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Alexander A Tarnutzer, Dominik Straumann, Michael S Salman
In this chapter, we present the bedside assessment and laboratory tests that are available for the neuro-ophthalmologic evaluation of children and adults with cerebellar diseases. In the evaluation of a patient with cerebellar dysfunction, recognizing the pattern of ocular motor and / or vestibular impairment is often a key step to the correct diagnosis. The cerebellum is very important in processing a wide range of different eye movements, including angular vestibulo-ocular reflexes, otolith-ocular reflexes, fixation and gaze holding, smooth pursuit eye movements, saccadic eye movements, optokinetic response, ocular alignment, and vergence...
2018: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
Anh Son Le, Hirofumi Aoki
In this data article, this dataset included raw data of head and eye movement that collected by Polhemus (Polhemus Inc) and SmartEye (Smart Eye AB) equipment. Subjects who have driver license participated in this experiment. The experiment was conducted with a driving simulator that was controlled by CarSim (Mechanical simulation Co., Anna Arbor, MI) with the vehicle motion. This data set not only contained the eye and head movement but also had eye gaze, pupil diameter, saccades, and so on. It can be used for the parameter identification of the vestibulor-ocular reflex (VOR) model, simulation eye movement, as well as running other analysis related to eye movement...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Takamori Takeda, Yoshiyuki Kawashima, Chiaki Hirai, Ayane Makabe, Taku Ito, Taro Fujikawa, Katsura Yamamoto, Ayako Maruyama, Takeshi Tsutsumi
OBJECTIVE: To describe the vestibular function in patients with superficial siderosis of the central nervous system (SSCN). STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective analysis. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten consecutive patients with SSCN. This study is the largest case series of SSCN in which detailed neuro-otological findings, including electronystagmography recording, video head impulse test (vHIT), and posturography, were described...
July 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Xia Ling, Dan-Hua Zhao, Jing Zhao, Bo Shen, Xu Yang
PURPOSE: To report the clinical features and gene mutations in four episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) patients whose main presentation was recurrent dizziness/vertigo. METHODS: Clinical data of four EA2 patients (three familial EA2 cases and one sporadic case) with recurrent dizziness/vertigo were collected to assess nystagmus and eye movement. Gene mutations were identified by whole exome sequencing. RESULTS: The three patients in family 1 experienced disease onset before 8 years of age, presented with a chief complaint of episodic dizziness, muscle weakness of the lower limbs and the inability to walk...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
Ian C Murray, Conrad Schmoll, Antonios Perperidis, Harry M Brash, Alice D McTrusty, Lorraine A Cameron, Alastair G Wilkinson, Alan O Mulvihill, Brian W Fleck, Robert A Minns
PURPOSE: To determine the ability of Saccadic Vector Optokinetic Perimetry (SVOP) to detect and characterise visual field defects in children with brain tumours using eye-tracking technology, as current techniques for assessment of visual fields in young children can be subjective and lack useful detail. METHODS: Case-series study of children receiving treatment and follow-up for brain tumours at the Royal Hospital for Sick Children in Edinburgh from April 2008 to August 2013...
June 7, 2018: Eye
Katja M Dockheer, Christopher J Bockisch, Alexander A Tarnutzer
Introduction: Verticality perception as assessed by the subjective visual vertical (SVV) is significantly biased by a rotating optokinetic stimulus. The underlying mechanisms of this effect remain open. Potentially, the optokinetic stimulus induces a shift of the internal estimate of the direction of gravity. This hypothesis predicts a shift of perceived vertical using other, non-vision dependent, paradigms as well. Alternatively, an optokinetic stimulus may only induce a shift of visual orientation, and so would be task specific...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Marcos Rubio-Fernández, Mary Luz Uribe, Javier Vicente-Tejedor, Francisco Germain, Cristina Susín-Lara, Cristina Quereda, Lluis Montoliu, Pedro de la Villa, José Martín-Nieto, Jesús Cruces
Hypoglycosylation of α-dystroglycan (α-DG) resulting from deficiency of protein O-mannosyltransferase 1 (POMT1) may cause severe neuromuscular dystrophies with brain and eye anomalies, named dystroglycanopathies. The retinal involvement of these disorders motivated us to generate a conditional knockout (cKO) mouse experiencing a Pomt1 intragenic deletion (exons 3-4) during the development of photoreceptors, mediated by the Cre recombinase expressed from the cone-rod homeobox (Crx) gene promoter. In this mouse, retinal α-DG was unglycosylated and incapable of binding laminin...
June 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bryce T McLelland, Bin Lin, Anuradha Mathur, Robert B Aramant, Biju B Thomas, Gabriel Nistor, Hans S Keirstead, Magdalene J Seiler
Purpose: To investigate whether sheets of retina organoids derived from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) can differentiate, integrate, and improve visual function in an immunodeficient rat model of severe retinal degeneration (RD). Methods: 3D hESC-derived retina organoids were analyzed by quantitative PCR and immunofluorescence. Sheets dissected from retina organoids (30-65 days of differentiation) were transplanted into the subretinal space of immunodeficient rho S334ter-3 rats...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Gabriela A Grinblat, Reas S Khan, Kimberly Dine, Howard Wessel, Larry Brown, Kenneth S Shindler
Purpose: Intranasally delivered ST266, the biological, proteinaceous secretome of amnion-derived multipotent progenitor cells, reduces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss, optic nerve inflammation, and demyelination in experimental optic neuritis. This unique therapy and novel administration route delivers numerous cytokines and growth factors to the eye and optic nerve, suggesting a potential to also treat other optic neuropathies. Thus, ST266-mediated neuroprotection was examined following traumatic optic nerve injury...
May 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Hao Wei Wang, Ying Guo, Jing Zhou, Hui Fang Zhou
Objective: To investigate the changes of vedionystamography(VNG)in patients with posterior circulation ischemia vertigo(PCIV). Method: Fifty patients who complained of vertigo and imbalance with PCI were selected as experimental group for testing of visual nystamography(VNG).Thirty normal subjects were chosen as control group.The result was analyzed. Result: The results of VNG in PCIV group and the control group were compared.The abnormal ratio were as follows:(4%,0; P >0.05)for Spontaneous nystagmus,(68%,10%; P <0...
January 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Marzena Bielińska, Anna Polaczkiewicz, Piotr Pietkiewicz, Jarosław Miłoński, Jurek Olszewski
INTRODUCTION: The aim of the study was to evaluate concurrent recording of ENG and VNG measurements in selected diagnostic tests in healthy subjects so as to explore potential sensitivity and applicability of this kind of testing in the diagnostics of vertigo. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was carried out in 50 healthy subjects including 24 women and 26 men aged 20-22 (mean age of 20.5 years) reporting no otorhinolaryngological organ-related complaints and no history of any balance disorders or vertigo...
April 30, 2018: Otolaryngologia Polska
Glenn P Lobo, Gayle Pauer, Joshua H Lipschutz, Stephanie A Hagstrom
Vitamin A/retinol (ROL) and its metabolites (retinoids) play critical roles in eye development and photoreception. Short-term dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD) manifests clinically as night blindness, while prolonged VAD is known to cause retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) and photoreceptor degeneration. Therefore, sustained uptake of dietary vitamin A, for ocular retinoid production, is essential for photoreceptor health and visual function. The mechanisms influencing the uptake, storage, and supply of dietary vitamin A, for ocular retinoid production, however, are not fully understood...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Xiu-Feng Huang, Lue Xiang, Wan Cheng, Fei-Fei Cheng, Kai-Wen He, Bo-Wen Zhang, Si-Si Zheng, Ru-Yi Han, Yi-Han Zheng, Xiao-Tao Xu, Huan-Yun Yu, Wenjuan Zhuang, Yuk Fai Leung, Zi-Bing Jin
Ocular coloboma is a developmental structural defect of the eye that often occurs as complex ocular anomalies. However, its genetic etiology remains largely unexplored. Here we report the identification of mutation (c.331C>T, p.R111C) in the IPO13 gene in a consanguineous family with ocular coloboma, microphthalmia, and cataract by a combination of whole-exome sequencing and homozygosity mapping. IPO13 encodes an importin-B family protein and has been proven to be associated with the pathogenesis of coloboma and microphthalmia...
April 27, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Michael C Brodsky
Essential infantile esotropia is generated by prenuclear visual pathways that increase esotonus and gradually drive the eyes into a convergent position. Contrary to the prevailing notion that infantile esotropia reflects a primary disturbance within the visual cortex, accumulating evidence suggests that infantile esotropia is generated by lower subcortical centers that subserve nasalward optokinesis. These phylogenetically older visuo-vestibular pathways include the nucleus of the optic tract, accessory optic system, inferior olive, cerebellar flocculus, and vestibular nucleus...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Bahaar Chawla, William Swain, Antionette L Williams, Brenda L Bohnsack
Purpose: Retinoic acid (RA) is required for embryonic formation of the anterior segment of the eye and craniofacial structures. The present study further investigated the role of RA in maintaining the function of these neural crest-derived structures in adult zebrafish. Methods: Morphology and histology were analyzed by using live imaging, methylacrylate sections, and TUNEL assay. Functional analysis of vision and aqueous humor outflow were assayed with real-time imaging...
April 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Peter Veto, Immo Schütz, Wolfgang Einhäuser
Diverse paradigms, including ambiguous stimuli and mental imagery, have suggested a shared representation between motor and perceptual domains. We examined the effects of manual action on ambiguous perception in a continuous flash suppression (CFS) experiment. Specifically, we asked participants to try to perceive a suppressed grating while rotating a manipulandum. In one condition, the grating's motion was fully controlled by the manipulandum movement; in another condition the coupling was weak; and in a third condition, no movement was executed...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
Rachael Allen, Cara T Motz, Andrew Feola, Kyle Chesler, Raza Haider, Sringanesh Ramachandra Rao, Lara Skelton, Steven Fliesler, Machelle T Pardue
Acoustic blast overpressure (ABO) injury in military personnel and civilians is often accompanied by delayed visual deficits. However, most animal model studies dealing with blast-induced visual defects have focused on short-term (≤1 month) changes. Here, we evaluated long-term (≤8 months) retinal structure and function deficits in rats with ABO injury. Adult male Long Evans rats were subjected to ABO from a single blast (∼ 190 dB SPL, ∼ 63 kPa, @80 psi), generated by a shock tube device. Retinal function (electroretinography), visual function (optokinetic tracking), retinal thickness (spectral domain-optical coherence tomography), and spatial cognition/exploratory motor behavior (Y-maze) were measured at 2, 4, 6, and 8 months post-blast...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Ting-Feng Lin, Christina Gerth-Kahlert, James V M Hanson, Dominik Straumann, Melody Ying-Yu Huang
Abnormal projection of the optic nerves to the wrong cerebral hemisphere transforms the optokinetic system from its usual negative feedback loop to a positive feedback loop with characteristic ocular motor instabilities including directional reversal of the optokinetic nystagmus (OKN) and spontaneous nystagmus, which are common features of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS). Visual input plays a critical role in INS linked to an underlying optic nerve misprojection such as that often seen in albinism. However, spontaneous nystagmus often continues in darkness, making the visual, sensory-driven etiology questionable...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Deng-Feng Huang, Ming-Yong Wang, Wu Yin, Yu-Qian Ma, Han Wang, Tian Xue, Da-Long Ren, Bing Hu
The retina has an intrinsic circadian clock, but the importance of this clock for vision is unknown. Zebrafish offer many advantages for studying vertebrate vision and circadian rhythm. Here, we explored the role of zebrafish per2 , a light-regulated gene, in visual behavior and the underlying mechanisms. We observed that per2 mutant zebrafish larvae showed decreased contrast sensitivity and visual acuity using optokinetic response (OKR) assays. Using a visual motor response (VMR) assay, we observed normal OFF responses but abnormal ON responses in mutant zebrafish larvae...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
Akiko Ueno, Yoshihiro Omori, Yuko Sugita, Satoshi Watanabe, Taro Chaya, Takashi Kozuka, Tetsuo Kon, Satoyo Yoshida, Kenji Matsushita, Ryusuke Kuwahara, Naoko Kajimura, Yasushi Okada, Takahisa Furukawa
In the vertebrate retina, cone photoreceptors play crucial roles in photopic vision by transmitting light-evoked signals to ON- and/or OFF-bipolar cells. However, the mechanisms underlying selective synapse formation in the cone photoreceptor pathway remain poorly understood. Here, we found that Lrit1, a leucine-rich transmembrane protein, localizes to the photoreceptor synaptic terminal and regulates the synaptic connection between cone photoreceptors and cone ON-bipolar cells. Lrit1-deficient retinas exhibit an aberrant morphology of cone photoreceptor pedicles, as well as an impairment of signal transmission from cone photoreceptors to cone ON-bipolar cells...
March 27, 2018: Cell Reports
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