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near vs far viewing

Kemal Kazan, Donald M Gardiner
The ascomycete fungal pathogen Fusarium graminearum causes the globally important Fusarium head blight (FHB) disease on cereal hosts, such as wheat and barley. In addition to reducing grain yield, infection by this pathogen causes major quality losses. In particular, the contamination of food and feed with the F. graminearum trichothecene toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) can have many adverse short- and long-term effects on human and animal health. During the last decade, the interaction between F. graminearum and both cereal and model hosts has been extensively studied through transcriptomic analyses...
April 15, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
Maria Vinas, Carlos Dorronsoro, Veronica Gonzalez, Daniel Cortes, Aiswaryah Radhakrishnan, Susana Marcos
Multifocal vision corrections are increasingly used solutions for presbyopia. In the current study we have evaluated, optically and psychophysically, the quality provided by multizone radial and angular segmented phase designs. Optical and relative visual quality were evaluated using 8 subjects, testing 6 phase designs. Optical quality was evaluated by means of Visual Strehl-based-metrics (VS). The relative visual quality across designs was obtained through a psychophysical paradigm in which images viewed through 210 pairs of phase patterns were perceptually judged...
March 2017: Vision Research
C Neil Macrae, Jason P Mitchell, Diana L McNamara, Marius Golubickis, Konstantina Andreou, Sarah Møller, Katrin Peytcheva, Johanna K Falben, Brittany M Christian
People drastically overestimate how often others attend to them or notice their unusual features, a phenomenon termed the spotlight effect Despite the prevalence of this egocentric bias, little is known about how to reduce the tendency to see oneself as the object of others' attention. Here, we tested the hypothesis that a basic property of mental imagery-the visual perspective from which an event is viewed-may alleviate a future-oriented variant of the spotlight effect. The results of three experiments supported this prediction...
2016: Personality & Social Psychology Bulletin
Lien Van der Biest, Valéry Legrain, Annick De Paepe, Geert Crombez
During medical examinations, doctors regularly investigate a patient's somatosensory system by approaching the patient with a medical device (e.g. Von Frey hairs, algometer) or with their hands. It is assumed that the obtained results reflect the true capacities of the somatosensory system. However, evidence from crossmodal spatial research suggests that sensory experiences in one modality (e.g. touch) can be influenced by concurrent information from other modalities (e.g. vision), especially near the body (i...
January 15, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
Nataša Vujko Muždalo, Matjaž Mihelčič
The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design...
March 2015: Collegium Antropologicum
Daniel Forsha, Niels Risum, Sudarshan Rajagopal, Stephen Dolgner, Christoph Hornik, Huiman Barnhart, Joseph Kisslo, Piers Barker
BACKGROUND: Speckle-tracking strain is almost universally cited as being independent of angle of insonation, but there are minimal confirmatory studies, and this claim may not be consistent with the known limitations of ultrasound axial and lateral spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of angle and depth on longitudinal peak systolic strain (LPS). METHODS: Thirty-four healthy pediatric subjects (age range, 6-18 years; 47% male) with normal cardiac anatomy and good image quality were prospectively imaged...
May 2015: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
Yun Jeong Choi, Eun Ji Lee, Bo Hyuk Kim, Tae-Woo Kim
PURPOSE: To investigate the structural and clinical characteristics of the optic disc pit (ODP) in primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) via enhanced depth imaging (EDI) spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). DESIGN: Prospective, observational case series. PARTICIPANTS: Seventy POAG eyes clinically diagnosed with an ODP via stereo disc photography. METHODS: Optic discs were scanned using EDI SD-OCT. Serial horizontal and vertical B-scan images covering the optic discs were obtained from each eye...
November 2014: Ophthalmology
Mari B Abrahamsen, Howard I Browman, David M Fields, Anne Berit Skiftesvik
In the north Atlantic, Meganyctiphanes norvegica feeds predominantly on copepods, including Calanus spp. To quantify its perceptual field for prey, and the sensory systems underlying prey detection, the responses of tethered krill to free-swimming Calanus spp. were observed in 3D using silhouette video imaging. An attack-which occurred despite the krill's being tethered-was characterized by a pronounced movement of the krill's antennae towards the target, followed by a propulsion and opening of the feeding basket...
2010: Marine Biology
Daniel Chim, David M Lasker, Americo A Migliaccio
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) acts to maintain images stable on the retina by rotating the eyes in exactly the opposite direction, but with equal magnitude, to head velocity. When viewing a near target, this reflex has an increased response to compensate for the translation of the eyes relative to the target that acts to reduce retinal image slip. Previous studies have shown that retinal velocity error provides an important visual feedback signal to increase the low-frequency (<1 Hz) VOR response during near viewing...
September 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Romesh Khardori, Diep D Nguyen
Cardiovascular disease accounts for nearly 70% of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. Strides made in diabetes care have indeed helped prevent or reduce the burden of microvascular complications in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes. However, the same cannot be said about macrovascular disease in diabetes. Several prospective trials so far have failed to provide conclusive evidence of the superiority of glycemic control in reducing macrovascular complications or death rates in people with advanced disease or those with long duration of diabetes...
2012: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Bardia F Behabadi, Alon Polsky, Monika Jadi, Jackie Schiller, Bartlett W Mel
Neocortical pyramidal neurons (PNs) receive thousands of excitatory synaptic contacts on their basal dendrites. Some act as classical driver inputs while others are thought to modulate PN responses based on sensory or behavioral context, but the biophysical mechanisms that mediate classical-contextual interactions in these dendrites remain poorly understood. We hypothesized that if two excitatory pathways bias their synaptic projections towards proximal vs. distal ends of the basal branches, the very different local spike thresholds and attenuation factors for inputs near and far from the soma might provide the basis for a classical-contextual functional asymmetry...
2012: PLoS Computational Biology
Valeria Anna Sovrano, Elisa Rigosi, Giorgio Vallortigara
Human and non-human animals are capable of using basic geometric information to reorient in an environment. Geometric information includes metric properties associated with spatial surfaces (e.g., short vs. long wall) and left-right directionality or 'sense' (e.g. a long wall to the left of a short wall). However, it remains unclear whether geometric information is encoded by explicitly computing the layout of surface geometry or by matching images of the environment. View-based spatial encoding is generally thought to hold for insect navigation and, very recently, evidence for navigation by geometry has been reported in ants but only in a condition which does not allow the animals to use features located far from the goal...
2012: PloS One
Matthias Görges, Dwayne R Westenskow, Boaz A Markewitz
In the past two far-view displays, which showed vital signs, trends, alarms, infusion pump status, and therapy support indicators, were developed and assessed by critical care nurses (Görges et al. in Dimens Crit Care Nurs. 30(4):206-17, 2011). The aim of the current study is to assess the generalizability of these findings to physicians. The first aim is to test whether an integrated far-view display, designed to be readable from 3 to 5 m, enables critical care physicians to more rapidly and accurately (1) recognize a change in patient condition; (2) identify alarms; and (3) identify near-empty infusion pumps, than a traditional patient monitor and infusion pump...
December 2012: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Octavio Ruiz, Michael A Paradiso
Vision in natural situations is different from the paradigms generally used to study vision in the laboratory. In natural vision, stimuli usually appear in a receptive field as the result of saccadic eye movements rather than suddenly flashing into view. The stimuli themselves are rich with meaningful and recognizable objects rather than simple abstract patterns. In this study we examined the sensitivity of neurons in macaque area V1 to saccades and to complex background contexts. Using a variety of visual conditions, we find that natural visual response patterns are unique...
July 2012: Journal of Neurophysiology
Matthias Görges, Kai Kück, Sven H Koch, Jim Agutter, Dwayne R Westenskow
Although nurses perform the majority of the clinical tasks in an intensive care unit, current patient monitors were not designed to support a nurse's workflow. Nurses constantly triage patients, deciding which patient is currently in the most need of care. To make this decision, nurses must observe the patient's vital signs and therapeutic device information from multiple sources. To obtain this information, they often have to enter the patient's room. This study addresses 3 hypotheses. Information provided by far-view monitoring displays (1) reduces the amount of time to determine which patient needs care first, (2) increases the accuracy of assigning priority to the right patient, and (3) reduces nurses mental workload...
July 2011: Dimensions of Critical Care Nursing: DCCN
David Liu, Simon A Jenkins, Penelope M Sanderson, Marcus O Watson, Terrence Leane, Amanda Kruys, W John Russell
BACKGROUND: Head-mounted displays (HMDs) can help anesthesiologists with intraoperative monitoring by keeping patients' vital signs within view at all times, even while the anesthesiologist is busy performing procedures or unable to see the monitor. The anesthesia literature suggests that there are advantages of HMD use, but research into head-up displays in the cockpit suggests that HMDs may exacerbate inattentional blindness (a tendency for users to miss unexpected but salient events in the field of view) and may introduce perceptual issues relating to focal depth...
October 2009: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Herbert C Goltz, Giuseppe Mirabella, Joanne C Y Leung, Alan W Blakeman, Linda Colpa, Khaled Abuhaleeqa, Agnes M F Wong
The ocular counterroll (OCR) reflex generates partially compensatory torsional eye movements during static head roll tilt. We assessed the influence of age, viewing distance and target complexity on the OCR across the age span (13-63 years; n=47), by recording eye movements during head-on-body roll tilt (0+/-40 degrees in 5 degrees steps) while subjects viewed simple vs. complex targets at 0.33 and 1m. We found that subjects > or = 31 years had lower gains than those < or =30 years, but only for far targets...
July 2009: Vision Research
Rebecca A Champion, Paul A Warren
In order to compute a representation of an object's size within a 3D scene, the visual system must scale retinal size by an estimate of the distance to the object. Evidence from size discrimination and visual search studies suggests that we have no access to the representation of retinal size when performing such tasks. In this study we investigate whether observers have early access to retinal size prior to scene size. Observer performance was assessed in a visual search task (requiring search within a 3D scene) in which processing was interrupted at a range of short presentation times...
August 2008: Vision Research
Patricia M Cisarik, Ronald S Harwerth
PURPOSE: Decreasing the interocular correlation in random dot stereograms elevates disparity detection thresholds. Whether decorrelation also affects perceived depth from suprathreshold disparity magnitudes is unknown. The present study investigated the effects of interocular correlation and contrast on the magnitude of perceived depth in suprathreshold random dot stereograms. METHODS: Stereoscopic depth magnitude estimation as a function of percent interocular correlation of dynamic random dot stimuli was measured for five human subjects with clinically normal binocular vision...
March 2008: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
K Liao, J Wagner, A Joshi, I Estrovich, M F Walker, M Strupp, R J Leigh
BACKGROUND: Patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) fall frequently, beginning early in the course of their disease. Abnormal vestibulospinal reflexes are suspected, but the angular vestibulo-ocular reflex, which is mediated by the labyrinthine semicircular canals, survives late into the course of the disease. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that otolithic-mediated reflexes are abnormal in PSP. METHODS: We tested otolith-ocular reflexes (the translational vestibulo-ocular reflex [tVOR]) during combined rotation-translation in nine patients with PSP and nine age-matched control subjects; subjects viewed far and near targets...
March 4, 2008: Neurology
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