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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813061/indole-synthesis-by-palladium-catalyzed-tandem-allylic-isomerization-furan-diels-alder-reaction
#1
Jie Xu, Peter Wipf
A Pd(0)-catalyzed elimination of an allylic acetate generates a π-allyl complex that is postulated to initiate a novel intramolecular Diels-Alder cycloaddition to a tethered furan (IMDAF). Under the reaction conditions, this convergent, microwave-accelerated cascade process provides substituted indoles in moderate to good yields after Pd-hydride elimination, aromatization by dehydration, and in situ N-Boc cleavage.
August 16, 2017: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812900/single-reactant-replacement-approach-of-passerini-reaction-one-pot-synthesis-of-%C3%AE-acyloxyamides-and-phthalides
#2
Yangyong Shen, Bo Huang, Linwei Zeng, Sunliang Cui
The Passerini reaction is a classical and well-known multicomponent reaction for accessing α-acyloxy amides. A single reactant replacement (SRR) approach of Passerini reaction is described, which involves aldehydes, carboxylic acids, and ynamides to constitute a one-pot synthesis of β-acyloxy amides in a convergent manner. When this method was subject to intramolecular reaction, the process would produce phthalide products. The scalability was demonstrated, and a crossover reaction was conducted to elucidate a plausible mechanism...
August 16, 2017: Organic Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812833/evaluating-the-implementation-and-feasibility-of-a-web-based-tool-to-support-timely-identification-and-care-for-the-frail-population-in-primary-healthcare-settings
#3
Beverley Lawson, Tara Sampalli, Stephanie Wood, Grace Warner, Paige Moorhouse, Rick Gibson, Laurie Mallery, Fred Burge, Lisa G Bedford
BACKGROUND: Understanding and addressing the needs of frail persons is an emerging health priority for Nova Scotia and internationally. Primary healthcare (PHC) providers regularly encounter frail persons in their daily clinical work. However, routine identification and measurement of frailty is not standard practice and, in general, there is a lack of awareness about how to identify and respond to frailty. A web-based tool called the Frailty Portal was developed to aid in identifying, screening, and providing care for frail patients in PHC settings...
March 7, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812791/global-developments-in-priority-setting-in-health
#4
EDITORIAL
Rob Baltussen, Craig Mitton, Marion Danis, Iestyn Williams, Marthe Gold
Countries around the world are experiencing an ever-increasing need to make choices in investments in health and healthcare. This makes it incumbent upon them to have formal processes in place to optimize the legitimacy of eventual decisions. There is now growing experience among countries of the implementation of stakeholder participation, and a developing convergence of methods to support decision-makers within health authorities in making tough decisions when faced with the stark reality of limited resources...
January 28, 2017: International Journal of Health Policy and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812732/genome-of-the-pitcher-plant-cephalotus-reveals-genetic-changes-associated-with-carnivory
#5
Kenji Fukushima, Xiaodong Fang, David Alvarez-Ponce, Huimin Cai, Lorenzo Carretero-Paulet, Cui Chen, Tien-Hao Chang, Kimberly M Farr, Tomomichi Fujita, Yuji Hiwatashi, Yoshikazu Hoshi, Takamasa Imai, Masahiro Kasahara, Pablo Librado, Likai Mao, Hitoshi Mori, Tomoaki Nishiyama, Masafumi Nozawa, Gergő Pálfalvi, Stephen T Pollard, Julio Rozas, Alejandro Sánchez-Gracia, David Sankoff, Tomoko F Shibata, Shuji Shigenobu, Naomi Sumikawa, Taketoshi Uzawa, Meiying Xie, Chunfang Zheng, David D Pollock, Victor A Albert, Shuaicheng Li, Mitsuyasu Hasebe
Carnivorous plants exploit animals as a nutritional source and have inspired long-standing questions about the origin and evolution of carnivory-related traits. To investigate the molecular bases of carnivory, we sequenced the genome of the heterophyllous pitcher plant Cephalotus follicularis, in which we succeeded in regulating the developmental switch between carnivorous and non-carnivorous leaves. Transcriptome comparison of the two leaf types and gene repertoire analysis identified genetic changes associated with prey attraction, capture, digestion and nutrient absorption...
February 6, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812724/the-genomic-landscape-of-evolutionary-convergence-in-mammals-birds-and-reptiles
#6
Liron Levin, Dan Mishmar
Many lineage-defining (nodal) mutations possess high functionality. However, differentiating adaptive nodal mutations from those that are functionally compensated remains challenging. To address this challenge, we identified functional nodal mutations (fNMs) in ~3,400 nuclear DNA (nDNA) and 4 mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) protein structures from 91 and 1,003 species, respectively, representing the entire mammalian, bird and reptile phylogeny. A screen for candidate compensatory mutations among co-occurring amino acid changes in close structural proximity revealed that such compensated fNMs encompass 37% and 27% of the mtDNA and nDNA datasets, respectively...
February 13, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812698/urbanization-erodes-ectomycorrhizal-fungal-diversity-and-may-cause-microbial-communities-to-converge
#7
Dietrich J Epp Schmidt, Richard Pouyat, Katalin Szlavecz, Heikki Setälä, D Johan Kotze, Ian Yesilonis, Sarel Cilliers, Erzsébet Hornung, Miklós Dombos, Stephanie A Yarwood
Urbanization alters the physicochemical environment, introduces non-native species and causes ecosystem characteristics to converge. It has been speculated that these alterations contribute to loss of regional and global biodiversity, but so far most urban studies have assessed macro-organisms and reported mixed evidence for biodiversity loss. We studied five cities on three continents to assess the global convergence of urban soil microbial communities. We determined the extent to which communities of bacteria, archaea and fungi are geographically distributed, and to what extent urbanization acts as a filter on species diversity...
April 10, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812602/prenatal-development-supports-a-single-origin-of-laryngeal-echolocation-in-bats
#8
Zhe Wang, Tengteng Zhu, Huiling Xue, Na Fang, Junpeng Zhang, Libiao Zhang, Jian Pang, Emma C Teeling, Shuyi Zhang
Bat laryngeal echolocation is considered as one of the most complex and diverse modes of auditory sensory perception in animals and its evolutionary history has been the cause of many scientific controversies in the past two decades. To date, the majority of scientific evidence supports that bats (Chiroptera) are divided into two subordinal groups: Yinpterochiroptera, containing the laryngeal echolocating superfamily Rhinolophidae as sister taxa to the non-laryngeal echolocating family Pteropodidae; and Yangochiroptera, containing all other laryngeal echolocating lineages...
January 9, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812196/convergent-validation-and-transfer-of-learning-studies-of-a-virtual-reality-based-pattern-cutting-simulator
#9
Arun Nemani, Woojin Ahn, Clairice Cooper, Steven Schwaitzberg, Suvranu De
INTRODUCTION: Research has clearly shown the benefits of surgical simulators to train laparoscopic motor skills required for positive patient outcomes. We have developed the Virtual Basic Laparoscopic Skill Trainer (VBLaST) that simulates tasks from the Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery (FLS) curriculum. This study aims to show convergent validity of the VBLaST pattern cutting module via the CUSUM method to quantify learning curves along with motor skill transfer from simulation environments to ex vivo tissue samples...
August 15, 2017: Surgical Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812169/bond-strength-of-etch-and-rinse-and-self-etch-adhesive-systems-to-enamel-and-dentin-irradiated-with-a-novel-co2-9-3%C3%A2-%C3%AE-m-short-pulsed-laser-for-dental-restorative-procedures
#10
Peter Rechmann, N Bartolome, R Kinsel, R Vaderhobli, B M T Rechmann
The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of CO2 9.3 μm short-pulsed laser irradiation on the shear bond strength of composite resin to enamel and dentin. Two hundred enamel and 210 dentin samples were irradiated with a 9.3 µm carbon dioxide laser (Solea, Convergent Dental, Inc., Natick, MA) with energies which either enhanced caries resistance or were effective for ablation. OptiBond Solo Plus [OptiBondTE] (Kerr Corporation, Orange, CA) and Peak Universal Bond light-cured adhesive [PeakTE] (Ultradent Products, South Jordan, UT) were used...
August 15, 2017: Lasers in Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811716/development-and-validation-of-a-simple-and-multifaceted-instrument-gerd-test-for-the-clinical-evaluation-of-gastroesophageal-reflux-and-dyspeptic-symptoms
#11
Koji Nakada, Nobuyuki Matsuhashi, Katsuhiko Iwakiri, Atsushi Oshio, Takashi Joh, Kazuhide Higuchi, Ken Haruma
AIM: To evaluate the psychometric properties of a newly developed questionnaire, known as the gastroesophageal reflux and dyspepsia therapeutic efficacy and satisfaction test (GERD-TEST), in patients with GERD. METHODS: Japanese patients with predominant GERD symptoms recruited according to the Montreal definition were treated for 4 wk using a standard dose of proton pump inhibitor (PPI). The GERD-TEST and the Medical Outcome Study Short Form-8 Health Survey (SF-8) were administered at baseline and after 4 wk of treatment...
July 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811627/impact-of-ocean-warming-on-tropical-cyclone-size-and-its-destructiveness
#12
Yuan Sun, Zhong Zhong, Tim Li, Lan Yi, Yijia Hu, Hongchao Wan, Haishan Chen, Qianfeng Liao, Chen Ma, Qihua Li
The response of tropical cyclone (TC) destructive potential to global warming is an open issue. A number of previous studies have ignored the effect of TC size change in the context of global warming, which resulted in a significant underestimation of the TC destructive potential. The lack of reliable and consistent historical data on TC size limits the confident estimation of the linkage between the observed trend in TC size and that in sea surface temperature (SST) under the background of global climate warming...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811299/twenty-years-of-menin-emerging-opportunities-for-restoration-of-transcription-in-men1
#13
Koen M A Dreijerink, Marc Timmers, Myles Brown
Since the discovery of the multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) gene in 1997, elucidation of the molecular function of its protein product, menin, has been a challenge. Biochemical, proteomics, genetics and genomics approaches have identified various potential roles, which converge on gene expression regulation. The most consistent findings show that menin connects transcription factors and chromatin modifying enzymes, in particular the histone H3K4 methyltransferase complexes MLL1 and MLL2. Chromatin immunoprecipitation combined with next generation sequencing has enabled studying genome-wide dynamics of chromatin binding by menin...
August 15, 2017: Endocrine-related Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28811094/-adaptation-and-validation-of-the-smp-t2d-questionnaire-in-spanish-for-evaluating-self-management-of-high-blood-pressure-and-type-2-diabetes-pag-dt2-hta
#14
G M Galván Flores, K Gallegos Carrillo, S Palomo Piñon, S Sánchez García, J Cuadros Moreno, M V Martínez Olivares, J J Cuevas Cancino, I Grijalva, R Sánchez Arenas
BACKGROUND: High blood pressure is one of the most common chronic conditions worldwide. It affects one in every 3 adults over 40, while one in 10 suffers from diabetes. For both diseases, adherence to pharmacological treatment is over 30%, and self-management, which takes into account diet and physical activity, is still unknown, as there is no tool available to measure self-management. Therefore, the object of this study was to adapt and validate the Spanish version of the self-management profile for type 2 diabetes (SMP-T2D) questionnaire in patients with type 2 diabetes and high blood pressure among users of first level care in the social security institution of Mexico...
August 12, 2017: Hipertensión y Riesgo Vascular
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810930/sex-differences-in-microrna-mrna-networks-examination-of-novel-epigenetic-programming-mechanisms-in-the-sexually-dimorphic-neonatal-hypothalamus
#15
Christopher P Morgan, Tracy L Bale
BACKGROUND: Sexual differentiation of the male brain, and specifically the stress circuitry in the hypothalamus, is primarily driven by estrogen exposure during the perinatal period. Surprisingly, this single hormone promotes diverse programs of sex-specific development that vary widely between different cell types and across the developing male brain. The complexity of this phenomenon suggests that additional layers of gene regulation, including microRNAs (miRNAs), must act downstream of estrogen to mediate this specificity...
August 15, 2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810793/image-method-for-electrostatic-energy-of-polarizable-dipolar-spheres
#16
Kyle S Gustafson, Guoxi Xu, Karl F Freed, Jian Qin
The multiple-scattering theory for the electrostatics of many-body systems of monopolar spherical particles, embedded in a dielectric medium, is generalized to describe the electrostatics of these particles with embedded dipoles and multipoles. The Neumann image line construction for the electrostatic polarization produced by one particle is generalized to compute the energy, forces, and torques for the many-body system as functions of the positions of the particles. The approach is validated by comparison with direct numerical calculation, and the convergence rate is analyzed and expressed in terms of the discontinuity in dielectric contrast and particle density...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810761/closures-of-the-functional-expansion-hierarchy-in-the-non-markovian-quantum-state-diffusion-approach
#17
Gerhard Ritschel, Walter T Strunz, Alexander Eisfeld
To find a practical scheme to numerically solve the non-Markovian Quantum State Diffusion equation (NMQSD), one often uses a functional expansion of the functional derivative that appears in the general NMQSD equation. This expansion leads to a hierarchy of coupled operators. It turned out that if one takes only the zeroth order term into account, one has a very efficient method that agrees remarkably well with the exact results for many cases of interest. We denote this approach as zeroth order functional expansion (ZOFE)...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810740/cis-trans-isomerization-in-secondary-amides-reaction-paths-nitrogen-inversion-and-relevance-to-peptidic-systems
#18
Balmukund Sureshkumar Thakkar, John S M Svendsen, Richard Alan Engh
Cis/trans isomerization of 2º-amide bonds is a key step in a wide range of important processes. Here we present a theoretical assessment of cis/trans isomerization of 2º-amide bonds using B3LYP density functional methods, describing two reaction paths and corresponding geometry changes during isomerization of N-methylacetamide (NMA) and glycylglycine methyl ester (GGMe). The isomerization begins via a common path, as the extended π-bonding of the amide bond maintains approximate planarity of the O-C-N-H dihedral angle, with only gradually increasing pyramidalization of the nitrogen atom, until a bifurcation point is reached...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810710/testing-convergent-evolution-in-auditory-processing-genes-between-echolocating-mammals-and-the-aye-aye-a-percussive-foraging-primate
#19
Richard J Bankoff, Michael Jerjos, Baily Hohman, M Elise Lauterbur, Logan Kistler, George H Perry
Several taxonomically distinct mammalian groups-certain microbats and cetaceans (e.g., dolphins)-share both morphological adaptations related to echolocation behavior and strong signatures of convergent evolution at the amino acid level across seven genes related to auditory processing. Aye-ayes (Daubentonia madagascariensis) are nocturnal lemurs with a specialized auditory processing system. Aye-ayes tap rapidly along the surfaces of trees, listening to reverberations to identify the mines of wood-boring insect larvae; this behavior has been hypothesized to functionally mimic echolocation...
July 1, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810441/the-berlin-social-support-scales-validation-of-the-received-support-scale-in-a-canadian-sample-of-patients-affected-by-melanoma
#20
Julia DiMillo, Nathan C Hall, Hélène Ezer, Ralf Schwarzer, Annett Körner
The purpose of this study was to examine the reliability and validity of the Received Support Scale of the Berlin Social Support Scales in a Canadian sample of English and French language melanoma patients ( N = 137). Participants received a skin self-examination education and completed self-report questionnaires. Exploratory factor analyses, reliability analyses, and independent samples t-tests were conducted. Findings support the unidimensionality of the Received Support Scale of the Berlin Social Support Scales...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Health Psychology
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