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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934067/transient-effects-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-postural-stability-in-patients-with-posterior-circulation-stroke
#1
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Etsuo Horikawa
The authors sought to investigate if short-term gaze stability exercises have an effect on postural stability of dynamic standing during neck movement in patients with posterior circulation stroke (PCS). Patients in both PCS and non-PCS groups were assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed the gaze stability exercises for 10 min while the control group was merely resting. The center of pressure velocity was calculated to evaluate the postural stability. After intervention, PCS and non-PCS showed a significant reduction in center of pressure velocity during dynamic standing with eyes closed condition, and the PCS group showed a significant improvement in eye-opened condition...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931974/gaze-stabilization-exercises-derive-sensory-reweighting-of-vestibular-for-postural-control
#2
Yusuke Ueta, Akiyoshi Matsugi, Kosuke Oku, Kojiro Okuno, Yoshiki Tamaru, Shohei Nomura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Shinya Douchi, Nobuhiko Mori
[Purpose] The aim of this study was to investigate whether gaze stabilization exercise derives sensory reweighting of vestibular for upright postural control. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-three healthy volunteers participated in this study. The center of pressure of the total trajectory length was measured before (pre), immediately after (post), and 10 min after (post10) gaze stabilization exercise, in the static standing position, with the eyes open or closed, on the floor or on foam rubber. The sensory contribution values of the visual, somatosensory, and vestibular systems were calculated using center of pressure of the total trajectory length value in these measuring conditions...
September 2017: Journal of Physical Therapy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899193/maternal-self-critical-and-dependent-personality-styles-and-mother-infant-communication
#3
Beatrice Beebe, Frank Lachmann
This study investigated mother-infant communication in relation to Blatt's measures of adult personality organization, namely, interpersonal relatedness and self-definition, defining the higher ends of these two measures as dependency and self-criticism, respectively. A nonclinical sample of 126 mother-infant dyads provided the data. An evaluation of maternal self-criticism and dependency was made six weeks postpartum; four months postpartum, mother-infant self- and interactive contingencies during face-to-face play were studied and analyzed in conjunction with the earlier evaluation...
June 2017: Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859067/bionic-balance-organs-progress-in-the-development-of-vestibular-prostheses
#4
REVIEW
Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that is critically important in humans for gaze and image stability as well as postural control. Patients with complete bilateral vestibular loss are severely disabled and experience a poor quality of life. There are very few effective treatment options for patients with no vestibular function. Over the last 10 years, rapid progress has been made in developing artificial 'vestibular implants' or 'prostheses', based on cochlear implant technology. As of 2017, 13 patients worldwide have received vestibular implants and the results are encouraging...
September 1, 2017: New Zealand Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816481/individuals-eye-movements-in-reading-are-highly-consistent-across-time-and-trial
#5
Benjamin T Carter, Steven G Luke
Eye movements are used to study a variety of cognitive phenomena, including attention, perception, memory, language, reading, decision making, and many others, as well as cognitive impairments and individual differences in cognition. These studies assume, with little evidence, that eye movements are stable across time and trials. Eye movement stability must be better characterized to understand the full theoretical and clinical implications of individual differences in eye movement behavior. The present study examined eye movement reliability in normal individuals during reading...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813578/incomitance-and-eye-dominance-in-intermittent-exotropia
#6
Daniel L Adams, John R Economides, Jonathan C Horton
Purpose: To determine if the deviation angle changes in subjects with intermittent exotropia as they alternate fixation between the right and left eye in primary gaze. Methods: In this prospective observational cohort study, 37 subjects with intermittent exotropia were tested for evidence of incomitance. The position of each eye was recorded with a video tracker during fixation on a small central target. A cover-uncover test was performed by occluding one eye with a shutter that passed infrared light, allowing continuous tracking of both eyes...
August 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795949/a-comprehensive-gaze-stabilization-controller-based-on-cerebellar-internal-models
#7
Lorenzo Vannucci, Egidio Falotico, Silvia Tolu, Vito Cacucciolo, Paolo Dario, Henrik Hautop Lund, Cecilia Laschi
Gaze stabilization is essential for clear vision; it is the combined effect of two reflexes relying on vestibular inputs: the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), which stabilizes the head in space and the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), which stabilizes the visual axis to minimize retinal image motion. The VOR works in conjunction with the opto-kinetic reflex (OKR), which is a visual feedback mechanism that allows to move the eye at the same speed as the observed scene. Together they keep the image stationary on the retina...
August 10, 2017: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790966/randomized-controlled-study-of-a-remote-flipped-classroom-neuro-otology-curriculum
#8
Frederick Robert Carrick, Mahera Abdulrahman, Ahmed Hankir, Maksim Zayaruzny, Kinda Najem, Palita Lungchukiet, Roger A Edwards
CONTEXT: Medical Education can be delivered in the traditional classroom or via novel technology including an online classroom. OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that learning in an online classroom would result in similar outcomes as learning in the traditional classroom when using a flipped classroom pedagogy. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. A total of 274 subjects enrolled in a Neuro-otology training program for non-Neuro-otologists of 25 h held over a 3-day period...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709904/the-effects-of-gaze-stabilization-on-gait-parameters-in-individuals-with-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Rebecca J Reed-Jones, Douglas W Powell
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of gaze fixation on head stabilization and gait during straight over ground walking in individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD). Eight individuals with PD (Age: 62.3±8.1 years) volunteered for the study. Full body kinematic data were collected at 120Hz using a Vicon motion capture system. Two visual conditions were used to determine the effects of gaze fixation: FREE gaze and FIXED gaze. During FIXED gaze, participants were required to fixate on a still target 13m ahead...
August 10, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698242/abnormal-fixational-eye-movements-in-strabismus
#10
Fatema F Ghasia, Jorge Otero-Millan, Aasef G Shaikh
INTRODUCTION: Fixational saccades are miniature eye movements that constantly change the gaze during attempted visual fixation. Visually guided saccades and fixational saccades represent an oculomotor continuum and are produced by common neural machinery. Patients with strabismus have disconjugate binocular horizontal saccades. We examined the stability and variability of eye position during fixation in patients with strabismus and correlated the severity of fixational instability with strabismus angle and binocular vision...
July 11, 2017: British Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28681089/a-novel-test-for-evaluating-horses-spontaneous-visual-attention-is-predictive-of-attention-in-operant-learning-tasks
#11
C Rochais, M Sébilleau, M Houdebine, P Bec, M Hausberger, S Henry
Attention is described as the ability to process selectively one aspect of the environment over others. In this study, we characterized horses' spontaneous attention by designing a novel visual attention test (VAT) that is easy to apply in the animal's home environment. The test was repeated over three consecutive days and repeated again 6 months later in order to assess inter-individual variations and intra-individual stability. Different patterns of attention have been revealed: 'overall' attention when the horse merely gazed at the stimulus and 'fixed' attention characterized by fixity and orientation of at least the visual and auditory organs towards the stimulus...
August 2017: Die Naturwissenschaften
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640006/poor-gait-performance-is-influenced-with-decreased-vestibulo-ocular-reflex-in-poststroke-patients
#12
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) exerts a significant influence on gait performance. Therefore, a decrease in VOR function could worsen gait impairments in patients with poststroke hemiparesis. The effects of decreased VOR function on gait performance could be further exacerbated by aging-related physical weakness and impaired motor function of the hemiparetic lower limb. The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible synergistic effect of aging and impairment in lower extremity function and the VOR on walking ability of poststroke hemiplegic patients...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601564/angle-of-gaze-and-optic-flow-direction-modulate-body-sway
#13
Milena Raffi, Alessandro Piras, Michela Persiani, Monica Perazzolo, Salvatore Squatrito
Optic flow is a crucial signal in maintaining postural stability. We sought to investigate whether the activity of postural muscles and body sway was modulated by eye position during the view of radial optic flow stimuli. We manipulated the spatial distribution of dot speed and the fixation point position to simulate specific heading directions combined with different gaze positions. The experiments were performed using stabilometry and surface electromyography (EMG) on 24 right-handed young, healthy volunteers...
August 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593438/eye-movements-are-correctly-timed-during-walking-despite-bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction
#14
Eric R Anson, Tim Kiemel, John P Carey, John J Jeka
Individuals with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) often report symptoms of oscillopsia (the perception that the world is bouncing or unstable) during walking. Efference copy/proprioception contributes to locomotion gaze stability in animals, sometimes inhibiting the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR). Gaze stability requires both adequate eye velocity and appropriate timing of eye movements. It is unknown whether eye velocity (VOR gain), timing (phase), or both are impaired for individuals with BVH during walking...
August 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542112/effects-of-vestibular-rehabilitation-on-gait-performance-in-poststroke-patients-a-pilot-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Shinichiro Oka, Etsuo Horikawa
The effects of vestibular rehabilitation on poststroke patients are unknown. This study aimed to investigate whether or not vestibular rehabilitation would improve both the vestibulo-ocular reflex and gait performance of patients with poststroke hemiparesis. Twenty-eight patients with stroke were assigned randomly to either an experimental group (N=14) or a control group (N=14). The experimental group performed the conventional physical therapy for 40 min and vestibular rehabilitation for 20 min, as a 60 min session, during the first 3 weeks and then completed only the conventional intervention for 60 min for the following 3 weeks...
May 24, 2017: International Journal of Rehabilitation Research. Revue Internationale de Recherches de Réadaptation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499856/measuring-soldier-performance-during-the-patrol-exertion-multitask-preliminary-validation-of-a-post-concussive-functional-return-to-duty-metric
#16
Matthew Scherer, Margaret M Weightman, Mary Vining Radomski, Laurel Smith, Marsha Finkelstein, Amy Cecchini, Kristin Jensen Heaton, Karen McCulloch
OBJECTIVE: To assess the discriminant validity of the Patrol-Exertion Multitask (PEMT), a novel, multi-domain, functional return-to-duty clinical assessment for Active Duty military personnel. DESIGN: Measurement development study SETTING: Non-clinical indoor testing facility, Fort Bragg NC PARTICIPANTS: 51 healthy control (HC) Service Members and 33 military personnel with persistent post-concussive symptoms receiving rehabilitation (mTBI) INTERVENTION: Not applicable MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Known-groups discriminant validity was evaluated by comparing performance on the PEMT in two groups of Active Duty SM, HC and personnel with mTBI residual symptoms...
May 9, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446583/a-shared-neural-integrator-for-human-posture-control
#17
S E Haggerty, A R Wu, K H Sienko, A D Kuo
Control of standing posture requires fusion of multiple inputs including visual, vestibular, somatosensory, and other sensors, each having distinct dynamics. The semicircular canals, for example, have a unique high-pass filter response to angular velocity, quickly sensing a step change in head rotational velocity followed by a decay. To stabilize gaze direction despite this decay, the central nervous system supplies a neural "velocity storage" integrator, a filter that extends the angular velocity signal. Similar filtering might contribute temporal dynamics to posture control, as suggested by some state estimation models...
August 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424915/optimal-eye-movement-strategies-a-comparison-of-neurosurgeons-gaze-patterns-when-using-a-surgical-microscope
#18
Shahram Eivazi, Ahmad Hafez, Wolfgang Fuhl, Hoorieh Afkari, Enkelejda Kasneci, Martin Lehecka, Roman Bednarik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. METHOD: We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker...
June 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421028/adult-onset-niemann-pick-disease-type-c-rapid-treatment-initiation-advised-but-early-diagnosis-remains-difficult
#19
Tobias Piroth, Kai Boelmans, Florian Amtage, Michel Rijntjes, Anna Wierciochin, Thomas Musacchio, Cornelius Weiller, Jens Volkmann, Stephan Klebe
Niemann-Pick type C disease (NP-C) presents with heterogeneous neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Adult onset is rare and possibly underdiagnosed due to frequent lack of specific and obvious key symptoms. For both early and adolescent/adult onset, the available data from studies and case reports describe a positive effect of Miglustat (symptom relief or stabilization). However, due to the low frequency of NP-C, experience with this therapy is still limited. We describe two adult-onset cases of NP-C. In both cases, vertical supranuclear gaze palsy was not recognized at symptom onset...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404827/new-insights-into-vestibular-saccade-interaction-based-on-covert-corrective-saccades-in-patients-with-unilateral-vestibular-deficits
#20
Paolo Colagiorgio, Maurizio Versino, Silvia Colnaghi, Silvia Quaglieri, Marco Manfrin, Ewa Zamaro, Georgios Mantokoudis, David S Zee, Stefano Ramat
In response to passive high-acceleration head impulses, patients with low vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) gains often produce covert (executed while the head is still moving) corrective saccades in the direction of deficient slow phases. Here we examined 23 patients using passive, and 9 also active, head impulses with acute (< 10 days from onset) unilateral vestibular neuritis and low VOR gains. We found that when corrective saccades are larger than 10°, the slow-phase component of the VOR is inhibited, even though inhibition increases further the time to reacquire the fixation target...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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