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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773841/ocular-counter-rolling-in-astronauts-after-short-and-long-duration-spaceflight
#1
Millard F Reschke, Scott J Wood, Gilles Clément
Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) is a reflex generated by the activation of the gravity sensors in the inner ear that stabilizes gaze and posture during head tilt. We compared the OCR measures that were obtained in 6 astronauts before, during, and after a spaceflight lasting 4-6 days with the OCR measures obtained from 6 astronauts before and after a spaceflight lasting 4-9 months. OCR in the short-duration fliers was measured using the afterimage method during head tilt at 15°, 30°, and 45°. OCR in the long-duration fliers was measured using video-oculography during whole body tilt at 25°...
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#2
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720419/complex-gaze-stabilization-in-mantis-shrimp
#3
Ilse M Daly, Martin J How, Julian C Partridge, Nicholas W Roberts
Almost all animals, regardless of the anatomy of the eyes, require some level of gaze stabilization in order to see the world clearly and without blur. For the mantis shrimp, achieving gaze stabilization is unusually challenging as their eyes have an unprecedented scope for movement in all three rotational degrees of freedom: yaw, pitch and torsion. We demonstrate that the species Odontodactylus scyllarus performs stereotypical gaze stabilization in the yaw degree of rotational freedom, which is accompanied by simultaneous changes in the pitch and torsion rotation of the eye...
May 16, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29710301/eye-gaze-direction-shows-a-positive-serial-dependency
#4
David Alais, Garry Kong, Colin Palmer, Colin Clifford
Recent work from several groups has shown that perception of various visual attributes in human observers at a given moment is biased towards what was recently seen. This positive serial dependency is a kind of temporal averaging which exploits short-term correlations in visual scenes to reduce noise and stabilize perception. Here we test for serial dependencies in perception of head and eye direction using a simple reproduction method to measure perceived head/eye gaze direction in rapid sequences of briefly presented face stimuli...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689764/a-speed-based-approach-to-vestibular-rehabilitation-for-peripheral-vestibular-hypofunction-a-retrospective-chart-review
#5
Robert Alan Roller, Courtney D Hall
BACKGROUND: Current vestibular rehabilitation for peripheral vestibular hypofunction is an exercise-based approach that improves symptoms and function in most, but not all patients, and includes gaze stabilization exercises focused on duration of head movement. One factor that may impact rehabilitation outcomes is the speed of head movement during gaze stability exercises. OBJECTIVE: Examine outcomes of modified VOR X1 exercises that emphasize a speed-based approach for gaze stabilization while omitting substitution and habituation exercises...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689345/visually-fixating-or-tracking-another-person-decreases-balance-control-in-young-and-older-females-walking-in-a-real-world-scenario
#6
Neil M Thomas, Tim Donovan, Susan Dewhurst, Theodoros M Bampouras
Balance control during overground walking was assessed in 10 young (23.6 ± 3.4) and 10 older (71.0 ± 5.5 years) healthy females during free gaze, and when fixating or tracking another person in an everyday use waiting room. Balance control was characterised by medial/lateral sacrum acceleration dispersion, and gaze fixations were simultaneously assessed with eye tracking equipment. The results showed decreased balance control when fixating a stationary (p = 0.003, gav  = 0.19) and tracking a walking (p = 0...
April 21, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676210/reduced-purposeful-head-movements-during-community-ambulation-following-unilateral-vestibular-loss
#7
Serene Sulyn Paul, Leland E Dibble, Raymond G Walther, Clough Shelton, Richard Klaus Gurgel, Mark Eric Lester
BACKGROUND: Individuals with unilateral vestibular hypofunction (UVH) alter their movement and reduce mobility to try to stabilize their gaze and avoid symptoms of dizziness and vertigo. OBJECTIVE: To determine if individuals with UVH 6 weeks after surgery demonstrate altered head and trunk kinematics during community ambulation. METHODS: A total of 15 vestibular schwannoma patients with documented postoperative unilateral vestibular loss and 9 healthy controls with symmetrical vestibulo-ocular reflexes participated in this cross-sectional study...
April 1, 2018: Neurorehabilitation and Neural Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642775/-dis-solving-the-weight-problem-in-binge-eating-disorder-systemic-insights-from-three-treatment-contexts-with-weight-stability-weight-loss-and-weight-acceptance
#8
Lene Bomholt Meyer, Mette Waaddegaard, Marianne Engelbrecht Lau, Tine Tjørnhøj-Thomsen
Binge-eating disorder (BED) is a severe eating disorder strongly associated with obesity. Treatments struggle to provide safe and effective ways of addressing weight in a BED context. This study explored a two-phased treatment for BED developed at a major out-patient eating disorder service in Denmark. The study used interviews and participant observations to gain insight into experiences and processes related to weight and body issues in three treatment contexts that addressed weight stability, weight acceptance, and weight loss...
April 1, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29599743/a-tool-to-quantify-the-functional-impact-of-oscillopsia
#9
Eric R Anson, Yoav Gimmon, Tim Kiemel, John J Jeka, John P Carey
Background: Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia during walking. Existing assessments of oscillopsia are limited to descriptions of severity and symptom frequency, neither of which provides a description of functional limitations attributed to oscillopsia. A novel questionnaire, the Oscillopsia Functional Impact scale (OFI) was developed to describe the impact of oscillopsia on daily life activities. Questions on the OFI ask how often individuals are able to execute specific activities considered to depend on gaze stability in an effort to link functional mobility impairments to oscillopsia for individuals with vestibular loss...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593506/the-interaction-of-pre-programmed-eye-movements-with-the-vestibulo-ocular-reflex
#10
Stephanie E Haggerty, W Michael King
The Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (VOR) works to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movements. However, even subjects who lack a VOR (e.g., vestibulopathic patients) can achieve gaze stability during planned head movements by using pre-programmed eye movements (PPEM). The extent to which PPEM are used by healthy intact subjects and how they interact with the VOR is still unclear. We propose a model of gaze stabilization which makes several claims: (1) the VOR provides ocular stability during unexpected (i.e., passive) head movements; (2) PPEM are used by both healthy and vestibulopathic subjects during planned (i...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29584455/vestibular-and-oculomotor-findings-in-neurologically-normal-non-concussed-children
#11
Daniel J Corwin, Mark R Zonfrillo, Douglas J Wiebe, Christina L Master, Matthew F Grady, Kristy B Arbogast
OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of non-concussed, neurologically normal children with failures on a vestibular and oculomotor examination for concussion performed in an acute setting. DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of subjects 6-18 years old presenting to a paediatric emergency department with non-neurologic chief complaints. The examination was administered by a paediatric emergency medicine physician, and includes assessments of dysmetria, nystagmus, smooth pursuits, saccades, gaze stability, near-point of convergence, and gait/balance testing...
March 27, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578887/visual-performance-and-perception-as-a-target-of-saccadic-strategies-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-loss
#12
Gabriel Trinidad-Ruiz, Jorge Rey-Martinez, Angel Batuecas-Caletrio, Eusebi Matiño-Soler, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of saccadic strategies developed during vestibular compensation to reduce the effect of an impaired vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) on a retinal smear and image motion sensation. DESIGN: Twenty patients with unilateral vestibular loss were examined with a video head impulse test before and after vestibular rehabilitation (VR) with the use of gaze stabilization and refixation saccades training. Head and eye velocity functions were processed to infer the retinal eccentricity, and through its correlation with visual acuity (VA), several measurements are proposed to evaluate the influence of VR on saccades behavior and visual performance...
March 23, 2018: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557700/tendon-elongation-with-bovine-pericardium-in-patients-with-severe-esotropia-after-decompression-in-graves-orbitopathy-efficacy-and-long-term-stability
#13
Michael Oeverhaus, Margarethe Fischer, Herbert Hirche, Anke Schlüter, Joachim Esser, Anja K Eckstein
BACKGROUND/AIMS: We performed a retrospective analysis to examine clinical results, establish a dose-effect coefficient and analyze the long-term efficacy of tendon elongation with bovine pericardium (Tutopatch®) for surgical correction of severe esotropia, occurring after three-wall orbital decompression for dysthyroid optic neuropathy in patients with Graves' orbitopathy (GO). METHODS: Tendon elongation of the medial rectus muscle (MR) was performed in our institution using an interponate of bovine pericardium in 60 patients (27 underwent unilateral and 33 bilateral surgery)...
March 20, 2018: Strabismus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547482/author-response-to-commentary-on-effect-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-chronic-motion-sensitivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#14
Eric Johnson, Noha Daher, Shilpa Gaikwad
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547481/commentary-on-effect-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-chronic-motion-sensitivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Anne K Galgon, Wendy Webb Schoenewald
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29547480/effect-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-chronic-motion-sensitivity-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Shilpa B Gaikwad, Eric G Johnson, Todd C Nelson, Oluwaseun I Ambode, Abdulaziz A Albalwi, Ahmad A Alharbi, Noha S Daher
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Motion sensitivity is a common condition among the general population and may be accompanied by postural instability and anxiety. Preliminary studies suggest that minimal dosage of gaze stability exercises improves postural stability in young adults with chronic motion sensitivity. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of progressive gaze stability exercises on postural stability, motion sensitivity, and anxiety in healthy young adults with chronic motion sensitivity...
April 2018: Journal of Neurologic Physical Therapy: JNPT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29523822/using-dual-eye-tracking-to-uncover-personal-gaze-patterns-during-social-interaction
#17
Shane L Rogers, Craig P Speelman, Oliver Guidetti, Melissa Longmuir
We report the personal eye gaze patterns of people engaged in face-to-face getting acquainted conversation. Considerable differences between individuals are underscored by a stability of eye gaze patterns within individuals. Results suggest the existence of an eye-mouth gaze continuum. This continuum includes some people showing a strong preference for eye gaze, some with a strong preference for mouth gaze, and others distributing their gaze between the eyes and mouth to varying extents. Additionally, we found evidence of within-participant consistency not just for location preference but also for the duration of fixations upon the eye and mouth regions...
March 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29513149/motor-action-of-the-frontal-eye-field-on-the-eyes-and-neck-in-the-monkey
#18
Yoshiko Izawa, Hisao Suzuki
Focal stimulation in the frontal eye field (FEF) evoked eye movements that were often accompanied by neck movements. Experiments were performed with concurrent recording of both movements in trained monkeys. We recorded neck forces under a head-restrained condition using a force-measuring system. With the system, we measured forces along the x, y, and z axes and torque about the z axis. Torque about the z axis that represented yaw rotation of the head was significantly affected by stimulation. We found that stimulation generated two types of motor actions of the eyes and neck...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29485478/tenon-capsule-vitreous-cavity-fistula-after-hydrogel-scleral-buckle-removal
#19
Carl S Wilkins, Vaidehi S Dedania, Devon H Ghodasra, Mark W Johnson
PURPOSE: To report a rare case of vitreous cavity-Tenon capsule fistula formation after removal of a symptomatic hydrogel scleral buckle. METHODS: Case report. RESULTS: A 43-year-old man presented with chronic headache and involuntary gaze deviation for over 1 year after hydrogel scleral buckle surgery 25 years prior. After removal of the scleral buckle, the patient developed a fluid-filled inflation of the buckle capsule, surrounding a previously noted area of severe scleral thinning...
February 26, 2018: Retinal Cases & Brief Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456166/head-stabilisation-in-fast-running-lizards
#20
Jana Goyens, Peter Aerts
The cyclic patterns of terrestrial animal locomotion are frequently perturbed in natural environments. The terrain can be complex or inclined, the substrate can move unexpectedly and animals can misjudge situations. Loosing stability due to perturbations increases the probability of capture by predators and decreases the chance of successful prey capture and winning intraspecific battles. When controlled corrective actions are necessary to negotiate perturbations, animals rely on their exteroceptive and proprioceptive senses to monitor the environment and their own body movements...
April 2018: Zoology: Analysis of Complex Systems, ZACS
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