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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550656/the-combined-use-of-virtual-reality-and-eeg-to-study-language-processing-in-naturalistic-environments
#1
Johanne Tromp, David Peeters, Antje S Meyer, Peter Hagoort
When we comprehend language, we often do this in rich settings where we can use many cues to understand what someone is saying. However, it has traditionally been difficult to design experiments with rich three-dimensional contexts that resemble our everyday environments, while maintaining control over the linguistic and nonlinguistic information that is available. Here we test the validity of combining electroencephalography (EEG) and virtual reality (VR) to overcome this problem. We recorded electrophysiological brain activity during language processing in a well-controlled three-dimensional virtual audiovisual environment...
May 26, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550176/mechanical-behavior-and-matrisome-gene-expression-in-aneurysm-prone-thoracic-aorta-of-newborn-lysyl-oxidase-knockout-mice
#2
Marius Catalin Staiculescu, Jungsil Kim, Robert P Mecham, Jessica Wagenseil
Mutations in lysyl oxidase (LOX) are associated with thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection (TAAD). Mice that do not express Lox (Lox(-/-)) die soon after birth and have 60% and 40% reductions in elastin- and collagen-specific crosslinks, respectively. LOX inactivation could also change the expression of secreted factors, structural matrix, and matrix-associated proteins that constitute the aortic matrisome. We hypothesize that the absence of Lox will change the mechanical behavior of the aortic wall due to reduced elastin and collagen crosslinking and alter the expression levels of matrisome and smooth muscle cell (SMC) genes in a vascular location-specific manner...
May 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549936/deficit-in-feature-based-attention-following-a-left-thalamic-lesion
#3
Sofia Finsterwalder, Nele Demeyere, Celine R Gillebert
Selective attention enables us to prioritise the processing of relevant over irrelevant information. The model of priority maps with stored attention weights provides a conceptual framework that accounts for the visual prioritisation mechanism of selective attention. According to this model, high attention weights can be assigned to spatial locations, features, or objects. Converging evidence from neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies propose the involvement of thalamic and frontoparietal areas in selective attention...
May 23, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549901/degradation-of-proteoglycan-4-lubricin-by-cathepsin-s-potential-mechanism-for-diminished-ocular-surface-lubrication-in-sj%C3%A3-gren-s-syndrome
#4
Suresh C Regmi, Michael L Samsom, Miriam Heynen, Gregory D Jay, Benjamin D Sullivan, Sruthi Srinivasan, Barbara Caffery, Lyndon Jones, Tannin A Schmidt
Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune disease affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands with hallmark clinical symptoms of dry eye and dry mouth. Recently, markedly increased cathepsin S (CTSS) activity has been observed in the tears of SS patients. Proteoglycan 4 (PRG4), also known as lubricin, is an effective boundary lubricant that is naturally present on the ocular surface. While PRG4 is susceptible to proteolytic digestion, the potential effect of CTSS on PRG4 remains unknown. The objective of this study was to assess the ability of CTSS to enzymatically degrade purified PRG4, and PRG4 naturally present in human tears, and alter ocular surface boundary lubricating properties...
May 23, 2017: Experimental Eye Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549354/the-facespan-the-perceptual-span-for-face-recognition
#5
Michael Papinutto, Junpeng Lao, Meike Ramon, Roberto Caldara, Sébastien Miellet
In reading, the perceptual span is a well-established concept that refers to the amount of information that can be read in a single fixation. Surprisingly, despite extensive empirical interest in determining the perceptual strategies deployed to process faces and an ongoing debate regarding the factors or mechanism(s) underlying efficient face processing, the perceptual span for faces-the Facespan-remains undetermined. To address this issue, we applied the gaze-contingent Spotlight technique implemented in an old-new face recognition paradigm...
May 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548639/rai1%C3%A2-frees-mice-from-the-repression-of-active-wake-behaviors-by-light
#6
Shanaz Diessler, Corinne Kostic, Yvan Arsenijevic, Aki Kawasaki, Paul Franken
Besides its role in vision, light impacts physiology and behavior through circadian and direct (aka 'masking') mechanisms. In Smith-Magenis Syndrome (SMS), the dysregulation of both sleep-wake behavior and melatonin production strongly suggest impaired non-visual light perception. We discovered that mice haploinsufficient for the SMS causal gene, Retinoic acid induced-1 (Rai1), were hypersensitive to light such that light eliminated alert and active-wake behaviors, while leaving time-spent-awake unaffected...
May 26, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548458/effector-based-attention-systems
#7
REVIEW
Carolyn J Perry, Mazyar Fallah
Visual processing is known to be enhanced at the end point of eye movements. Feedback within the oculomotor system has been shown to drive these alterations in visual processing. However, we do not simply view the world; we also reach out and interact using our hands. Consequently, it is not surprising that visual processing has also been shown to be altered in near-hand space. A growing body of work documents a myriad of alterations in near-hand visual processing, with little consensus on the neural underpinnings of the effect of the hand...
May 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547868/improving-three-dimensional-mechanical-imaging-of-breast-lesions-with-principal-component-analysis
#8
Mohit Tyagi, Yuqi Wang, Timothy Hall, Paul E Barbone, Assad A Oberai
PURPOSE: Elastography has emerged as a new tool for detecting and diagnosing many types of diseases including breast cancer. To date, most clinical applications of elastography have utilized two-dimensional strain images. The goal of this paper is to present a new quasi-static elastography technique that yields shear modulus images in three dimensions METHODS: An automated breast volume scanner was used to acquire ultrasound images of the breast as it was gently compressed. Cross-correlation between successive images was used to determine the displacement within the tissue...
May 26, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547797/vitamin-d-receptor-agonists-regulate-ocular-developmental-angiogenesis-and-modulate-expression-of-dre-mir-21-and-vegf
#9
Stephanie L Merrigan, Breandán N Kennedy
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Pathological growth of ocular vasculature networks can underpin visual impairment in neovascular age-related macular degeneration, proliferative diabetic retinopathy and retinopathy of prematurity. Our aim was to uncover novel pharmacological regulators of ocular angiogenesis by phenotype-based screening in zebrafish. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: A bioactive chemical library of 465 drugs was screened to identify small molecule inhibitors of ocular hyaloid vasculature (HV) angiogenesis in zebrafish larvae...
May 26, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547680/the-influence-of-attention-on-value-integration
#10
Melina A Kunar, Derrick G Watson, Konstantinos Tsetsos, Nick Chater
People often have to make decisions based on many pieces of information. Previous work has found that people are able to integrate values presented in a rapid serial visual presentation (RSVP) stream to make informed judgements on the overall stream value (Tsetsos et al. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 109(24), 9659-9664, 2012). It is also well known that attentional mechanisms influence how people process information. However, it is unknown how attentional factors impact value judgements of integrated material...
May 25, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547537/filtering-visual-onsets-via-habituation-a-context-specific-long-term-memory-of-irrelevant-stimuli
#11
Massimo Turatto, Francesca Bonetti, David Pascucci
The fact that we are often immediately attracted by sudden visual onsets provides a clear advantage for our survival. However, how can we resist from being continuously distracted by irrelevant repetitive onsets? Since the seminal work of Sokolov (1963), habituation of the orienting of attention has long been proposed to be a possible filtering mechanism. Here, in two experiments, we provide novel evidence showing that (a) habituation of capture of focused visual attention relies on a stored representation of the distractor onsets in relation to their context, and (b) that once formed such representation endures unchanged for weeks without any further exposure to the distractors...
May 25, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28547007/rapid-self-healing-and-anion-selectivity-in-metallosupramolecular-gels-assisted-by-fluorine-fluorine-interactions
#12
Leticia Arnedo-Sánchez, Nonappa, Sandip Bhowmik, Sami Hietala, Rakesh Puttreddy, Manu Lahtinen, Luisa De Cola, Kari Rissanen
Simple ML2 [M = Fe(ii), Co(ii), Ni(ii)] complexes obtained from a perfluoroalkylamide derivative of 4-aminophenyl-2,2',6,2'-terpyridine spontaneously, yet anion selectively, self-assemble into gels, which manifest an unprecedented rapid gel strength recovery, viz. self-healing, and thermal rearrangement in aqueous dimethyl sulfoxide. The key factor for gelation and rheological properties emerges from the fluorine-fluorine interactions between the perfluorinated chains, as the corresponding hydrocarbon derivative did not form metallogels...
May 26, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546509/behavioral-color-vision-in-a-cichlid-fish-metriaclima-benetos
#13
Daniel Escobar-Camacho, Justin Marshall, Karen L Carleton
Color vision is the capacity of discriminating color regardless of brightness. It is essential for many fish species as they rely on color discrimination for numerous ecological tasks. The study of color vision is important because it can unveil the mechanisms that shape coloration patterns, visual system sensitivities and hence, visual signals. In order to understand better the mechanisms underlying color vision an integrative approach is necessary. This usually requires combining behavioral, physiological, and genetic experiments with quantitative modeling, resulting in a distinctive characterization of the visual system...
May 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545760/identification-of-synaptic-pattern-of-nmda-receptor-subunits-upon-direction-selective-retinal-ganglion-cells-in-developing-and-adult-mouse-retina
#14
Jun-Seok Lee, Hang-Gu Kim, Chang-Jin Jeon
Direction selectivity of the retina is a unique mechanism and critical function of eyes for surviving. Direction-selective retinal ganglion cells (DS RGCs) strongly respond to preferred directional stimuli, but rarely respond to the opposite or null directional stimuli. These DS RGCs are sensitive to glutamate, which is secreted from bipolar cells. Using immunocytochemistry, we studied with the distributions of N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits on the dendrites of DS RGCs in the developing and adult mouse retina...
May 22, 2017: Acta Histochemica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545397/jed-a-java-essential-dynamics-program-for-comparative-analysis-of-protein-trajectories
#15
Charles C David, Ettayapuram Ramaprasad Azhagiya Singam, Donald J Jacobs
BACKGROUND: Essential Dynamics (ED) is a common application of principal component analysis (PCA) to extract biologically relevant motions from atomic trajectories of proteins. Covariance and correlation based PCA are two common approaches to determine PCA modes (eigenvectors) and their eigenvalues. Protein dynamics can be characterized in terms of Cartesian coordinates or internal distance pairs. In understanding protein dynamics, a comparison of trajectories taken from a set of proteins for similarity assessment provides insight into conserved mechanisms...
May 25, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544978/documentation-of-50-water-conservation-in-a-single-process-at-a-beef-abattoir
#16
C L Drennan, R E DeOtte, T E Lawrence
Beef slaughter is water intensive due to stringent food safety requirements. We conducted a study at a commercial beef processor to demonstrate water conservation by modifying the mechanical head wash. We documented the initial nozzle configuration (112 nozzles), water pressure (275kPa), and flowrate (152L/head washed), then developed a 3-D CAD model to identify regions of water use redundancy. The mechanical head wash was modified by reducing nozzle count (72), decreasing pressure (138kPa) and flowrate (78...
May 17, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544770/review-article-screening-genetics-risk-factors-and-treatment-of-neonatal-cataracts
#17
REVIEW
Jinyu Li, Chun-Hong Xia, Eddie Wang, Ke Yao, Xiaohua Gong
Neonatal cataracts remain the most common cause of visual loss in children worldwide and have diverse, often unknown, etiologies. This review summarizes current knowledge about the detection, treatment, genetics, risk factors, and molecular mechanisms of congenital cataracts. We emphasize significant progress and topics requiring further study in both clinical cataract therapy and basic lens research. Advances in genetic screening and surgical technologies have improved the diagnosis, management, and visual outcomes of affected children...
May 22, 2017: Birth Defects Res
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544556/electrophysiological-analysis-of-synaptic-transmission-in-drosophila
#18
REVIEW
Maria Bykhovskaia, Alexander Vasin
Synaptic transmission is dynamic, plastic, and highly regulated. Drosophila is an advantageous model system for genetic and molecular studies of presynaptic and postsynaptic mechanisms and plasticity. Electrical recordings of synaptic responses represent a wide-spread approach to study neuronal signaling and synaptic transmission. We discuss experimental techniques that allow monitoring synaptic transmission in Drosophila neuromuscular and central systems. Recordings of synaptic potentials or currents at the larval neuromuscular junction (NMJ) are most common and provide numerous technical advantages due to robustness of the preparation, large and identifiable muscles, and synaptic boutons which can be readily visualized...
May 24, 2017: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544415/inertial-microfluidic-cell-stretcher-imcs-fully-automated-high-throughput-and-near-real-time-cell-mechanotyping
#19
Yanxiang Deng, Steven P Davis, Fan Yang, Kevin S Paulsen, Maneesh Kumar, Rebecca Sinnott DeVaux, Xianhui Wang, Douglas S Conklin, Assad Oberai, Jason I Herschkowitz, Aram J Chung
Mechanical biomarkers associated with cytoskeletal structures have been reported as powerful label-free cell state identifiers. In order to measure cell mechanical properties, traditional biophysical (e.g., atomic force microscopy, micropipette aspiration, optical stretchers) and microfluidic approaches were mainly employed; however, they critically suffer from low-throughput, low-sensitivity, and/or time-consuming and labor-intensive processes, not allowing techniques to be practically used for cell biology research applications...
May 23, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542002/assessment-of-behavioral-disruption-in-rats-with-abdominal-inflammation-using-visual-cue-titration-and-the-five-choice-serial-reaction-time-task
#20
Thomas J Martin, Tracy J Strassburg, Amanda L Grigg, Susy A Kim, Douglas G Ririe, James C Eisenach
BACKGROUND: Both acute and chronic pain result in a number of behavioral symptoms in patients, including cognitive effects such as decreased attention and working memory. Intraperitoneal administration of dilute lactic acid in rodents has been used to induce abdominal inflammation and produce effects in behavioral assays of both sensory-discriminative and affective pain modalities. METHODS: Intraperitoneal injection of dilute lactic acid was used to study the impact of abdominal inflammation on an operant task requiring sustained visual attention in rats (N = 7 to 15/group) that adapts dynamically to performance ability...
May 25, 2017: Anesthesiology
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