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457282/a-simple-general-synthetic-route-toward-nanoscale-transition-metal-borides
#18
Palani R Jothi, Kunio Yubuta, Boniface P T Fokwa
Most nanomaterials, such as transition metal carbides, phosphides, nitrides, chalcogenides, etc., have been extensively studied for their various properties in recent years. The similarly attractive transition metal borides, on the contrary, have seen little interest from the materials science community, mainly because nanomaterials are notoriously difficult to synthesize. Herein, a simple, general synthetic method toward crystalline transition metal boride nanomaterials is proposed. This new method takes advantage of the redox chemistry of Sn/SnCl2 , the volatility and recrystallization of SnCl2 at the synthesis conditions, as well as the immiscibility of tin with boron, to produce crystalline phases of 3d, 4d, and 5d transition metal nanoborides with different morphologies (nanorods, nanosheets, nanoprisms, nanoplates, nanoparticles, etc...
February 19, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457222/extreme-dentition-does-not-prevent-diet-and-tooth-diversification-within-combtooth-blennies-ovalentaria-blenniidae
#19
Peter J Hundt, Andrew M Simons
The dentition of fishes can be quite striking and is often correlated with a specific diet. Combtooth blennies have long incisiform oral teeth, unlike most actinopterygians. It has been suggested that the long tooth morphology is an adaptation for detritivory, but given the diversity of diets (detritus, coral polyps, polychaetes, and pieces of other fishes), are blenny teeth indeed monomorphic? Or does tooth variation associated with diet still exist at this extreme? To explore tooth and diet diversification, we used a new phylogenetic hypothesis of Blenniidae, measured tooth shape, number, and mode of attachment, and quantified blenniid diet...
February 18, 2018: Evolution; International Journal of Organic Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29457214/maintenance-zinc-therapy-after-initial-penicillamine-chelation-to-treat-symptomatic-hepatic-wilson-s-disease-in-resource-constrained-setting
#20
Piyush Gupta, Mehul Choksi, Ashish Goel, Uday Zachariah, Kattiparambil Gangadharan Sajith, Jeyamani Ramachandran, George Chandy, George Kurian, Grace Rebekah, Chundamannil Eapen Eapen
BACKGROUND: Experience with zinc in treating symptomatic hepatic Wilson's disease (WD) is limited. AIM: To study the efficacy of Penicillamine followed by zinc in treating symptomatic hepatic Wilson's disease. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed case records of 31 symptomatic hepatic WD patients for whom disease severity scores (Child's, model for end-stage liver disease (MELD), Nazer's, and New Wilson Index (NWI) score) and 24-h urinary copper were compared at 3-time points-baseline at presentation, at transition from penicillamine to zinc and at end of follow up...
February 19, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
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