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visual mechanisms

Priti Sengupta, Aniruddha Ganguly, Adity Bose
The crucial role of chemosensor for the immediate recognition of environment pollutant motivates the researchers to develop variety of sensing protocols. Of various chemosensory protocols, the colour change observed by the naked eye is considered to be a conceivable and on-site way to indicate the presence of an analyte. We herein report a colourimetric and commercially available absorption probe, sinapic acid (SA) that is completely ready to use for "on-site" visual determination of copper ions. The molecule, SA is well-known phenolic acid, often utilized for its antibacterial activity...
March 3, 2018: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
Ayaka Sato, Yuya Ikeda, Koichi Yamaguchi, Varun Vohra
Facile detection and the identification of hazardous organic solvents are essential for ensuring global safety and avoiding harm to the environment caused by industrial wastes. Here, we present a simple method for the fabrication of silver-coated monodisperse polystyrene nanoparticle photonic structures that are embedded into a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) matrix. These hybrid materials exhibit a strong green iridescence with a reflectance peak at 550 nm that originates from the close-packed arrangement of the nanoparticles...
March 16, 2018: Nanomaterials
Kelsey E Klein, Elizabeth A Walker, J Bruce Tomblin
The authors tested the hypothesis that children with cochlear implants (CIs) experience domain-general deficits in sequential learning. Twenty children with CIs and 40 children with normal hearing (NH) participated. Participants completed a serial reaction time task that measured implicit sequential learning. During random sequence phases, the CI group had significantly slower reaction times than the NH group. However, there were no significant differences in the rates of sequential learning between groups...
March 15, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Y J Son, H S Kim, W Mao, J B Park, D Lee, H Lee, H S Yoo
A two-step strategy for coaxial electrospinning and postelectrospinning is an effective method for fabricating superfine nanofibers composed of highly swellable hydrogels. Alginate and poly(ε-caprolactone) [PCL] were coelectrospun via fibrous meshes with a coaxial nozzle; alginate at the core was subsequently cross-linked in calcium chloride solution. The PCL sheath was removed from the meshes by repeated organic-phase washing. The peeling process was monitored by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry, and the complete removal of the PCL outer layers was confirmed by the thinning of the fiber volume...
March 16, 2018: Nanoscale
David De Vito, Anne E Ferrey, Mark J Fenske, Naseem Al-Aidroos
Ignoring visual stimuli in the external environment leads to decreased liking of those items, a phenomenon attributed to the affective consequences of attentional inhibition. Here we investigated the generality of this "distractor devaluation" phenomenon by asking whether ignoring stimuli represented internally within visual working memory has the same affective consequences. In two experiments we presented participants with two or three visual stimuli and then, after the stimuli were no longer visible, provided an attentional cue indicating which item in memory was the target they would have to later recall, and which were task-irrelevant distractors...
March 15, 2018: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
Quan Zhou, Li Hong, Jing Wang
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms and to identify the key genes and pathways for pelvic organ prolapse (POP) using bioinformatics analysis. METHODS: The microarray data for GSE53868 included 12 POP and 12 non-POP anterior vaginal wall samples. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by GEO2R online tool. Gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed using the DAVID database, and a DEG-associated protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using STRING and visualized in Cytoscape...
March 15, 2018: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
Xiangsheng Xie, Huichang Zhuang, Hexiang He, Xiaoqing Xu, Haowen Liang, Yikun Liu, Jianying Zhou
Human ability to visualize an image is usually hindered by optical scattering. Recent extensive studies have promoted imaging technique through turbid materials to a reality where color image can be restored behind scattering media in real time. The big challenge now is to recover objects in a large field of view with depth resolving ability. Based on the existing research results, we systematically study the physical relationship between speckles generated from objects at different planes. By manipulating a given single point spread function, depth-resolved imaging through a thin scattering medium can be extended beyond the original depth of field (DOF)...
March 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Eli Gibson, Wenqi Li, Carole Sudre, Lucas Fidon, Dzhoshkun I Shakir, Guotai Wang, Zach Eaton-Rosen, Robert Gray, Tom Doel, Yipeng Hu, Tom Whyntie, Parashkev Nachev, Marc Modat, Dean C Barratt, Sébastien Ourselin, M Jorge Cardoso, Tom Vercauteren
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Medical image analysis and computer-assisted intervention problems are increasingly being addressed with deep-learning-based solutions. Established deep-learning platforms are flexible but do not provide specific functionality for medical image analysis and adapting them for this domain of application requires substantial implementation effort. Consequently, there has been substantial duplication of effort and incompatible infrastructure developed across many research groups...
May 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
M Aly, A Ibrahim, W Farrag, K Abdelsalam, H Mohamed, A Tawfik
BACKGROUND: Pruritus is the most common side effect of intrathecal morphine, especially in parturients. The exact mechanism is not clear and many possible mechanisms have been suggested. Among these is the activation of the 5-hydroxytryptamine sub-type-3 receptors by intrathecal morphine. METHODS: Forty parturients who underwent elective cesarean delivery under spinal anesthesia were divided into two groups of 20 each in this prospective, randomized study. Both groups received an intrathecal injection of 0...
February 16, 2018: International Journal of Obstetric Anesthesia
Philippa R P Krahn, Sheldon M Singh, Venkat Ramanan, Labonny Biswas, Nicolas Yak, Kevan J T Anderson, Jennifer Barry, Mihaela Pop, Graham A Wright
BACKGROUND: Radiofrequency (RF) ablation has become a mainstay of treatment for ventricular tachycardia, yet adequate lesion formation remains challenging. This study aims to comprehensively describe the composition and evolution of acute left ventricular (LV) lesions using native-contrast cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) during CMR-guided ablation procedures. METHODS: RF ablation was performed using an actively-tracked CMR-enabled catheter guided into the LV of 12 healthy swine to create 14 RF ablation lesions...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance
Heida Maria Sigurdardottir, Liv Elisabet Fridriksdottir, Sigridur Gudjonsdottir, Árni Kristjánsson
Evidence of interdependencies of face and word processing mechanisms suggest possible links between reading problems and abnormal face processing. In two experiments we assessed such high-level visual deficits in people with a history of reading problems. Experiment 1 showed that people who were worse at face matching had greater reading problems. In experiment 2, matched dyslexic and typical readers were tested, and difficulties with face matching were consistently found to predict dyslexia over and above both novel-object matching as well as matching noise patterns that shared low-level visual properties with faces...
March 12, 2018: Cognition
B E Malyugin, N S Anisimova
In certain cases intraoperative pupil dilation during cataract surgery may be necessary to improve the visualization of intraocular structures and assure the atraumatic nature of surgical manipulations. The article reviews a wide range of pupil expanders, their historical aspects and possibilities of their application in modern cataract surgery.
2018: Vestnik Oftalmologii
Pietro Lungaro, Rickard Sjoberg, Alfredo Jose Fanghella Valero, Ashutosh Mittal, Konrad Tollmar
This paper presents a novel approach to content delivery for video streaming services. It exploits information from connected eye-trackers embedded in the next generation of VR Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). The proposed solution aims to deliver high visual quality, in real time, around the users' fixations points while lowering the quality everywhere else. The goal of the proposed approach is to substantially reduce the overall bandwidth requirements for supporting VR video experiences while delivering high levels of user perceived quality...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Alexandra DeJong, L Colby Mangum, Jacob Resch, Susan A Saliba
CONTEXT: Medial knee displacement (MKD) is a common risk factor for lower extremity injury and is related to altered gluteal muscle activity. Ultrasound imaging (USI) is a reliable means to explore mechanical muscle activity, however no information exists regarding USI of the gluteals during gait in a MKD population. OBJECTIVE: To determine differences in USI gluteal muscle activity during gait in individuals with and without MKD. DESIGN: Descriptive laboratory study...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Julie E Maguire, Aakarsha Pandey, Yushi Wu, Anna Di Gregorio
Ascidian embryos have been employed as model systems for studies of developmental biology for well over a century, owing to their desirable blend of experimental advantages, which include their rapid development, traceable cell lineage, and evolutionarily conserved morphogenetic movements. Two decades ago, the development of a streamlined electroporation method drastically reduced the time and cost of transgenic experiments, and, along with the elucidation of the complete genomic sequences of several ascidian species, propelled these simple chordates to the forefront of the model organisms available for studies of regulation of gene expression...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Anna-Lena Heins, Dirk Weuster-Botz
Population heterogeneity is omnipresent in all bioprocesses even in homogenous environments. Its origin, however, is only so well understood that potential strategies like bet-hedging, noise in gene expression and division of labour that lead to population heterogeneity can be derived from experimental studies simulating the dynamics in industrial scale bioprocesses. This review aims at summarizing the current state of the different parts of single cell studies in bioprocesses. This includes setups to visualize different phenotypes of single cells, computational approaches connecting single cell physiology with environmental influence and special cultivation setups like scale-down reactors that have been proven to be useful to simulate large-scale conditions...
March 14, 2018: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Zaineb Al-Qazwini, Zhen Yu Gordon Ko, Kalpesh Mehta, Nanguang Chen
We report an ultrahigh-speed and high-resolution line-scan spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) system that integrates a number of mechanisms for improving image quality. The illumination uniformity is significantly improved by the use of a Powell lens; Phase stepping and differential reconstruction are combined to suppress autocorrelation artifacts; Nonlocal means (NLM) is employed to enhance the signal to noise ratio while minimizing motion artifacts. The system is capable of acquiring cross-sectional images at more than 3,500 B-scans per second with sensitivities between 70dB and 90dB...
March 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Giulia Orioli, Maria Laura Filippetti, Walter Gerbino, Danica Dragovic, Teresa Farroni
The ability to discriminate the trajectories of moving objects is highly adaptive and fundamental for physical and social interactions. Therefore, we could reasonably expect sensitivity to different trajectories already at birth, as a precursor of later communicative and defensive abilities. To investigate this possibility, we measured newborns' looking behavior to evaluate their ability to discriminate between visual stimuli depicting motion along different trajectories happening within the space surrounding their body...
March 2018: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Yu Haranosono, Hiroki Ueoka, Gakushi Kito, Shingo Nemoto, Masaaki Kurata, Hideyuki Sakaki
Most of the α-halo carbonyl (AHC) compounds tend to be predicted as mutagenic by structure-activity relationship based on structural category only, because they have an alkyl halide structure as a structural alert of mutagenicity. However, some AHC compounds are not mutagenic. We hypothesized that AHC reacts with DNA by SN 2 reaction, and the reactivity relates to mutagenicity. As an index of SN 2 reactivity, we focused on molecular orbitals (MOs), as the direction and position of two molecules in collision are important in the SN 2 reaction...
2018: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
Andreas Carstensen, Andrei Herdean, Sidsel Birkelund Schmidt, Anurag Sharma, Cornelia Spetea, Mathias Pribil, Søren Husted
Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient, and P deficiency limits plant productivity. Recent work showed that P deficiency affects electron transport to photosystem I (PSI), but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here, we present a comprehensive biological model describing how P deficiency disrupts the photosynthetic machinery and the electron transport chain through a series of sequential events in barley (Hordeum vulgare). Phosphorus deficiency reduces the orthophosphate (Pi) concentration in the chloroplast stroma to levels that inhibit ATP synthase activity...
March 14, 2018: Plant Physiology
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