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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923149/the-effect-of-cerebral-asymmetries-and-eye-scanning-on-pseudoneglect-for-a-visual-search-task
#1
Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
December 3, 2016: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922067/immune-activation-influences-samhd1-expression-and-vpx-mediated-samhd1-degradation-during-chronic-hiv-1-infection
#2
Weihui Fu, Chao Qiu, Mingzhe Zhou, Lingyan Zhu, Yu Yang, Chenli Qiu, Linxia Zhang, Xuan Xu, Ying Wang, Jianqing Xu, Xiaoyan Zhang
SAMHD1 restricts human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication in myeloid cells and CD4(+) T cells, while Vpx can mediate SAMHD1 degradation to promote HIV-1 replication. Although the restriction mechanisms of SAMHD1 have been well-described, SAMHD1 expression and Vpx-mediated SAMHD1 degradation during chronic HIV-1 infection were poorly understood. Flow cytometric analysis was used to directly visualize ex vivo, and after in vitro SIV-Vpx treatment, SAMHD1 expression in CD4(+) T cells and monocytes...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922058/edge-enhancement-improves-disruptive-camouflage-by-emphasising-false-edges-and-creating-pictorial-relief
#3
John Egan, Rebecca J Sharman, Kenneth C Scott-Brown, Paul George Lovell
Disruptive colouration is a visual camouflage composed of false edges and boundaries. Many disruptively camouflaged animals feature enhanced edges; light patches are surrounded by a lighter outline and/or a dark patches are surrounded by a darker outline. This camouflage is particularly common in amphibians, reptiles and lepidopterans. We explored the role that this pattern has in creating effective camouflage. In a visual search task utilising an ultra-large display area mimicking search tasks that might be found in nature, edge enhanced disruptive camouflage increases crypsis, even on substrates that do not provide an obvious visual match...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922054/first-insight-into-the-proteome-landscape-of-the-porcine-short-posterior-ciliary-arteries-key-signalling-pathways-maintaining-physiologic-functions
#4
Caroline Manicam, Natarajan Perumal, Norbert Pfeiffer, Franz H Grus, Adrian Gericke
Short posterior ciliary arteries (sPCA) provide the major blood supply to the optic nerve head. Emerging evidence has linked structural and functional anomalies of sPCA to the pathogenesis of several ocular disorders that cause varying degrees of visual loss, particularly anterior ischaemic optic neuropathy and glaucoma. Although the functional relevance of this vascular bed is well-recognized, the proteome of sPCA remains uncharacterized. Since the porcine ocular system closely resembles that of the human's and is increasingly employed in translational ophthalmic research, this study characterized the proteome of porcine sPCA employing the mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy...
December 6, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921268/audiovisual-sentence-recognition-not-predicted-by-susceptibility-to-the-mcgurk-effect
#5
Kristin J Van Engen, Zilong Xie, Bharath Chandrasekaran
In noisy situations, visual information plays a critical role in the success of speech communication: listeners are better able to understand speech when they can see the speaker. Visual influence on auditory speech perception is also observed in the McGurk effect, in which discrepant visual information alters listeners' auditory perception of a spoken syllable. When hearing /ba/ while seeing a person saying /ga/, for example, listeners may report hearing /da/. Because these two phenomena have been assumed to arise from a common integration mechanism, the McGurk effect has often been used as a measure of audiovisual integration in speech perception...
December 5, 2016: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920978/network-interactions-underlying-mirror-feedback-in-stroke-a-dynamic-causal-modeling-study
#6
Soha Saleh, Mathew Yarossi, Thushini Manuweera, Sergei Adamovich, Eugene Tunik
Mirror visual feedback (MVF) is potentially a powerful tool to facilitate recovery of disordered movement and stimulate activation of under-active brain areas due to stroke. The neural mechanisms underlying MVF have therefore been a focus of recent inquiry. Although it is known that sensorimotor areas can be activated via mirror feedback, the network interactions driving this effect remain unknown. The aim of the current study was to fill this gap by using dynamic causal modeling to test the interactions between regions in the frontal and parietal lobes that may be important for modulating the activation of the ipsilesional motor cortex during mirror visual feedback of unaffected hand movement in stroke patients...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920788/vegetative-and-adaptive-traits-predict-different-outcomes-for-restoration-using-hybrids
#7
Philip A Crystal, Nathanael I Lichti, Keith E Woeste, Douglass F Jacobs
Hybridization has been implicated as a driver of speciation, extinction, and invasiveness, but can also provide resistant breeding stock following epidemics. However, evaluating the appropriateness of hybrids for use in restoration programs is difficult. Past the F1 generation, the proportion of a progenitor's genome can vary widely, as can the combinations of parental genomes. Detailed genetic analysis can reveal this information, but cannot expose phenotypic alterations due to heterosis, transgressive traits, or changes in metabolism or development...
2016: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920146/selectivity-in-post-encoding-connectivity-with-high-level-visual-cortex-is-associated-with-reward-motivated-memory
#8
Vishnu P Murty, Alexa Tompary, R Alison Adcock, Lila Davachi
: Reward motivation has been demonstrated to enhance declarative memory by facilitating systems level consolidation. While high reward information is often intermixed with lower reward information during an experience, memory for those experiences prioritizes high value information. How is this selectivity achieved? One possibility is that post-encoding consolidation processes bias memory strengthening to those representations associated with higher reward. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the influence of differential reward motivation on the selectivity of post-encoding markers of systems-level memory consolidation...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920145/three-small-receptive-field-ganglion-cells-in-the-mouse-retina-are-distinctly-tuned-to-size-speed-and-object-motion
#9
Jason Jacoby, Gregory W Schwartz
: Retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) are frequently divided into functional types by their ability to extract and relay specific features from a visual scene, such as the capacity to discern local or global motion, direction of motion, stimulus orientation, contrast or uniformity, or the presence of large or small objects. Here we introduce three previously uncharacterized, non-direction selective ON-OFF RGC types that represent a distinct set of feature detectors in the mouse retina. The three high definition (HD) RGCs possess small receptive field (RF) centers and strong surround suppression...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919019/induction-of-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-expression-in-rats-by-cortical-spreading-depression
#10
Yan Wang, Anne E Tye, Junli Zhao, Dongqing Ma, Ann C Raddant, Fan Bu, Benjamin L Spector, Nolan K Winslow, Minyan Wang, Andrew F Russo
OBJECTIVE: The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) has now been established as a key player in migraine. However, the mechanisms underlying the reported elevation of CGRP in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of some migraineurs are not known. A candidate mechanism is cortical spreading depression (CSD), which is associated with migraine with aura and traumatic brain injury. The aim of this study was to investigate whether CGRP gene expression may be induced by experimental CSD in the rat cerebral cortex...
November 9, 2016: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918785/the-timecourse-of-expression-aftereffects
#11
Nichola Burton, Linda Jeffery, Jack Bonner, Gillian Rhodes
Adaptation to facial expressions produces aftereffects that bias perception of subsequent expressions away from the adaptor. Studying the temporal dynamics of an aftereffect can help us to understand the neural processes that underlie perception, and how they change with experience. Little is known about the temporal dynamics of the expression aftereffect. We conducted two experiments to measure the timecourse of this aftereffect. In Experiment 1 we examined how the size of the aftereffect varies with changes in the duration of the adaptor and test stimuli...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918613/defining-the-radiation-chemistry-during-liquid-cell-electron-microscopy-to-enable-visualization-of-nanomaterial-growth-and-degradation-dynamics
#12
T J Woehl, P Abellan
We present a critical review of methods for defining the chemical environment during liquid cell electron microscopy investigation of electron beam induced nanomaterial growth and degradation. We draw from the radiation chemistry and liquid cell electron microscopy literature to present solution chemistry and electron beam-based methods for selecting the radiolysis products formed and their relative amount during electron irradiation of liquid media in a transmission electron microscope. We outline various methods for establishing net oxidizing or net reducing reaction environments and propose solvents with minimal overall production of radicals under the electron beam...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918537/the-genome-and-transcriptome-of-japanese-flounder-provide-insights-into-flatfish-asymmetry
#13
Changwei Shao, Baolong Bao, Zhiyuan Xie, Xinye Chen, Bo Li, Xiaodong Jia, Qiulin Yao, Guillermo Ortí, Wenhui Li, Xihong Li, Kristin Hamre, Juan Xu, Lei Wang, Fangyuan Chen, Yongsheng Tian, Alex M Schreiber, Na Wang, Fen Wei, Jilin Zhang, Zhongdian Dong, Lei Gao, Junwei Gai, Takashi Sakamoto, Sudong Mo, Wenjun Chen, Qiong Shi, Hui Li, Yunji Xiu, Yangzhen Li, Wenteng Xu, Zhiyi Shi, Guojie Zhang, Deborah M Power, Qingyin Wang, Manfred Schartl, Songlin Chen
Flatfish have the most extreme asymmetric body morphology of vertebrates. During metamorphosis, one eye migrates to the contralateral side of the skull, and this migration is accompanied by extensive craniofacial transformations and simultaneous development of lopsided body pigmentation. The evolution of this developmental and physiological innovation remains enigmatic. Comparative genomics of two flatfish and transcriptomic analyses during metamorphosis point to a role for thyroid hormone and retinoic acid signaling, as well as phototransduction pathways...
December 5, 2016: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917873/dose-biomarker-response-modeling-of-the-anticancer-effect-of-ethaselen-in-a-human-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-xenograft-mouse-model
#14
Suo-Fu Ye, Jian Li, Shuang-Min Ji, Hui-Hui Zeng, Wei Lu
Thioredoxin reductase (TrxR) is a component of several redox-sensitive signaling cascades that mediate important biological processes such as cell survival, maturation, growth, migration and inhibition of apoptosis. The expression levels of TrxR1 in some human carcinoma cell lines are nearly 10 times higher than those in normal cells. Ethaselen is a novel antitumor candidate that exerts potent inhibition on non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by targeting TrxR. In this study we explored the relationship between the ethaselen dose and TrxR activity level and the relationship between TrxR degradation and tumor apoptosis in a human lung carcinoma A549 xenograft model...
December 5, 2016: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917173/live-imaging-of-immune-responses-in-experimental-models-of-multiple-sclerosis
#15
REVIEW
Barbara Rossi, Gabriela Constantin
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the most common animal model of multiple sclerosis (MS), a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by multifocal perivascular infiltrates that predominantly comprise lymphocytes and macrophages. During EAE, autoreactive T cells first become active in the secondary lymphoid organs upon contact with antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and then gain access to CNS parenchyma, through a compromised blood-brain barrier, subsequently inducing inflammation and demyelination...
2016: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916714/comparison-of-retinal-vessel-diameter-between-open-angle-glaucoma-patients-with-initial-parafoveal-scotoma-and-peripheral-nasal-step
#16
Eunjoo Yoo, Chungkwon Yoo, Tae-Eun Lee, Yong Yeon Kim
PURPOSE: To compare retinal vessel diameters (RVDs) between open-angle glaucoma (OAG) patients with initial parafoveal scotoma (PFS) and those with initial peripheral nasal step (PNS). DESIGN: Retrospective, cross-sectional study METHODS: We enrolled 151 eyes of 151 patients with OAG (83 with normal-tension glaucoma [NTG] and 68 with primary open-angle glaucoma [POAG]). The patients were categorized into the PFS and PNS groups according to the location of the initial visual field (VF) defect...
December 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916672/famous-faces-and-voices-differential-profiles-in-early-right-and-left-semantic-dementia-and-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#17
Simona Luzzi, Sara Baldinelli, Valentina Ranaldi, Katia Fabi, Viviana Cafazzo, Fabio Fringuelli, Mauro Silvestrini, Leandro Provinciali, Carlo Reverberi, Guido Gainotti
BACKGROUND: Famous face and voice recognition is reported to be impaired both in semantic dementia (SD) and in Alzheimer's Disease (AD), although more severely in the former. In AD a coexistence of perceptual impairment in face and voice processing has also been reported and this could contribute to the altered performance in complex semantic tasks. On the other hand, in SD both face and voice recognition disorders could be related to the prevalence of atrophy in the right temporal lobe (RTL)...
December 1, 2016: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916527/dynamic-mrna-transport-and-local-translation-in-radial-glial-progenitors-of-the-developing-brain
#18
Louis-Jan Pilaz, Ashley L Lennox, Jeremy P Rouanet, Debra L Silver
In the developing brain, neurons are produced from neural stem cells termed radial glia [1, 2]. Radial glial progenitors span the neuroepithelium, extending long basal processes to form endfeet hundreds of micrometers away from the soma. Basal structures influence neuronal migration, tissue integrity, and proliferation [3-7]. Yet, despite the significance of these distal structures, their cell biology remains poorly characterized, impeding our understanding of how basal processes and endfeet influence neurogenesis...
November 30, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915105/the-effects-of-sleep-restriction-and-sleep-deprivation-in-producing-false-memories
#19
Alex Chatburn, Mark J Kohler, Jessica D Payne, Sean P A Drummond
False memory has been claimed to be the result of an associative process of generalisation, as well as to be representative of memory errors. These can occur at any stage of memory encoding, consolidation, or retrieval, albeit through varied mechanisms. The aim of this paper is to experimentally determine: i) if cognitive dysfunction brought about by sleep loss at the time of stimulus encoding can influence false memory production; and ii) whether this relationship holds across sensory modalities. Subjects undertook both the Deese-Roedigger-McDermott (DRM) false memory task and a visual task designed to produce false memories...
November 30, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914366/rapid-and-low-cost-biosensor-for-the-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus
#20
Ghadeer A R Y Suaifan, Sahar Alhogail, Mohammed Zourob
Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is one of the most common etiological agents in hospital-acquired infections and food-borne illness. S. aureus toxins and virulence proteases often circulate in host blood vessels leading to life-threatening diseases. Standard identification approaches include bacterial culturing method, which takes several days. Other nucleic acid-based methods were expensive and required trained personnel. To surmount these limitations, a paper-based biosensor was developed. The sensing mechanism was based on the proteolytic activity of S...
November 21, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
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