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Gonglin Yuan, Zhou Sheng, Wenjie Liu
In this paper, the Hager and Zhang (HZ) conjugate gradient (CG) method and the modified HZ (MHZ) CG method are presented for large-scale nonsmooth convex minimization. Under some mild conditions, convergent results of the proposed methods are established. Numerical results show that the presented methods can be better efficiency for large-scale nonsmooth problems, and several problems are tested (with the maximum dimensions to 100,000 variables).
2016: PloS One
Wei Gao, Vincent Crosby, Andrew Wilcock, Rachael Burman, Eli Silber, Nilay Hepgul, K Ray Chaudhuri, Irene J Higginson
BACKGROUND: There is no standard palliative care outcome measure for people with progressive long term neurological conditions (LTNC). This study aims to determine the psychometric properties of a new 8-item palliative care outcome scale of symptom burden (IPOS Neuro-S8) in this population. DATA AND METHODS: Data were merged from a Phase II palliative care intervention study in multiple sclerosis (MS) and a longitudinal observational study in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (IPD), multiple system atrophy (MSA) and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
2016: PloS One
Kathryn S Carpentier, Nicolle M Esparo, Stephanie J Child, Adam P Geballe
During millions of years of coevolution with their hosts, cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) have succeeded in adapting to overcome host-specific immune defenses, including the protein kinase R (PKR) pathway. Consequently, these adaptations may also contribute to the inability of CMVs to cross species barriers. Here, we provide evidence that the evolutionary arms race between the antiviral factor PKR and its CMV antagonist TRS1 has led to extensive differences in the species-specificity of primate CMV TRS1 proteins. Moreover, we identify a single residue in human PKR that when mutated to the amino acid present in African green monkey (Agm) PKR (F489S) is sufficient to confer resistance to HCMVTRS1...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Emma Dargie, Ronald R Holden, Caroline F Pukall
Millions suffer from chronic vulvar pain (ie, vulvodynia). Vulvodynia represents the intersection of 2 difficult subjects for health care professionals to tackle: sexuality and chronic pain. Those with chronic vulvar pain are often uncomfortable seeking help, and many who do so fail to receive proper diagnoses. The current research developed a multidimensional assessment questionnaire, the Vulvar Pain Assessment Questionnaire (VPAQ) inventory, to assist in the assessment and diagnosis of those with vulvar pain...
August 1, 2016: Pain
V L Shirokova, A M L Enright, C B Kennedy, F G Ferris
This investigation evaluates spatial relationships between summer (July) groundwater temperatures and Fe(II)/Fe(III) biogeochemical cycling over a five year period in a shallow pristine sand aquifer at Meilleurs Bay near Deep River, Ontario, Canada. A warm subsurface thermal island of 12.5-16.1 °C, compared to background conditions of 10-11 °C, was manifest in contour maps of average groundwater temperature over the study period. The warm zone coincided with an area of convergent groundwater flow, implicating horizontal heat transfer by advective convection as the reason for elevated temperatures...
October 19, 2016: Water Research
William B Kristan
How did a structure as complex as our own brain ever evolve? Although biologists have pondered this question since Charles Darwin, the explosion of molecular information in recent years has provided new insights into this question, particularly its first step: the evolution of neurons. Meshing information about genomes with insights from more classical anatomical, physiological, and developmental approaches has led to some remarkable insights and surprises. Because 'phylogenomics' is still a young field, however, there are arguments about which genes to include in comparisons, how much to weigh genetic versus 'classical' features, and which algorithms to use in making such comparisons...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Irving E Wang, Thomas R Clandinin
The activity and maintenance of neurons requires substantial metabolic energy, resulting in selective pressure to decrease resource consumption by the nervous system. The wiring economy principle proposes that animals have evolved mechanisms that wire circuits efficiently by minimizing neurite length. Computational modeling of neuronal morphology, microcircuit organization, and neural networks reveals that wiring economy is a significant determinant of nervous system layout. The strategies for reducing wiring costs are shared across phyla and point to the possibility of generalizable rules that specify the development of efficient nervous systems...
October 24, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Yasuhiro Kyono, Laurent M Sachs, Patrice Bilesimo, Luan Wen, Robert J Denver
Thyroid hormone (TH) is essential for normal development in vertebrates. In amphibians, TH controls metamorphosis by inducing tissue-specific gene regulation programs. A hallmark of TH action is the modification of chromatin structure, which underlies changes in gene transcription. We found that mRNA for the de novo DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) dnmt3a, but not dnmt1, increased in the brain of Xenopus tadpoles during metamorphosis in parallel with plasma [TH]. Addition of 3,5,3`-triiodothyronine (T3) to the rearing water caused a time-dependent increase in dnmt3a mRNA in tadpole brain, tail and hind limb...
October 25, 2016: Endocrinology
Cheryl Tatano Beck, Jamie Rivera, Robert K Gable
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this mixed-methods study was to investigate vicarious posttraumatic growth in certified nurse-midwives (CNMs) who have struggled after attending traumatic births. Vicarious posttraumatic growth involves positive changes in a clinician's life due to caring for patients who are traumatized. METHODS: A convergent parallel mixed-methods design was used. The American College of Nurse-Midwives (ACNM) sent out e-mails to all CNM members with a link to the electronic survey...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Midwifery & Women's Health
A R Docherty, A Moscati, R Peterson, A C Edwards, D E Adkins, S A Bacanu, T B Bigdeli, B T Webb, J Flint, K S Kendler
Biometrical genetic studies suggest that the personality dimensions, including neuroticism, are moderately heritable (~0.4 to 0.6). Quantitative analyses that aggregate the effects of many common variants have recently further informed genetic research on European samples. However, there has been limited research to date on non-European populations. This study examined the personality dimensions in a large sample of Han Chinese descent (N=10 064) from the China, Oxford, and VCU Experimental Research on Genetic Epidemiology study, aimed at identifying genetic risk factors for recurrent major depression among a rigorously ascertained cohort...
October 25, 2016: Translational Psychiatry
Melissa Shields, Swati Sinkar, WengOnn Chan, John Crompton
PURPOSE: To characterize the clinical features, aetiology and management of ophthalmic symptoms in adult patients with Parinaud syndrome. METHODS: This is a retrospective, non-comparative observational case series. We reviewed 40 consecutive charts of adult patients with the clinical diagnosis of Parinaud syndrome at the Royal Adelaide Hospital Department of Ophthalmology in Adelaide, South Australia, between 1991 and 2016. Charts were reviewed for the following: (1) demographic information, (2) clinical presentation, (3) neuro-ophthalmology signs, (4) aetiology of Parinaud syndrome, and (5) management...
October 24, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
Masashi Mizuno, Sosei Yamaguchi, Ayano Taneda, Hiroaki Hori, Ayako Aikawa, Chiyo Fujii
AIM: The study aimed to develop two Japanese versions of King's Stigma Scale, a full version (version.1) and a short version (version.2), through psychometric property testing. METHODS: The sample included 112 people with mental illness. We tested the constructs of the scales using both confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses. Internal consistency and test-retest reliability were tested. We examined convergent validity with self-esteem or perceived stigma, and different group validity, using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6)...
October 24, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Yiqiao Xin, Emma McIntosh
PURPOSE: Generic preference-based quality of life (PbQoL) measures are sometimes criticized for being insensitive or failing to capture important aspects of quality of life (QoL) in specific populations. The objective of this study was to systematically review and assess the construct validity and responsiveness of PbQoL measures in Parkinson's. METHODS: Ten databases were systematically searched up to July 2015. Studies were included if a PbQoL instrument along with a common Parkinson's clinical or QoL measure was used, and the utility values were reported...
October 24, 2016: Quality of Life Research
Yunxia Wei, Yanping Chen, Xiulian Shi, Yuanyuan Zhang
We present in this paper the convergence properties of Jacobi spectral collocation method when used to approximate the solution of multidimensional nonlinear Volterra integral equation. The solution is sufficiently smooth while the source function and the kernel function are smooth. We choose the Jacobi-Gauss points associated with the multidimensional Jacobi weight function [Formula: see text] (d denotes the space dimensions) as the collocation points. The error analysis in [Formula: see text]-norm and [Formula: see text]-norm theoretically justifies the exponential convergence of spectral collocation method in multidimensional space...
2016: SpringerPlus
Gour Chand Daskhan, Carlo Pifferi, Olivier Renaudet
The synthesis of heteroglycoclusters (hGCs) is being subjected to rising interest, owing to their potential applications in glycobiology. In this paper, we report an efficient and straightforward convergent protocol based on orthogonal chemoselective ligations to prepare structurally well-defined cyclopeptide-based homo- and heterovalent glycoconjugates displaying 5-N-acetyl-neuraminic acid (Neu5Ac), galactose (Gal), and/or N-acetyl glucosamine (GlcNAc). We first used copper-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition and/or thiol-ene coupling to conjugate propargylated α-sialic acid 3, β-GlcNAc thiol 5, and β-Gal thiol 6 onto cyclopeptide scaffolds 7-9 to prepare tetravalent homoglycoclusters (10-12) and hGCs (13-14) with 2:2 combinations of sugars...
October 2016: ChemistryOpen
T Tony Cai, Anru Zhang
Missing data occur frequently in a wide range of applications. In this paper, we consider estimation of high-dimensional covariance matrices in the presence of missing observations under a general missing completely at random model in the sense that the missingness is not dependent on the values of the data. Based on incomplete data, estimators for bandable and sparse covariance matrices are proposed and their theoretical and numerical properties are investigated. Minimax rates of convergence are established under the spectral norm loss and the proposed estimators are shown to be rate-optimal under mild regularity conditions...
September 2016: Journal of Multivariate Analysis
Chantal Grandjean, Jos M Latour, Jacques Cotting, Marie-Christine Fazan, Stéphane Leteurtre, Anne-Sylvie Ramelet
INTRODUCTION: Within paediatric intensive care units (PICUs), only a few parent satisfaction instruments are validated and none are available for French-speaking parents. The aims of the study were to translate and culturally adapt the Dutch EMPATHIC-65 questionnaire into a French version and to test its psychometric equivalence. METHODS: Two French-speaking PICUs in Switzerland and France participated. The questionnaire was translated using a standardised method and parents with PICU experience were interviewed to assess clarity of the translated version...
October 21, 2016: Intensive & Critical Care Nursing: the Official Journal of the British Association of Critical Care Nurses
Andrea Barsevick
OBJECTIVES: To examine the evolution of the concept of the symptom cluster through literature synthesis and identify knowledge gaps. DATA SOURCES: Published literature. CONCLUSION: A robust body of research has developed showing that clusters of symptoms can be identified empirically with modest evidence of convergence across methods. The science would benefit from a coordinated effort of qualitative studies to ensure that appropriate symptoms are evaluated; empirical symptom cluster identification studies building upon qualitative work; and subgroup identification studies based on empirically defined symptom clusters...
October 21, 2016: Seminars in Oncology Nursing
Sílvia Indias García, Joaquín De Paúl Ochotorena
OBJECTIVE: To adapt into Spanish three scales measuring frequency (SWFS) and motivation for social withdrawal (CSPS and SWMS) and to develop a scale capable of assessing the five motivations for social withdrawal. METHOD: Participants were 1,112 Spanish adolescents, aged 12-17 years. The sample was randomly split into two groups in which exploratory and confirmatory (CFA) factor analyses were performed separately. A sample of adolescents in residential care (n = 128) was also used to perform discriminant validity analyses...
November 2016: Psicothema
Rubén Martín-Payo, Javier Suárez-Álvarez, María E Amieva Fernández, María J Duaso, Estela Álvarez Gómez
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to explore the psychometric properties of the Motiva.Diaf questionnaire, which assesses the adherence to healthy diet and physical activity in clinical patients. METHOD: Participants were 230 patients, who attended hospital services, with a mean age of 49.28 years (SD = 12.34). Women constituted 55.7% of the patients. Two weeks after initial administration, 40 participants, from those who had another hospital appointment scheduled, were selected at random to complete again the questionnaire in order to assess test–retest reliability...
November 2016: Psicothema
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