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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332030/what-is-a-more-effective-method-of-cranio-cervical-flexion-exercises
#1
Junhyung Park, Do-Heung Ko, Jingang Her, Jihea Woo
BACKGROUND: Cranio-cervical flexion exercise (CCFE) is a representative exercise that activates the deep muscles of neck pain patients. However, there are a lack of studies that propose specific exercise methods to examine the more effective activity level of the deep cervical flexor. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to propose a more effective exercise method through effect comparison based on an optimal degree of mouth-opening, a mouth-open versus mouth-closed position, eye gaze, and body position change during CCFE...
December 29, 2017: Journal of Back and Musculoskeletal Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321945/gaze-compensation-as-a-technique-for-improving-hand-eye-coordination-in-prosthetic-vision
#2
Samuel A Titchener, Mohit N Shivdasani, James B Fallon, Matthew A Petoe
Purpose: Shifting the region-of-interest within the input image to compensate for gaze shifts ("gaze compensation") may improve hand-eye coordination in visual prostheses that incorporate an external camera. The present study investigated the effects of eye movement on hand-eye coordination under simulated prosthetic vision (SPV), and measured the coordination benefits of gaze compensation. Methods: Seven healthy-sighted subjects performed a target localization-pointing task under SPV...
January 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321511/enhancing-vestibular-function-in-the-elderly-with-imperceptible-electrical-stimulation
#3
Jorge M Serrador, Brian M Deegan, Maria C Geraghty, Scott J Wood
Age-related loss of vestibular function can result in decrements in gaze stabilization and increased fall risk in the elderly. This study was designed to see if low levels of electrical stochastic noise applied transcutaneously to the vestibular system can improve a gaze stabilization reflex in young and elderly subject groups. Ocular counter-rolling (OCR) using a video-based technique was obtained in 16 subjects during low frequency passive roll tilts. Consistent with previous studies, there was a significant reduction in OCR gains in the elderly compared to the young group...
January 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249929/pigeons-c-livia-follow-their-head-during-turning-flight-head-stabilization-underlies-the-visual-control-of-flight
#4
Ivo G Ros, Andrew A Biewener
Similar flight control principles operate across insect and vertebrate fliers. These principles indicate that robust solutions have evolved to meet complex behavioral challenges. Following from studies of visual and cervical feedback control of flight in insects, we investigate the role of head stabilization in providing feedback cues for controlling turning flight in pigeons. Based on previous observations that the eyes of pigeons remain at relatively fixed orientations within the head during flight, we test potential sensory control inputs derived from head and body movements during 90° aerial turns...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29248983/are-covert-saccade-functionally-relevant-in-vestibular-hypofunction
#5
R Hermann, D Pelisson, O Dumas, Ch Urquizar, E Truy, C Tilikete
The vestibulo-ocular reflex maintains gaze stabilization during angular or linear head accelerations, allowing adequate dynamic visual acuity. In case of bilateral vestibular hypofunction, patients use saccades to compensate for the reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function, with covert saccades occurring even during the head displacement. In this study, we questioned whether covert saccades help maintain dynamic visual acuity, and evaluated which characteristic of these saccades are the most relevant to improve visual function...
December 16, 2017: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190849/concussion-recovery-phase-affects-vestibular-and-oculomotor-symptom-provocation
#6
Kelly M Cheever, Jane McDevitt, Ryan Tierney, W Geoffrey Wright
Vestibular and oculomotor testing is emerging as a valuable assessment in sport-related concussion (SRC). However, their usefulness for tracking recovery and guiding return-to-play decisions remains unclear. Therefore the purpose of this study was to evaluate their clinical usefulness for tracking SRC recovery. Vestibular and oculomotor assessments were used to measure symptom provocation in an acute group (n=21) concussed≤10 days, prolonged symptoms group (n=10) concussed ≥16 days (median=84 days), healthy group (n=58) no concussions in >6 months...
November 30, 2017: International Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170432/ocular-effects-of-virtual-reality-headset-wear-in-young-adults
#7
Philip R K Turnbull, John R Phillips
Virtual Reality (VR) headsets create immersion by displaying images on screens placed very close to the eyes, which are viewed through high powered lenses. Here we investigate whether this viewing arrangement alters the binocular status of the eyes, and whether it is likely to provide a stimulus for myopia development. We compared binocular status after 40-minute trials in indoor and outdoor environments, in both real and virtual worlds. We also measured the change in thickness of the ocular choroid, to assess the likely presence of signals for ocular growth and myopia development...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167325/the-modulation-of-hippocampal-theta-rhythm-by-the-vestibular-system
#8
Phillip Aitken, Yiwen Zheng, Paul F Smith
The vestibular system is a sensory system that has evolved over millions of years to detect acceleration of the head, both rotational and translational, in three dimensions. One of its most important functions is to stabilize gaze during unexpected head movement; however, it is also important in the control of posture and autonomic reflexes. Theta rhythm is a 3-12 Hz oscillating EEG signal that is intimately linked to self-motion and is also known to be important in learning and memory. Many studies over the last two decades have shown that selective activation of the vestibular system, either using natural rotational or translational stimulation, or electrical stimulation of the peripheral vestibular system, can induce and modulate theta activity...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154629/emergent-perception-of-gaze-direction-across-time
#9
Diana Mihalache, Laurel A Gaeddert, Timothy D Sweeny
To determine where another person is looking, the visual system engages a process of emergent integration, pooling information across space from both the head and eyes. Gaze is dynamic, however, and in order to achieve a temporally stabilized metric of a person's direction of attention, this integrative process might also occur across time. Here, we tested and confirmed this prediction. Even when seen separately and in succession, the rotation of a head attracted the perceived gaze of a pair of eyes. This integration depended on temporal continuity-attraction decayed with longer delays between the face parts and prolonged viewing of the head reduced integration...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141881/it-s-not-all-black-and-white-visual-scene-parameters-influence-optokinetic-reflex-performance-in-xenopus-laevis-tadpoles
#10
Céline M Gravot, Alexander G Knorr, Stefan Glasauer, Hans Straka
The maintenance of visual acuity during active and passive body motion is ensured by gaze-stabilizing reflexes that aim at minimizing retinal image slip. For the optokinetic reflex (OKR), large-field visual motion of the surround forms the essential stimulus that activates eye movements. Properties of the moving visual world influence cognitive motion perception and the estimation of visual image velocity. Therefore, the performance of brainstem-mediated visuo-motor behaviors might also depend on image scene characteristics...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129037/eye-movement-abnormalities-in-middle-cerebellar-peduncle-strokes
#11
Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
The middle cerebellar peduncle (MCP) is a major conduit for cortico-ponto-cerebellar fibers that convey information related to eye movements. This study aims to elucidate eye movement abnormalities that arise from lesions confined to the MCP. In 23 patients with acute strokes restricted to unilateral MCPs, we investigated the clinical features and ocular motor findings including spontaneous nystagmus, saccades, smooth pursuit, ocular tilt reaction, and head impulse tests. Bithermal caloric tests and audiometry were also performed...
November 11, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096033/cervical-spine-deformity-part-3-posterior-techniques-clinical-outcome-and-complications
#12
Lee A Tan, K Daniel Riew, Vincent C Traynelis
The goals of cervical deformity surgery include deformity correction, restoration of horizontal gaze, decompression of neural elements, spinal stabilization with a biomechanically sound construct, and meticulous arthrodesis technique to prevent pseudoarthrosis and minimizing surgical complications. Many different surgical options exist, but selecting the correct approach that ensures the optimal clinical outcome can be challenging and often controversial. In this last part of the cervical deformity review series, various posterior deformity correction techniques are discussed in detail, along with an overview of surgical outcome and postoperative complications...
October 31, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081419/saccadic-dysfunction-in-patients-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy
#13
Elena L Teslenko, Elena V Damyanovich, Ilija Damjanović, Zoran Gačić, Boris K Baziyan
Electrophysiological monitoring of saccadic eye movements in patients with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) was carried out. Externally guided saccades (prosaccades) were recorded using a patented hardware-software complex for studying the subject's physical activity. Recordings were performed in two independent experimental procedures - for saccades separately and when they were in coordination with the motion of head and hand. In both cases statistically significant differences in latent periods and durations of saccadic eye movements were noticed in HIE patients in comparison with healthy subjects of the same age group (p<0...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065297/insect-flight-navigating-with-smooth-turns-and-quick-saccades
#14
Jamie Theobald
A new study shows that flying Drosophila prefer steady turns when following moving panoramas, but switch overwhelmingly to quick, intermittent body saccades when following narrow bars. This suggests insect brains trigger distinct flight patterns to stabilize gaze for different tasks.
October 23, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060230/remote-gaze-tracking-system-for-3d-environments
#15
Congcong Liu, Karl Herrup, Bertram E Shi
Eye tracking systems are typically divided into two categories: remote and mobile. Remote systems, where the eye tracker is located near the object being viewed by the subject, have the advantage of being less intrusive, but are typically used for tracking gaze points on fixed two dimensional (2D) computer screens. Mobile systems such as eye tracking glasses, where the eye tracker are attached to the subject, are more intrusive, but are better suited for cases where subjects are viewing objects in the three dimensional (3D) environment...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060096/assisting-people-with-nystagmus-through-image-stabilization-using-an-arx-model-to-overcome-processing-delays
#16
Stephan Polzer, Klaus Miesenberger
Pathological Nystagmus is characterized by an unintended and involuntary eye-movement, which tends to impact on visual acuity. Today only view therapies (for instance medication or surgeries) to treat nystagmus are at hand and the existing therapies only show partial improvement. Only general Assistive Technology (AT) solutions like glasses, screen magnifiers, speech output, display adaptation and concepts holders are at hand to support daily living. More specific ATs to reduce the impact of nystagmus are missing...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978733/head-movements-quadruple-the-range-of-speeds-encoded-by-the-insect-motion-vision-system-in-hawkmoths
#17
Shane P Windsor, Graham K Taylor
Flying insects use compensatory head movements to stabilize gaze. Like other optokinetic responses, these movements can reduce image displacement, motion and misalignment, and simplify the optic flow field. Because gaze is imperfectly stabilized in insects, we hypothesized that compensatory head movements serve to extend the range of velocities of self-motion that the visual system encodes. We tested this by measuring head movements in hawkmoths Hyles lineata responding to full-field visual stimuli of differing oscillation amplitudes, oscillation frequencies and spatial frequencies...
October 11, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972121/gaze-stabilizing-central-vestibular-neurons-project-asymmetrically-to-extraocular-motoneuron-pools
#18
David Schoppik, Isaac H Bianco, David A Prober, Adam D Douglass, Drew N Robson, Jennifer M B Li, Joel S F Greenwood, Edward Soucy, Florian Engert, Alexander F Schier
Within reflex circuits, specific anatomical projections allow central neurons to relay sensations to effectors that generate movements. A major challenge is to relate anatomical features of central neural populations -- such as asymmetric connectivity -- to the computations the populations perform. To address this problem, we mapped the anatomy, modeled the function, and discovered a new behavioral role for a genetically-defined population of central vestibular neurons in rhombomeres 5-7 of larval zebrafish...
September 29, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943085/drosophila-spatiotemporally-integrates-visual-signals-to-control-saccades
#19
Jean-Michel Mongeau, Mark A Frye
Like many visually active animals, including humans, flies generate both smooth and rapid saccadic movements to stabilize their gaze. How rapid body saccades and smooth movement interact for simultaneous object pursuit and gaze stabilization is not understood. We directly observed these interactions in magnetically tethered Drosophila free to rotate about the yaw axis. A moving bar elicited sustained bouts of saccades following the bar, with surprisingly little smooth movement. By contrast, a moving panorama elicited robust smooth movement interspersed with occasional optomotor saccades...
October 9, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934067/transient-effects-of-gaze-stability-exercises-on-postural-stability-in-patients-with-posterior-circulation-stroke
#20
Tsubasa Mitsutake, Maiko Sakamoto, Kozo Ueta, Etsuo Horikawa
The authors sought to investigate if short-term gaze stability exercises have an effect on postural stability of dynamic standing during neck movement in patients with posterior circulation stroke (PCS). Patients in both PCS and non-PCS groups were assigned to either an intervention or control group. The intervention group performed the gaze stability exercises for 10 min while the control group was merely resting. The center of pressure velocity was calculated to evaluate the postural stability. After intervention, PCS and non-PCS showed a significant reduction in center of pressure velocity during dynamic standing with eyes closed condition, and the PCS group showed a significant improvement in eye-opened condition...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
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