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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932702/incorporation-of-cerium-oxide-into-hydroxyapatite-coating-regulates-osteogenic-activity-of-mesenchymal-stem-cell-and-macrophage-polarization
#1
Kai Li, Qingyi Shen, Youtao Xie, Mingyu You, Liping Huang, Xuebin Zheng
Biomedical coatings for orthopedic implants should facilitate osseointegration and mitigate implant-induced inflammatory reactions. Cerium oxide (CeO2) ceramics possess anti-oxidative properties and can be used to decrease mediators of inflammation, which makes them attractive for biomedical applications. In our work, two kinds of CeO2 incorporated hydroxyapatite coatings (HA-10Ce and HA-30Ce) were prepared via plasma spraying technique and the effects of CeO2 addition on the responses of bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) and RAW264...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922109/regulation-of-hepcidin-expression-by-inflammation-induced-activin-b
#2
Yohei Kanamori, Makoto Sugiyama, Osamu Hashimoto, Masaru Murakami, Tohru Matsui, Masayuki Funaba
Activin B is induced in response to inflammation in the liver and enhances hepcidin expression, but the source of activin B and the molecular mechanism underlying hepcidin induction are not clear yet. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation induced inhibin βB but not inhibin α or inhibin βA expression in the liver, implicating activin B induction. Immunoreactive inhibin βB was detected in endothelial cells and Kupffer cells in LPS-treated liver. Activin B, but not activin A or activin AB, directly increased hepcidin expression...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920040/regulation-of-tgf-%C3%AE-family-signaling-by-inhibitory-smads
#3
Keiji Miyazawa, Kohei Miyazono
Inhibitory Smads (I-Smads) have conserved carboxy-terminal MH2 domains but highly divergent amino-terminal regions when compared with receptor-regulated Smads (R-Smads) and common-partner Smads (co-Smads). Smad6 preferentially inhibits Smad signaling initiated by the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) type I receptors ALK-3 and ALK-6, whereas Smad7 inhibits both transforming growth factor β (TGF-β)- and BMP-induced Smad signaling. I-Smads also regulate some non-Smad signaling pathways. Here, we discuss the vertebrate I-Smads, their roles as inhibitors of Smad activation and regulators of receptor stability, as scaffolds for non-Smad signaling, and their possible roles in the nucleus...
December 5, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911728/modulation-of-bmp-signalling-by-integrins
#4
REVIEW
Hilary L Ashe
The bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway is a major conserved signalling pathway with diverse roles in development and homeostasis. Given that cells exist in three-dimensional environments, one important area is to understand how the BMP pathway operates within such complex cellular environments. The extracellular matrix contains information regarding tissue architecture and its mechanical properties that is transmitted to the cell via integrin receptors. In this review, I describe various examples of modulation of the BMP pathway by integrins...
October 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909410/mechanosensitive-molecular-networks-involved-in-transducing-resistance-exercise-signals-into-muscle-protein-accretion
#5
REVIEW
Emil Rindom, Kristian Vissing
Loss of skeletal muscle myofibrillar protein with disease and/or inactivity can severely deteriorate muscle strength and function. Strategies to counteract wasting of muscle myofibrillar protein are therefore desirable and invite for considerations on the potential superiority of specific modes of resistance exercise and/or the adequacy of low load resistance exercise regimens as well as underlying mechanisms. In this regard, delineation of the potentially mechanosensitive molecular mechanisms underlying muscle protein synthesis (MPS), may contribute to an understanding on how differentiated resistance exercise can transduce a mechanical signal into stimulation of muscle accretion...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905054/crosstalk-between-shh-and-stemness-state-signaling-pathways-in-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma
#6
Maryam Najafi, Mohammad Reza Abbaszadegan, Abolfazl Rad, Mahtab Dastpak, Samaneh Boroumand-Noughabi, Mohammad Mahdi Forghanifard
The expression of GLI1 as a downstream gene of sonic hedgehog (Hh) pathway, studied in a variety of cancers including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, the interaction of Hh with other developmental pathways needs to be elucidated. In this study, we aimed to investigate the correlation of GLI1 expression with transcription factors (TFs) of stem cell signaling pathways, and their association with clinico-pathological data of ESCC. Using real-time PCR, we assessed the expression of GLI1 mRNA in 49 ESCC patients, and analyzed the correlation between GLI1 and selected TFs...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890611/histone-methyltransferase-setdb1-is-indispensable-for-meckel-s-cartilage-development
#7
Kohei Yahiro, Norihisa Higashihori, Keiji Moriyama
The histone methyltransferase Setdb1 represses gene expression by catalyzing lysine 9 of histone H3 trimethylation. Given that the conventional knockout of Setdb1 is embryo-lethal at the implantation stage, its role in craniofacial development is poorly understood. Here, we investigated the role of Setdb1, using conditional knockout mice-in which Setdb1 was deleted in the Meckel's cartilage (Setdb1 CKO)-and the mouse chondrogenic cell line ATDC5-in which Setdb1 was inhibited by siRNA. Deletion of Setdb1 in Meckel's cartilage, the supportive tissue in the embryonic mandible, led to its enlargement, instead of the degeneration that normally occurs...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856249/the-transcriptional-modulator-ifrd1-is-a-negative-regulator-of-bmp-2-dependent-osteoblastogenesis
#8
Yuki Onishi, Gyujin Park, Takashi Iezaki, Tetsuhiro Horie, Takashi Kanayama, Kazuya Fukasawa, Kakeru Ozaki, Eiichi Hinoi
We previously demonstrated that the transcriptional coactivator/repressor interferon-related developmental regulator 1 (Ifrd1) was expressed in osteoblasts and participated in the regulation of bone homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how Ifrd1 expression itself is regulated in osteoblasts. In the present study, we investigated the upstream regulatory mechanisms of Ifrd1 in osteoblasts during osteoblastogenesis. Ifrd1 protein expression and runt-related transcription factor 2, the master regulator of osteoblastogenesis, were markedly upregulated by bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) stimulation in primary osteoblasts...
November 14, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844469/the-expression-of-smad-signaling-pathway-in-myocardium-and-potential-therapeutic-effects
#9
REVIEW
Yuping Duan, Wei Zhu, Min Liu, Muhammad Ashraf, Meifeng Xu
Myocardial infarction (MI) is a life-threatening disease. The expression of Smad proteins in the ischemic myocardium changes significantly following myocardial infarction, suggesting a close relationship between Smad proteins and heart remodeling. Moreover, it is known that the expression of Smads is regulated by transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP). Based on these findings, regulating the expression of Smad proteins by targeting TGF-β and BMP in the ischemic myocardium may be considered to be a possible therapeutic strategy for the treatment of myocardial infarction...
November 15, 2016: Histology and Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836834/signaling-cross-talk-between-tgf-%C3%AE-smad-and-other-signaling-pathways
#10
Kunxin Luo
Cytokines of the transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) family, including TGF-βs, bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs), activins, and Nodal, play crucial roles in embryonic development and adult tissue homeostasis by regulating cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, as well as stem-cell self-renewal and lineage-specific differentiation. Smad proteins are critical downstream mediators of these signaling activities. In addition to regulating the transcription of direct target genes of TGF-β, BMP, activin, or Nodal, Smad proteins also participate in extensive cross talk with other signaling pathways, often in a cell-type- or developmental stage-specific manner...
November 11, 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834400/notch-regulates-bmp-responsiveness-and-lateral-branching-in-vessel-networks-via-smad6
#11
Kevin P Mouillesseaux, David S Wiley, Lauren M Saunders, Lyndsay A Wylie, Erich J Kushner, Diana C Chong, Kathryn M Citrin, Andrew T Barber, Youngsook Park, Jun-Dae Kim, Leigh Ann Samsa, Jongmin Kim, Jiandong Liu, Suk-Won Jin, Victoria L Bautch
Functional blood vessel growth depends on generation of distinct but coordinated responses from endothelial cells. Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP), part of the TGFβ superfamily, bind receptors to induce phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of SMAD transcription factors (R-SMAD1/5/8) and regulate vessel growth. However, SMAD1/5/8 signalling results in both pro- and anti-angiogenic outputs, highlighting a poor understanding of the complexities of BMP signalling in the vasculature. Here we show that BMP6 and BMP2 ligands are pro-angiogenic in vitro and in vivo, and that lateral vessel branching requires threshold levels of R-SMAD phosphorylation...
November 11, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806311/breast-cancer-cells-obtain-an-osteomimetic-feature-via-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-that-have-undergone-bmp2-runx2-signaling-pathway-induction
#12
Cong-Cong Tan, Gui-Xi Li, Li-Duan Tan, Xin Du, Xiao-Qing Li, Rui He, Qing-Shan Wang, Yu-Mei Feng
Bone is one of the most common organs of breast cancer metastasis. Cancer cells that mimic osteoblasts by expressing bone matrix proteins and factors have a higher likelihood of metastasizing to bone. However, the molecular mechanisms of osteomimicry formation of cancer cells remain undefined. Herein, we identified a set of bone-related genes (BRGs) that are ectopically co-expressed in primary breast cancer tissues and determined that osteomimetic feature is obtained due to the osteoblast-like transformation of epithelial breast cancer cells that have undergone epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) followed by bone morphogenetic protein-2 (BMP2) stimulation...
October 27, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27794120/bmp-smad-id-promotes-reprogramming-to-pluripotency-by-inhibiting-p16-ink4a-dependent-senescence
#13
Yohei Hayashi, Edward C Hsiao, Salma Sami, Mariselle Lancero, Christopher R Schlieve, Trieu Nguyen, Koyori Yano, Ayako Nagahashi, Makoto Ikeya, Yoshihisa Matsumoto, Ken Nishimura, Aya Fukuda, Koji Hisatake, Kiichiro Tomoda, Isao Asaka, Junya Toguchida, Bruce R Conklin, Shinya Yamanaka
Fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) patients carry a missense mutation in ACVR1 [617G > A (R206H)] that leads to hyperactivation of BMP-SMAD signaling. Contrary to a previous study, here we show that FOP fibroblasts showed an increased efficiency of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) generation. This positive effect was attenuated by inhibitors of BMP-SMAD signaling (Dorsomorphin or LDN1931890) or transducing inhibitory SMADs (SMAD6 or SMAD7). In normal fibroblasts, the efficiency of iPSC generation was enhanced by transducing mutant ACVR1 (617G > A) or SMAD1 or adding BMP4 protein at early times during the reprogramming...
November 15, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790787/bmp5-regulates-neural-crest-cell-survival-and-proliferation-via-two-different-signaling-pathways
#14
Hung-Yu Shih, Shu-Yuan Hsu, Pin Ouyang, Sheng-Jia Lin, Ting-Yun Chou, Ming-Chang Chiang, Yi-Chuan Cheng
Neural crest progenitor cells, which give rise to many ectodermal and mesodermal derivatives, must maintain a delicate balance of apoptosis and proliferation for their final tissue contributions. Here we show that zebrafish bmp5 is expressed in neural crest progenitor cells and that it activates the Smad and Erk signaling pathways to regulate cell survival and proliferation, respectively. Loss-of-function analysis showed that Bmp5 was required for cell survival and this response is mediated by the Smad-Msxb signaling cascade...
October 28, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27783321/bushen-qiangji-granule-medicated-serum-inhibits-osteogenic-differentiation-of-fibroblasts-in-ankylosing-spondylitis-by-inhibiting-the-bmp-smads-signal-pathway-in-vitro
#15
Hong-Xiao Liu, Nan Jiang, Hui-Ying Liang, Ying-Yan Zhou, Xing-Hua Feng, Xiao-Yan Feng, He-Qiu Zhang, Zhi-Kui Wu, Quan Jiang, Jiao Fu, Xiao-Juan Ma, Peng Chen
OBJECTIVE: To explore the mechanism of Bushen Qiangji Granule (, BSQJ) in restraining the osteogenic differentiation of ankylosing spondylitis (AS) fifibroblasts. METHODS: Hip joint capsules were obtained from AS patients (n=10) receiving total hip replacement and healthy hip joint capsules from patients with hip fracture (n=10) receiving surgery as a control. Finite fifibroblast lines were established from these tissue samples to observe the effect of BSQJ on suppressing osteogenic differentiation of fifibroblasts...
November 2016: Chinese Journal of Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27779644/all-trans-retinoic-acid-shifts-rosiglitazone-induced-adipogenic-differentiation-to-osteogenic-differentiation-in-mouse-embryonic-fibroblasts
#16
Ying Shao, Qian-Zhao Chen, Yu-Hua Zeng, Yang Li, Wen-Yan Ren, Lin-Yun Zhou, Rong-Xin Liu, Ke Wu, Jun-Qing Yang, Zhong-Liang Deng, Yu Yu, Wen-Juan Sun, Bai-Cheng He
Rosiglitazone (RSG) is a potent drug used in the treatment of insulin resistance; however, it is associated with marked skeletal toxicity. RSG-induced osteoporosis may contribute to the promotion of adipogenic differentiation at the expense of osteogenic differentiation in bone marrow stromal cells. The aim of this study was to investigate whether RSG-induced bone toxicity can be reversed by combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA). We examined different osteogenic markers in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) following treatment with RSG, ATRA, or RSG and ATRA in combination...
October 19, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27776430/baicalein-promotes-angiogenesis-and-odontoblastic-differentiation-via-the-bmp-and-wnt-pathways-in-human-dental-pulp-cells
#17
Sang-Im Lee, Sun-Young Kim, Kyung-Ran Park, Eun-Cheol Kim
Baicalein is an active flavonoid extracted from the root of Scutellaria baicalensis that has anticancer and anti-inflammatory properties; its effects on osteoblastic and angiogenic potential are controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of baicalein on odontoblastic differentiation and angiogenesis and the underlying mechanism in human dental pulp cells (HDPCs). Baicalein (1-10[Formula: see text][Formula: see text]M) had no cytotoxic effects and promoted alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity, mineralization assayed by Alizarin Red-S staining, and the mRNA expression of marker genes, in a concentration-dependent manner...
October 25, 2016: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771997/enhanced-mandibular-bone-repair-by-combined-treatment-of-bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-and-small-molecule-phenamil
#18
Jiabing Fan, Mian Guo, Choong Sung Im, Joan Pi-Anfruns, Zhong-Kai Cui, Soyon Kim, Benjamin M Wu, Tara L Aghaloo, Min Lee
Growth factor-based therapeutics using bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) presents a promising strategy to reconstruct craniofacial bone defects such as mandible. However, clinical applications require supraphysiological BMP doses that often increase inappropriate adipogenesis, resulting in well-documented, cyst-like bone formation. Here we reported a novel complementary strategy to enhance osteogenesis and mandibular bone repair by using small-molecule phenamil that has been shown to be a strong activator of BMP signaling...
November 28, 2016: Tissue Engineering. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27724845/bmp-smad-signalling-output-is-highly-regionalized-in-cardiovascular-and-lymphatic-endothelial-networks
#19
Karen Beets, Michael W Staring, Nathan Criem, Elke Maas, Niels Schellinx, Susana M Chuva de Sousa Lopes, Lieve Umans, An Zwijsen
BACKGROUND: Bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signalling has emerged as a fundamental pathway in endothelial cell biology and deregulation of this pathway is implicated in several vascular disorders. BMP signalling output in endothelial cells is highly context- and dose-dependent. Phosphorylation of the BMP intracellular effectors, SMAD1/5/9, is routinely used to monitor BMP signalling activity. To better understand the in vivo context-dependency of BMP-SMAD signalling, we investigated differences in BMP-SMAD transcriptional activity in different vascular beds during mouse embryonic and postnatal stages...
October 10, 2016: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703004/quantitative-proteomics-of-the-smad-suppressor-of-mothers-against-decapentaplegic-transcription-factor-family-identifies-importin-5-as-a-bone-morphogenic-protein-receptor-smad-specific-importin
#20
Roy Baas, Ayestha Sijm, Hetty A A M van Teeffelen, Robert van Es, Harmjan R Vos, H Th Marc Timmers
Gene-specific transcription factors (GSTFs) control gene transcription by DNA binding and specific protein complex recruitment, which regulates promoter accessibility for transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. Mutations in the GSTFs Suppressor of Mothers Against Decapentaplegic 2 (SMAD2) and SMAD4 are frequently associated with colon and rectal carcinomas. These proteins play an important role in bone morphogenic protein (BMP) and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) signaling pathways controlling cell fate and proliferation...
November 11, 2016: Journal of Biological Chemistry
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