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BMP AND TGF beta

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344175/transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-family-in-the-pathogenesis-of-meningiomas
#1
REVIEW
Mahlon D Johnson
OBJECTIVES: Meningiomas represent thirty-six percent of primary brain tumors. The pathogenesis of these tumors is not completely established hindering development of effective chemotherapy. Recently, numerous studies have identified alterations in several growth factors/receptor kinases that regulate meningioma growth. These may be targets for new therapies. . Of these and, sometimes overlooked, is the TGF-β family, its receptors and signaling pathways plays a critical role in the development or progression of many forms of neoplasia...
March 23, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331138/delayed-expression-of-circulating-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bmp-2-levels-in-human-nonunion-long-bone-fracture-healing
#2
Yoshiaki Hara, Mohammad Ghazizadeh, Hajime Shimizu, Hisashi Matsumoto, Nobuyuki Saito, Takanori Yagi, Kazuki Mashiko, Kunihiro Mashiko, Makoto Kawai, Hiroyuki Yokota
BACKGROUND: The healing process of bone fracture requires a well-controlled multistage and sequential order beginning immediately after the injury. However, complications leading to nonunion exist, creating serious problems and costs for patients. Transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) are two major growth factors involved in human bone fracture healing by promoting various stages of bone ossification. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of these factors during the fracture healing of human long bones and assess their impacts on nonunion condition...
2017: Journal of Nippon Medical School, Nippon Ika Daigaku Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319735/different-combinations-of-growth-factors-for-the-tenogenic-differentiation-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-in-monolayer-culture-and-in-fibrin-based-three-dimensional-constructs
#3
Marta Bottagisio, Silvia Lopa, Valentina Granata, Giuseppe Talò, Chiara Bazzocchi, Matteo Moretti, Arianna Barbara Lovati
Tendon injuries are severe burdens in clinics. The poor tendon healing is related to an ineffective response of resident cells and inadequate vascularization. Thanks to the high proliferation and multi-lineage differentiation capability, bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) are a promising cell source to support the tendon repair. To date, the association of various growth factors to induce the in vitro tenogenic differentiation of multipotent progenitor cells is poorly investigated. This study aimed to investigate the tenogenic differentiation of rabbit BMSCs by testing the combination of bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP-12 and 14) with transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) both in 2D and 3D cultures within fibrin-based constructs...
March 16, 2017: Differentiation; Research in Biological Diversity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249802/bone-morphogenetic-proteins-in-multiple-sclerosis-role-in-neuroinflammation
#4
REVIEW
Herena Eixarch, Laura Calvo-Barreiro, Xavier Montalban, Carmen Espejo
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are growth factors that represent the largest subgroup of signalling ligands of the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily. Their participation in the proliferation, survival and cell fate of several cell types and their involvement in many pathological conditions are now well known. BMP expression is altered in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, suggesting that BMPs have a role in the pathogenesis of this disease. MS is a demyelinating and neurodegenerative autoimmune disorder of the central nervous system (CNS)...
February 27, 2017: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28145426/two-novel-bmp-2-variants-identified-in-patients-with-thoracic-ossification-of-the-ligamentum-flavum
#5
Xiaochen Qu, Zhongqiang Chen, Dongwei Fan, Shen Xiang, Chuiguo Sun, Yan Zeng, Weishi Li, Zhaoqing Guo, Qiang Qi, Woquan Zhong, Yun Jiang
Thoracic ossification of the ligamentum flavum (TOLF)is a common cause of thoracic spinal canal stenosis and has been reported almost exclusively in East Asian countries. In this study, we established a relationship between bone morphogenic protein 2 (BMP-2) and TOLF. We divided patients into two groups according to severity of ossification and identified susceptible loci through exome sequencing. We identified 39 novel likely pathogenic variants in 29 genes in the transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) superfamily or TGF-β/BMPs signaling pathway, including two missense variants in BMP-2 (NM_001200...
February 1, 2017: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126904/biochemical-and-cellular-analysis-reveals-ligand-binding-specificities-a-molecular-basis-for-ligand-recognition-and-membrane-association-dependent-activities-of-cripto-1-and-cryptic
#6
Senem Aykul, Anthony Parenti, Kit Yee Chu, Jake Reske, Monique Floer, Amy Ralston, Erik Martinez-Hackert
Transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) pathways are key determinants of cell fate in animals. Their basic mechanism of action is simple. However, to produce cell-specific responses, TGF-β pathways are heavily regulated by secondary factors, such as membrane-associated EGF-CFC family proteins. Cellular activities of EGF-CFC proteins have been described, but their molecular functions, including how the mammalian homologs Cripto-1 and Cryptic recognize and regulate TGF-β family ligands, are less clear. Here we use purified human Cripto-1 and mouse Cryptic produced in mammalian cells to show that these two EGF-CFC homologs have distinct, highly specific ligand binding activities...
March 10, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930933/calcitonin-induces-collagen-synthesis-and-osteoblastic-differentiation-in-human-periodontal-ligament-fibroblasts
#7
Yibo Wei, Qing Ye, Zhen Tang, Gang Tian, Qiang Zhu, Haocheng Gao, Dalin Wang, Zhizhong Cao
BACKGROUND: Extracellular matrix (ECM) secretion and osteogenic differentiation in periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLF) facilitate the neogenesis of alveolar bone, which is the cellular basis for alveolar bone repair. Calcitonin (CT) has been reported to play an important role in promoting ECM expression and inducing osteogenic differentiation in osteoblast, but its effects on PDLFs remain obscure. METHODS: The expression of CT, transforming growth factor-beta 1(TGF-β1) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) was measured by ELISA...
February 2017: Archives of Oral Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880803/wdr68-mediates-dorsal-and-ventral-patterning-events-for-craniofacial-development
#8
Estibaliz Alvarado, Mina Yousefelahiyeh, Greg Alvarado, Robin Shang, Taryn Whitman, Andrew Martinez, Yang Yu, Annie Pham, Anish Bhandari, Bingyan Wang, Robert M Nissen
Birth defects are among the leading causes of infant mortality and contribute substantially to illness and long-term disability. Defects in Bone Morphogenetic Protein (BMP) signaling are associated with cleft lip/palate. Many craniofacial syndromes are caused by defects in signaling pathways that pattern the cranial neural crest cells (CNCCs) along the dorsal-ventral axis. For example, auriculocondylar syndrome is caused by impaired Endothelin-1 (Edn1) signaling, and Alagille syndrome is caused by defects in Jagged-Notch signaling...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863509/profibrotic-mediators-in-tendon-disease-a-systematic-review
#9
Wataru Morita, Sarah Jane Bothwell Snelling, Stephanie Georgina Dakin, Andrew Jonathan Carr
BACKGROUND: Tendon disease is characterized by the development of fibrosis. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), bone morphogenic proteins (BMPs) and connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) are key mediators in the pathogenesis of fibrotic disorders. The aim of this systematic review was to investigate the evidence for the expression of TGF-β, BMPs and CTGF along tendon disease progression and the response of tendon cells to these growth factors accordingly. METHOD: We conducted a systematic screen of the scientific literature using the Medline database...
November 18, 2016: Arthritis Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770964/strategies-for-delivering-bone-morphogenetic-protein-for-bone-healing
#10
REVIEW
Howa Begam, Samit Kumar Nandi, Biswanath Kundu, Abhijit Chanda
Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are the most significant growth factors that belong to the Transforming Growth Factor Beta (TGF-β) super-family. Though more than twenty members of this family have been identified so far in humans, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved two growth factors: BMP-2 and BMP-7 for treatments of spinal fusion and long-bone fractures with collagen carriers. Currently BMPs are clinically used in spinal fusion, oral and maxillofacial surgery and also in the repair of long bone defects...
January 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27755557/an-abbreviated-protocol-for-in-vitro-generation-of-functional-human-embryonic-stem-cell-derived-beta-like-cells
#11
Mohammad Massumi, Farzaneh Pourasgari, Amarnadh Nalla, Battsetseg Batchuluun, Kristina Nagy, Eric Neely, Rida Gull, Andras Nagy, Michael B Wheeler
The ability to yield glucose-responsive pancreatic beta-cells from human pluripotent stem cells in vitro will facilitate the development of the cell replacement therapies for the treatment of Type 1 Diabetes. Here, through the sequential in vitro targeting of selected signaling pathways, we have developed an abbreviated five-stage protocol (25-30 days) to generate human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Beta-like Cells (ES-DBCs). We showed that Geltrex, as an extracellular matrix, could support the generation of ES-DBCs more efficiently than that of the previously described culture systems...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722013/requirement-of-smad4-mediated-signaling-in-odontoblast-differentiation-and-dentin-matrix-formation
#12
Chi-Young Yun, Hwajung Choi, Young-Jae You, Jin-Young Yang, Jin-A Baek, Eui-Sic Cho
Dentin is the major part of tooth and formed by odontoblasts. Under the influence of the inner enamel epithelium, odontoblasts differentiate from ectomesenchymal cells of the dental papilla and secrete pre-dentin which then undergo mineralization into dentin. Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β)/bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling is essential for dentinogenesis; however, the precise molecular mechanisms remain unclear. To understand the role of TGF-β/BMP signaling in odontoblast differentiation and dentin formation, we generated mice with conditional ablation of Smad4, a key intracellular mediator of TGF-β/BMP signaling, using Osr2 or OC-Cre mice...
September 2016: Anatomy & Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27563484/tgf-%C3%AE-and-bmp-signaling-in-osteoblast-skeletal-development-and-bone-formation-homeostasis-and-disease
#13
REVIEW
Mengrui Wu, Guiqian Chen, Yi-Ping Li
Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β) and bone morphogenic protein (BMP) signaling has fundamental roles in both embryonic skeletal development and postnatal bone homeostasis. TGF-βs and BMPs, acting on a tetrameric receptor complex, transduce signals to both the canonical Smad-dependent signaling pathway (that is, TGF-β/BMP ligands, receptors, and Smads) and the non-canonical-Smad-independent signaling pathway (that is, p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase/p38 MAPK) to regulate mesenchymal stem cell differentiation during skeletal development, bone formation and bone homeostasis...
2016: Bone Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27528762/targeting-tumour-vasculature-by-inhibiting-activin-receptor-like-kinase-alk-1-function
#14
REVIEW
Amaya García de Vinuesa, Matteo Bocci, Kristian Pietras, Peter Ten Dijke
Angiogenesis is a hallmark of cancer and is now a validated therapeutic target in the clinical setting. Despite the initial success, anti-angiogenic compounds impinging on the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway display limited survival benefits in patients and resistance often develops due to activation of alternative pathways. Thus, finding and validating new targets is highly warranted. Activin receptor-like kinase (ALK)1 is a transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) type I receptor predominantly expressed in actively proliferating endothelial cells (ECs)...
August 15, 2016: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27504532/growth-factors-in-bone-marrow-blood-of-the-mandible-with-application-of-extracorporeal-shock-wave-therapy
#15
Jacqueline A Pfaff, Birgit Boelck, Wilhelm Bloch, Georg-Hubertus Nentwig
INTRODUCTION: Enhancement of bone regeneration is crucial to dental implantology. Growth factors play a significant role during osteogenesis and angiogenesis. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) enhances bone healing; however, no studies have yet been performed in oral implantology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty patients who underwent bilateral mandibular wisdom tooth removal were included. ESWT was applied to 1 side of the jaw. Blood samples were collected from the peripheral vein (PB), mandibular bone marrow without and with ESWT (BM-/+SW)...
October 2016: Implant Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473342/tgf-%C3%AE-signaling-regulates-resistance-to-parasitic-nematode-infection-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#16
Ioannis Eleftherianos, Julio Cesar Castillo, Jelena Patrnogic
Over the past decade important advances have been made in the field of innate immunity; however, our appreciation of the signaling pathways and molecules that participate in host immune responses to parasitic nematode infections lags behind that of responses to microbial challenges. Here we have examined the regulation and immune activity of Transforming Growth Factor-beta (TGF-β) signaling in the model host Drosophila melanogaster upon infection with the nematode parasites Heterorhabditis gerrardi and H. bacteriophora containing their mutualistic bacteria Photorhabdus...
December 2016: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27468832/bone-morphogenetic-protein-2-stimulates-chondrogenesis-of-equine-synovial-membrane-derived-progenitor-cells
#17
Yuwen Chen, Evelyn Caporali, Matthew Stewart
OBJECTIVES: Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) is critical for skeletal and cartilage development, homeostasis and repair. This study was conducted to clone and characterize equine BMP-2, develop expression constructs for equine BMP-2, and to determine whether BMP-2 can stimulate chondrogenesis of equine synovial membrane-derived progenitor cells (SMPC). METHODS: Equine BMP-2 cDNA was amplified from chondrocyte RNA, and then transferred into an expression plasmid and adenoviral vector...
September 20, 2016: Veterinary and Comparative Orthopaedics and Traumatology: V.C.O.T
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448409/effect-of-platelet-mediator-concentrate-pmc-on-achilles-tenocytes-an-in-vitro-study
#18
Esra Arslan, Thomas Nellesen, Andreas Bayer, Andreas Prescher, Sebastian Lippross, Sven Nebelung, Holger Jahr, Christine Jaeger, Wolf Dietrich Huebner, Horst Fischer, Marcus Stoffel, Mehdi Shakibaei, Thomas Pufe, Mersedeh Tohidnezhad
BACKGROUND: Although there are many studies discussing the etiological and pathological factors leading to both, acute and chronic tendon injuries, the pathophysiology of tendon injuries is still not clearly understood. Although most lesions are uncomplicated, treatment is long and unsatisfactory due to the poor vascularity of tendon tissue. Platelet mediator concentrate (PMC) contains many growth factors derived from platelets, which can promote wound healing. In this study we investigate the effects of PMC on tenocyte proliferation and differentiation in order to provide an experimental basis for tissue regeneration strategies and to develop new treatment concepts...
July 22, 2016: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27299363/the-anterior-posterior-patterning-of-definitive-endoderm-generated-from-human-embryonic-stem-cells-depends-on-the-differential-signaling-of-retinoic-acid-wnt-and-bmp-signaling
#19
Claudia Davenport, Ulf Diekmann, Insa Budde, Nora Detering, Ortwin Naujok
As known from model organisms, such as frog, fish, mouse and chicken, the anterior-posterior patterning of the definitive endoderm (DE) into distinct domains is controlled by a variety of signaling interactions between the DE and its surrounding mesoderm. This includes Wnt/FGFs and BMPs in the posterior half and all-trans-retinoic acid, TGF-β-ligands, Wnt- and BMP-inhibitors in the anterior half of the DE sheet. However, it is currently unclear how these embryonic tissue interactions can be translated into a defined differentiation protocol for human embryonic stem cells...
June 14, 2016: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27210748/discovery-of-a-small-molecule-bmp-sensitizer-for-human-embryonic-stem-cell-differentiation
#20
Lingling Feng, Brandoch Cook, Su-Yi Tsai, Ting Zhou, Brooke LaFlamme, Todd Evans, Shuibing Chen
Sorely missing from the "toolkit" for directed differentiation of stem/progenitor cells are agonists of the BMP-signaling pathway. Using a high-throughput chemical screen, we discovered that PD407824, a checkpoint kinase 1 (CHK1) inhibitor, increases the sensitivity of cells to sub-threshold amounts of BMP4. We show utility of the compound in the directed differentiation of human embryonic stem cells toward mesoderm or cytotrophoblast stem cells. Blocking CHK1 activity using pharmacological compounds or CHK1 knockout using single guide RNA (sgRNA) confirmed that CHK1 inhibition increases the sensitivity to BMP4 treatment...
May 31, 2016: Cell Reports
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