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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786975/a-comparison-of-one-stage-vs-two-stage-individual-patient-data-meta-analysis-methods-a-simulation-study
#1
Evangelos Kontopantelis
BACKGROUND: Individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis allows for the exploration of heterogeneity and can identify subgroups that most benefit from an intervention (or exposure), much more successfully than meta-analysis of aggregate data. One-stage or two-stage IPD meta-analysis is possible, with the former using mixed-effects regression models and the latter obtaining study-estimates through simpler regression models before aggregating using standard meta-analysis methodology. However, a comprehensive comparison of the two methods, in practice, is lacking...
May 22, 2018: Research Synthesis Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786725/a-convergent-strategy-towards-febrifugine-and-related-compounds
#2
T M M Maiden, N Mbelesi, P A Procopiou, S Swanson, J P A Harrity
We report a modular five step synthetic route to the febrifugines that employs 2-(chloromethyl)allyl-trimethylsilane as a conjunctive reagent for the coupling of the piperidine and quinazolinone groups. We also demonstrate the application of a recent Rh-catalyzed quinazolinone synthesis for the facile generation of febrifugine analogs.
May 22, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786698/a-reconstruction-of-global-hydroclimate-and-dynamical-variables-over-the-common-era
#3
Nathan J Steiger, Jason E Smerdon, Edward R Cook, Benjamin I Cook
Hydroclimate extremes critically affect human and natural systems, but there remain many unanswered questions about their causes and how to interpret their dynamics in the past and in climate change projections. These uncertainties are due, in part, to the lack of long-term, spatially resolved hydroclimate reconstructions and information on the underlying physical drivers for many regions. Here we present the first global reconstructions of hydroclimate and associated climate dynamical variables over the past two thousand years...
May 22, 2018: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786453/cross-cultural-adaptation-and-psychometric-evaluation-of-the-singapore-version-of-the-chedoke-arm-and-hand-activity
#4
Silvana X Choo, Jackie Bosch, Julie Richardson, Paul Stratford, Jocelyn E Harris
PURPOSE: To develop a Singapore version of the Chedoke Arm and Hand Activity Inventory (CAHAI) and to estimate the construct validity and inter-rater reliability. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Translation and Cross-Cultural Adaptation of Objectively Assessed Outcome measure procedure was used to systematically adapt the CAHAI. We recruited 56 adults admitted to an inpatient stroke facility to evaluate the psychometric properties of the Singapore version of the CAHAI...
May 22, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786446/total-synthesis-of-the-marine-phosphomacrolide-enigmazole-a-exploiting-multicomponent-type-i-anion-relay-chemistry-arc-in-conjunction-with-a-late-stage-petasis-ferrier-union-rearrangement
#5
Yanran Ai, Mariya V Kozytska, Yike Zou, Anton S Khartulyari, William A Maio, Amos B Smith
An effective late-stage large-fragment union/rearrangement exploiting the Petasis-Ferrier protocol, in conjunction with multicomponent Type I Anion Relay Chemistry (ARC) to access advanced intermediates, permits completion of a convergent, stereocontrolled total synthesis of the architecturally complex phosphomacrolide (-)-enigmazole A (1).
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785936/an-objective-parameter-to-classify-voice-signals-based-on-variation-in-energy-distribution
#6
Boquan Liu, Evan Polce, Jack Jiang
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this paper is to introduce an iterative nonlinear weighted method based on the variation in spectral energy distribution present in a voice signal to differentiate between four voice types: type 1 voice signals are nearly periodic, type 2 voice signals have strong modulations and subharmonics, type 3 signals are chaotic, and type 4 signals are dominated by stochastic noise. STUDY DESIGN: A total of 135 voice signal samples of the sustained vowel /a/ were obtained from the Disordered Voice Database and then individually categorized into the appropriate voice types based on the classification system described in Sprecher et al (2010)...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785848/the-total-synthesis-of-tetarimycin-a-%C3%A2-naphthacemycin-a-9-and-%C3%A2-fasamycin-a-structure-activity-relationship-studies-against-drug-resistant-bacteria
#7
Jing-Kai Huang, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, Chun-Cheng Lin, Kak-Shan Shia
Making use of a reductive olefin coupling reaction and Michael-Dieckmann condensation as two key operations, we have completed a concise total synthesis of tetarimycin A, (±)-naphthacemycin A9 and (±)-fasamycin A in a highly convergent and practical protocol. Synthetic procedures thus developed have also been applied to providing related analogues for structure-activity relationship studies, thereof coming to a conclusion that the free hydroxyl group at C-10 is essential for exerting inhibitory activities against a panel of Gram-positive bacteria, including drug-resistant strains VRE and MRSA...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785691/psychometric-properties-of-the-multidimensional-loss-scale-with-refugee-women-at-risk-recently-arrived-in-australia
#8
Lyn Vromans, Robert D Schweitzer, Mark Brough, Ignacio Correa-Velez, Kate Murray, Caroline Lenette
Refugee women-at-risk represent a distinct and vulnerable refugee population. We investigated the psychometric properties of the Multidimensional Loss Scale (MLS) with 104 women-at-risk, recently-arrived in Australia. Cross-sectional survey included: the MLS (indexing loss events and loss distress); Harvard Trauma Questionnaire (Indexing Trauma Events and Trauma Symptoms), and; Hopkins Symptom Checklist-37 (indexing anxiety, depression, and somatization symptoms). Exploratory factor analyses of MLS loss distress revealed a six-factor model (loss of symbolic self; loss of home; loss of interdependence; loss of past aspirations; interpersonal loss, and; loss of intrapersonal integrity)...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29785013/genetic-identification-of-brain-cell-types-underlying-schizophrenia
#9
Nathan G Skene, Julien Bryois, Trygve E Bakken, Gerome Breen, James J Crowley, Héléna A Gaspar, Paola Giusti-Rodriguez, Rebecca D Hodge, Jeremy A Miller, Ana B Muñoz-Manchado, Michael C O'Donovan, Michael J Owen, Antonio F Pardiñas, Jesper Ryge, James T R Walters, Sten Linnarsson, Ed S Lein, Patrick F Sullivan, Jens Hjerling-Leffler
With few exceptions, the marked advances in knowledge about the genetic basis of schizophrenia have not converged on findings that can be confidently used for precise experimental modeling. By applying knowledge of the cellular taxonomy of the brain from single-cell RNA sequencing, we evaluated whether the genomic loci implicated in schizophrenia map onto specific brain cell types. We found that the common-variant genomic results consistently mapped to pyramidal cells, medium spiny neurons (MSNs) and certain interneurons, but far less consistently to embryonic, progenitor or glial cells...
May 21, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784978/genomes-of-all-known-members-of-a-plasmodium-subgenus-reveal-paths-to-virulent-human-malaria
#10
Thomas D Otto, Aude Gilabert, Thomas Crellen, Ulrike Böhme, Céline Arnathau, Mandy Sanders, Samuel O Oyola, Alain Prince Okouga, Larson Boundenga, Eric Willaume, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Nancy Diamella Moukodoum, Christophe Paupy, Patrick Durand, Virginie Rougeron, Benjamin Ollomo, François Renaud, Chris Newbold, Matthew Berriman, Franck Prugnolle
Plasmodium falciparum, the most virulent agent of human malaria, shares a recent common ancestor with the gorilla parasite Plasmodium praefalciparum. Little is known about the other gorilla- and chimpanzee-infecting species in the same (Laverania) subgenus as P. falciparum, but none of them are capable of establishing repeated infection and transmission in humans. To elucidate underlying mechanisms and the evolutionary history of this subgenus, we have generated multiple genomes from all known Laverania species...
May 21, 2018: Nature Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784936/multiple-convergent-supergene-evolution-events-in-mating-type-chromosomes
#11
Sara Branco, Fantin Carpentier, Ricardo C Rodríguez de la Vega, Hélène Badouin, Alodie Snirc, Stéphanie Le Prieur, Marco A Coelho, Damien M de Vienne, Fanny E Hartmann, Dominik Begerow, Michael E Hood, Tatiana Giraud
Convergent adaptation provides unique insights into the predictability of evolution and ultimately into processes of biological diversification. Supergenes (beneficial gene linkage) are striking examples of adaptation, but little is known about their prevalence or evolution. A recent study on anther-smut fungi documented supergene formation by rearrangements linking two key mating-type loci, controlling pre- and post-mating compatibility. Here further high-quality genome assemblies reveal four additional independent cases of chromosomal rearrangements leading to regions of suppressed recombination linking these mating-type loci in closely related species...
May 21, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29784228/the-psychometric-properties-of-the-mindful-attention-awareness-scale-among-arab-parents-of-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#12
Ahmad Rayan, Muayyad Ahmad
AIM: The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties and the theoretical structure of the mindful attention awareness scale (MAAS) with parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in Jordan. METHOD: A sample of 104 parents of children with ASD in Jordan completed the study. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to assess the factor structure of MAAS. Internal consistency was assessed using Cronbach's alpha. The convergent validity was assessed using Pearson's product-moment correlations between the MAAS and measures of psychological distress and Quality of life...
June 2018: Archives of Psychiatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29783102/strain-analysis-from-nano-beam-electron-diffraction-influence-of-specimen-tilt-and-beam-convergence
#13
Tim Grieb, Florian F Krause, Marco Schowalter, Dennis Zillmann, Roman Sellin, Knut Müller-Caspary, Christoph Mahr, Thorsten Mehrtens, Dieter Bimberg, Andreas Rosenauer
Strain analyses from experimental series of nano-beam electron diffraction (NBED) patterns in scanning transmission electron microscopy are performed for different specimen tilts. Simulations of NBED series are presented for which strain analysis gives results that are in accordance with experiment. This consequently allows to study the relation between measured strain and actual underlying strain. A two-tilt method which can be seen as lowest-order electron beam precession is suggested and experimentally implemented...
April 12, 2018: Ultramicroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782687/production-via-n-fertilization-and-correction-by-liming-of-acidity-in-soils-contribute-a-huge-efflux-of-co-2-to-atmosphere-real-or-arbitrary
#14
Ashim Datta, Biswapati Mandal
In a recent article, Zamanian et al. (2018) made an interesting assessment for CO2 efflux to atmosphere from inorganic carbon in soils on N-fertilization induced acidity (7.48 × 1012 g CO2 C/year) and also from liming of acid soils (273 × 1012 g CO2 C/year) using global database of soil CaCO3 stock, acid soil coverage, N-fertilizer use and associated quantity of protons produced etc. We have the following few non-convergent points of views on the issues.Firstly, stoichiometry of protonation (H+ ) in soils out of N-fertilization through urea, and other sources is known and the resultant annual changes in soil pH are also reported by many, including those who used long-term experiments (Stewart et al...
May 21, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782318/amyloid-accumulation-and-cognitive-decline-in-clinically-normal-older-individuals-implications-for-aging-and-early-alzheimer-s-disease
#15
Elizabeth C Mormino, Kathryn V Papp
 The aberrant accumulation of the amyloid protein is a critical and early event in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) cascade. Given the early involvement of this pathological process, it is not surprising that many clinically normal (CN) older individuals demonstrate evidence of abnormal Aβ at postmortem examination and in vivo using either CSF or PET imaging. Converging evidence across multiple research groups suggests that the presence of abnormal Aβ among CN individuals is associated with elevated risk of future clinical impairment and cognitive decline...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782172/assembly-dynamics-of-plasmonic-dna-capped-gold-nanoparticle-monolayers
#16
Thomas L Derrien, Michelle Zhang, Patrick Dorion, Detlef-M Smilgies, Dan Luo
The self-assembly of nanoparticles in aqueous solutions promises wide applications but requires the careful balance of many parameters not present in organic solvents. While the presence of long-range electrostatic interactions in aqueous solutions may complicate such assemblies, they provide additional parameters through which to control self-assembly. Here, with DNA-capped gold nanoparticles and through variation of the ionic strength in aqueous solutions, we explored the influence of electrostatic interactions on the adsorption of negatively charged nanoparticles on a positively charged surface...
May 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781711/validity-and-reliability-of-the-persian-version-of-general-practitioner-assessment-of-cognition-p-gpcog
#17
Vahid Rashedi, Mahshid Foroughan, Heiman Nazari, Katrin Seeher, Henry Brodaty
OBJECTIVES: The study aimed to examine the validity, reliability, and practicality of the Persian version of the General Practitioner Assessment of Cognition (P-GPCOG) as a brief, efficient cognitive assessment instrument in Iranian older adults. METHOD: The sample comprised 151 community-dwelling older adults and 79 nursing home residents (aged ≥60 years). The English GPCOG was translated, back-translated, and revised to prepare the final P-GPCOG. The Abbreviated Mental Test score (AMTs) and the Depression in Old Age Scale (DIA-S) were administered to the two different samples to establish the convergent and discriminant validity of the P-GPCOG...
May 21, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781664/the-online-social-support-scale-measure-development-and-validation
#18
Elizabeth A Nick, David A Cole, Sun-Joo Cho, Darcy K Smith, T Grace Carter, Rachel L Zelkowitz
A new measure, the Online Social Support Scale, was developed based on previous theory, research, and measurement of in-person social support. It includes four subscales: Esteem/Emotional Support, Social Companionship, Informational Support, and Instrumental Support. In college and community samples, factor analytic and item response theory results suggest that subtypes of in-person social support also pertain in the online world. Evidence of reliability, convergent validity, and discriminant validity provide excellent psychometric support for the measure...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781663/assessing-the-implicit-theory-of-willpower-for-strenuous-mental-activities-scale-multigroup-across-gender-and-cross-cultural-measurement-invariance-and-convergent-and-divergent-validity
#19
Christopher M Napolitano, Veronika Job
Why do some people struggle with self-control (colloquially called willpower) whereas others are able to sustain it during challenging circumstances? Recent research showed that a person's implicit theories of willpower-whether they think self-control capacity is a limited or nonlimited resource-predict sustained self-control on laboratory tasks and on goal-related outcomes in everyday life. The present research tests the Implicit Theory of Willpower for Strenuous Mental Activities Scale (or ITW-M) Scale for measurement invariance across samples and gender within each culture, and two cultural contexts (the U...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29781660/the-development-and-validation-of-the-physical-appearance-comparison-scale-3-pacs-3
#20
Lauren M Schaefer, J Kevin Thompson
Appearance comparison processes are implicated in the development of body-image disturbance and disordered eating. The Physical Appearance Comparison Scale-Revised (PACS-R) assesses the simple frequency of appearance comparisons; however, research has suggested that other aspects of appearance comparisons (e.g., comparison direction) may moderate the association between comparisons and their negative outcomes. In the current study, the PACS-R was revised to examine aspects of comparisons with relevance to body-image and eating outcomes...
May 21, 2018: Psychological Assessment
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