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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724211/dexmedetomidine-preconditioning-protects-against-retinal-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-and-inhibits-inflammation-response-via-toll-like-receptor-4-tlr4-pathway
#1
Zong Chen, Ping-Yang Qiu, Chuan-Gen Ma
BACKGROUND: Retinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is one of significant cause of visual dysopia and causes inflammatory response. Dexmedetomidine is widely applied to general/local anaesthesia and has been reported to have extensive anti-inflammatory effect. However, the role of dexmedetomidine in retinal I/R injury is currently unknown. This study investigates the effect of dexmedetomidine preconditioning on retinal I/R injury and explore the related signal mechanism toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) pathway...
July 14, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723717/localized-muscle-vibration-reverses-quadriceps-muscle-hypotrophy-and-improves-physical-function-a-clinical-and-electrophysiological-study
#2
Maria Grazia Benedetti, Gennaro Boccia, Lorenzo Cavazzuti, Elena Magnani, Elisabetta Mariani, Alberto Rainoldi, Roberto Casale
Quadriceps weakness has been associated with knee osteoarthritis (OA). High-frequency localized muscle vibration (LMV) has been proposed recently for quadriceps strengthening in patients with knee OA. The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the clinical effectiveness of high-frequency LMV on quadriceps muscle in patients with knee OA and (b) to disentangle, by means of surface electromyography (sEMG), the underlying mechanism. Thirty patients, aged between 40 and 65 years, and clinically diagnosed with knee OA were included in this randomized, controlled, single-blinded pilot study...
July 18, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723654/disrupted-small-world-brain-network-topology-in-pure-conduct-disorder
#3
Feng-Mei Lu, Jian-Song Zhou, Jiang Zhang, Xiao-Ping Wang, Zhen Yuan
OBJECTIVES: Conduct disorder (CD) is characterized by the violation of the rights of others or basic social rules and a repetitive, persistent pattern of antisocial and aggressive behaviors. A large number of functional and structural neuroimaging studies have identified widely abnormalities in specific brain regions in CD, but the alterations in the topological organization of functional networks among them remain largely unknown. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging was applied to investigate the intrinsic functional connectivity in 18 pure CD patients and eighteen typically developing healthy controls...
July 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723580/quality-assurance-of-chemical-ingredient-classification-for-the-national-drug-file-reference-terminology
#4
Ling Zheng, Hasan Yumak, Ling Chen, Christopher Ochs, James Geller, Joan Kapusnik-Uner, Yehoshua Perl
The National Drug File - Reference Terminology (NDF-RT) is a large and complex drug terminology consisting of several classification hierarchies on top of an extensive collection of drug concepts. These hierarchies provide important information about clinical drugs, e.g., their chemical ingredients, mechanisms of action, dosage form and physiological effects. Within NDF-RT such information is represented using tens of thousands of roles connecting drugs to classifications. In previous studies, we have introduced various kinds of Abstraction Networks to summarize the content and structure of terminologies in order to facilitate their visual comprehension, and support quality assurance of terminologies...
July 16, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723311/visual-perceptual-learning-and-models
#5
Barbara Dosher, Zhong-Lin Lu
Visual perceptual learning through practice or training can significantly improve performance on visual tasks. Originally seen as a manifestation of plasticity in the primary visual cortex, perceptual learning is more readily understood as improvements in the function of brain networks that integrate processes, including sensory representations, decision, attention, and reward, and balance plasticity with system stability. This review considers the primary phenomena of perceptual learning, theories of perceptual learning, and perceptual learning's effect on signal and noise in visual processing and decision...
July 19, 2017: Annual Review of Vision Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723250/application-of-molecular-dynamic-simulation-to-study-food-proteins-a-review
#6
Ashutosh Singh, Sai Kranthi Vanga, Valerie Orsat, Vijaya Raghavan
This review presents an overview of the application of molecular dynamic simulation to study food proteins. Processing of food using thermal, chemical, radiation, electromagnetic and mechanical techniques subject its macromolecular bio-components such as carbohydrates and proteins to extreme heat, ionic strength, pH and mechanical deformation. These processing factors affect protein's functional properties such as emulsification, dough formation, gelation, etc. which are associated with changes in their structure...
July 19, 2017: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722651/ephrin-a-epha-specific-co-adaptation-as-a-novel-mechanism-in-topographic-axon-guidance
#7
Felix Fiederling, Markus Weschenfelder, Martin Fritz, Anne von Philipsborn, Martin Bastmeyer, Franco Weth
Genetic hardwiring during brain development provides computational architectures for innate neuronal processing. Thus, the paradigmatic chick retinotectal projection, due to its neighborhood preserving, topographic organization, establishes millions of parallel channels for incremental visual field analysis. Retinal axons receive targeting information from quantitative guidance cue gradients. Surprisingly, novel adaptation assays demonstrate that retinal growth cones robustly adapt towards ephrin-A/EphA forward and reverse signals, which provide the major mapping cues...
July 19, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722537/attention-bias-to-threat-in-mothers-with-emotional-disorders-predicts-increased-offspring-anxiety-symptoms-a-joint-cross-sectional-and-longitudinal-analysis
#8
Allison M Waters, Elise M Candy, Steven G Candy
There is convincing evidence of the transmission of anxiety and depression from parents to children; however, mechanisms by which this vulnerability is passed on are unclear. Cognitive models and a small body of cross-sectional research suggest that parental attention biases (ABs) may be one mechanism involved in transmission. Longitudinal associations of maternal and offspring ABs with offspring symptoms have been scarcely studied. Forty-three mothers-child dyads were included. All children (7-12 years old) were diagnosis-free while 24 mothers had a lifetime emotional disorder (anxiety or depression) (high risk, HR) and 19 mothers had no psychiatric diagnoses (low risk, LR)...
July 19, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722347/foxo3-longevity-interactome-on-chromosome-6
#9
Timothy A Donlon, Brian J Morris, Randi Chen, Kamal H Masaki, Richard C Allsopp, D Craig Willcox, Ayako Elliott, Bradley J Willcox
FOXO3 has been implicated in longevity in multiple populations. By DNA sequencing in long-lived individuals, we identified all single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in FOXO3 and showed 41 were associated with longevity. Thirteen of these had predicted alterations in transcription factor binding sites. Those SNPs appeared to be in physical contact, via RNA polymerase II binding chromatin looping, with sites in the FOXO3 promoter, and likely function together as a cis-regulatory unit. The SNPs exhibited a high degree of LD in the Asian population, in which they define a specific longevity haplotype that is relatively common...
July 19, 2017: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721681/genetic-characterization-and-disease-mechanism-of-retinitis-pigmentosa-current-scenario
#10
REVIEW
Muhammad Umar Ali, Muhammad Saif Ur Rahman, Jiang Cao, Ping Xi Yuan
Retinitis pigmentosa is a group of genetically transmitted disorders affecting 1 in 3000-8000 individual people worldwide ultimately affecting the quality of life. Retinitis pigmentosa is characterized as a heterogeneous genetic disorder which leads by progressive devolution of the retina leading to a progressive visual loss. It can occur in syndromic (with Usher syndrome and Bardet-Biedl syndrome) as well as non-syndromic nature. The mode of inheritance can be X-linked, autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive manner...
August 2017: 3 Biotech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720781/distinct-top-down-and-bottom-up-brain-connectivity-during-visual-perception-and-imagery
#11
N Dijkstra, P Zeidman, S Ondobaka, M A J van Gerven, K Friston
Research suggests that perception and imagination engage neuronal representations in the same visual areas. However, the underlying mechanisms that differentiate sensory perception from imagination remain unclear. Here, we examine the directed coupling (effective connectivity) between fronto-parietal and visual areas during perception and imagery. We found an increase in bottom-up coupling during perception relative to baseline and an increase in top-down coupling during both perception and imagery, with a much stronger increase during imagery...
July 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720123/cardiovascular-magnetic-resonance-in-an-adult-human-population-serial-observations-from-the-multi-ethnic-study-of-atherosclerosis
#12
REVIEW
Kihei Yoneyama, Bharath A Venkatesh, David A Bluemke, Robyn L McClelland, João A C Lima
The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) is the first large-scale multi-ethnic population study in the U.S. to use advanced cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) imaging. MESA participants were free of cardiovascular disease at baseline between 2000 and 2002, and were followed up between 2009 and 2011 with repeated CMR examinations as part of MESA. CMR allows the clinician to visualize and accurately quantify volume and dimensions of all four cardiac chambers; measure systolic and diastolic ventricular function; assess myocardial fibrosis; assess vessel lumen size, vessel wall morphology, and vessel stiffness...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719550/does-an-annular-puncture-influence-the-herniation-path-an-in-vitro-mechanical-and-structural-investigation
#13
Vonne M van Heeswijk, Ashvin Thambyah, Peter A Robertson, Neil D Broom
STUDY DESIGN: A study of mechanically-induced herniation in punctured ovine discs followed by structural analysis. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether an annular puncture influences the path that herniation takes by providing direct passage for nucleus through the annulus and therefore whether it increases the risk of acute herniation from overload at the site of damage independent of any longer-term degeneration. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: 10 years after treatment with discography both degenerative changes and frequency of herniation have been shown to increase compared to untreated discs...
July 17, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719238/mining-databases-for-protein-aggregation-a-review
#14
Paraskevi L Tsiolaki, Katerina C Nastou, Stavros J Hamodrakas, Vassiliki A Iconomidou
Protein aggregation is an active area of research in recent decades, since it is the most common and troubling indication of protein instability. Understanding the mechanisms governing protein aggregation and amyloidogenesis is a key component to the aetiology and pathogenesis of many devastating disorders, including Alzheimer's disease or type 2 diabetes. Protein aggregation data are currently found "scattered" in an increasing number of repositories, since advances in computational biology greatly influence this field of research...
July 18, 2017: Amyloid: the International Journal of Experimental and Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719098/a-pyridoindole-based-multifunctional-bioprobe-ph-induced-fluorescence-switching-and-specific-targeting-of-lipid-droplets
#15
Bahadur Sk, Pilendra Thakre, Raghuvir Singh Tomar, Abhijit Patra
A versatile fluorescent probe, PITE, based on alkyl substituted pyridoindole (PI) and tetraphenylethylene (TE) exhibiting facile pH-induced fluorescence switching in solution, nanoparticles and solid state is presented. Strong fluorescence in the solid state besides solution and aggregated state allow sensing of toxic acid vapor. Fluorescence "off-on" switching of PITE by exposing to trifluoracetic acid and triethylamine vapor is visualized through naked eyes. A unified picture of switchable fluorescence of PITE is obtained by comprehensive spectroscopic investigations coupled with quantum mechanical calculations...
July 18, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718763/a-theory-of-working-memory-without-consciousness-or-sustained-activity
#16
Darinka Trübutschek, Sébastien Marti, Andrés Ojeda, Jean-Rémi King, Yuanyuan Mi, Misha Tsodyks, Stanislas Dehaene
Working memory and conscious perception are thought to share similar brain mechanisms, yet recent reports of non-conscious working memory challenge this view. Combining visual masking with magnetoencephalography, we investigate the reality of non-conscious working memory and dissect its neural mechanisms. In a spatial delayed-response task, participants reported the location of a subjectively unseen target above chance-level after several seconds. Conscious perception and conscious working memory were characterized by similar signatures: a sustained desynchronization in the alpha/beta band over frontal cortex, and a decodable representation of target location in posterior sensors...
July 18, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718747/the-role-of-temporal-disparity-on-audiovisual-integration-in-low-vision-individuals
#17
Stefano Targher, Rocco Micciolo, Valeria Occelli, Massimiliano Zampini
Recent findings have shown that sounds improve visual detection in low vision individuals when the audiovisual stimuli pairs of stimuli are presented simultaneously and from the same spatial position. The present study purports to investigate the temporal aspects of the audiovisual enhancement effect previously reported. Low vision participants were asked to detect the presence of a visual stimulus (yes/no task) presented either alone or together with an auditory stimulus at different stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs)...
January 1, 2017: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718174/object-substitution-masking-weakens-but-does-not-eliminate-shape-interactions
#18
Timothy D Sweeny, Larissa C D'Abreu, Elric Elias, Lauren Padama
At any moment, some objects in the environment are seen clearly, whereas others go unnoticed. Whether or not these gaps in awareness are actually problematic may depend on the extent that information about unseen objects is lost. Determining when and how visual awareness and visual processing become linked is thus of great importance. Previous research using object-substitution masking (OSM) demonstrated that relatively simple visual features, such as size or orientation, are still processed even when they are not visible...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718173/temporal-trimming-evidence-that-common-onset-masking-shortens-perceptual-sampling-of-conscious-object-representations
#19
Geoffrey W Harrison, Jason Rajsic, Daryl E Wilson
Common-onset masking (COM) refers to a methodology where a mask can impair awareness of an object if the mask's offset is delayed relative to the offset of the object. This method has classically been used to understand how discontinuities in visual input lead to the discrete removal of object representations before they reach conscious awareness. However, COM has recently been shown to reduce the precision of conscious object representations (Harrison, Rajsic, & Wilson, Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 23(1), 180-186, 2016)...
July 17, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717820/differences-between-endogenous-attention-to-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#20
J Vibell, C Klinge, M Zampini, A C Nobre, C Spence
Vibell et al. (J Cogn Neurosci 19:109-120, 2007) reported that endogenously attending to a sensory modality (vision or touch) modulated perceptual processing, in part, by the relative speeding-up of neural activation (i.e., as a result of prior entry). However, it was unclear whether it was the fine temporal discrimination required by the temporal-order judgment task that was used, or rather, the type of attentional modulation (spatial locations or sensory modalities) that was responsible for the shift in latencies that they observed...
July 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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