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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329948/-evaluation-of-estimation-of-prevalence-ratio-using-bayesian-log-binomial-regression-model
#1
W L Gao, H Lin, X N Liu, X W Ren, J S Li, X P Shen, S L Zhu
To evaluate the estimation of prevalence ratio (PR) by using bayesian log-binomial regression model and its application, we estimated the PR of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea in their infants by using bayesian log-binomial regression model in Openbugs software. The results showed that caregivers' recognition of infant' s risk signs of diarrhea was associated significantly with a 13% increase of medical care-seeking. Meanwhile, we compared the differences in PR's point estimation and its interval estimation of medical care-seeking prevalence to caregivers' recognition of risk signs of diarrhea and convergence of three models (model 1: not adjusting for the covariates; model 2: adjusting for duration of caregivers' education, model 3: adjusting for distance between village and township and child month-age based on model 2) between bayesian log-binomial regression model and conventional log-binomial regression model...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329838/neighborhood-disadvantage-and-biological-aging-using-marginal-structural-models-to-assess-the-link-between-neighborhood-census-variables-and-epigenetic-aging
#2
Man-Kit Lei, Ronald L Simons, Steven R H Beach, Robert A Philibert
Objectives: Past research has reported an association between neighborhood disadvantage and healthy aging, but most of these studies utilize self-report measures of health or physical functioning and do not properly account for neighborhood selection effects, creating concerns regarding inflated associations. To overcome these limitations and provide a more stringent estimate of effects, the current study investigated the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on aging using newly developed epigenetic methods to assess rate of biological aging and marginal structural modeling (MSM) to account for potential confounds due to neighborhood selection...
March 3, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329682/the-swi-snf-protein-pbrm1-restrains-vhl-loss-driven-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#3
Amrita M Nargund, Can G Pham, Yiyu Dong, Patricia I Wang, Hatice U Osmangeyoglu, Yuchen Xie, Omer Aras, Song Han, Toshinao Oyama, Shugaku Takeda, Chelsea E Ray, Zhenghong Dong, Mathieu Berge, A Ari Hakimi, Sebastien Monette, Carl L Lekaye, Jason A Koutcher, Christina S Leslie, Chad J Creighton, Nils Weinhold, William Lee, Satish K Tickoo, Zhong Wang, Emily H Cheng, James J Hsieh
PBRM1 is the second most commonly mutated gene after VHL in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). However, the biological consequences of PBRM1 mutations for kidney tumorigenesis are unknown. Here, we find that kidney-specific deletion of Vhl and Pbrm1, but not either gene alone, results in bilateral, multifocal, transplantable clear cell kidney cancers. PBRM1 loss amplified the transcriptional outputs of HIF1 and STAT3 incurred by Vhl deficiency. Analysis of mouse and human ccRCC revealed convergence on mTOR activation, representing the third driver event after genetic inactivation of VHL and PBRM1...
March 21, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329010/phylogenetic-reconstruction-of-syntermitinae-isoptera-termitidae-based-on-morphological-and-molecular-data
#4
Mauricio M Rocha, Adriana C Morales-Corrêa E Castro, Carolina Cuezzo, Eliana M Cancello
The subfamily Syntermitinae comprises a group of Neotropical termites with 18 genera and 101 species described. It has been considered a natural group, but relationships among the genera within the subfamily remain uncertain, and some genera appear to be non-monophyletic. Here, we provide a comprehensive phylogeny including six Neotropical species of Termitinae as outgroup, 42 Syntermitinae species as ingroup, 92 morphological characters (from external and internal anatomy of soldier and worker castes) and 117 molecular sequences (109 obtained for this study and 8 from GenBank) of 4 gene regions (41 and 22 from Cytochrome Oxidase I and II respectively, 19 from Cytochrome b, and 35 from 16S rDNA)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328933/water-borne-pharmaceuticals-reduce-phenotypic-diversity-and-response-capacity-of-natural-phytoplankton-communities
#5
Francesco Pomati, Jukka Jokela, Sara Castiglioni, Mridul K Thomas, Luca Nizzetto
Chemical micropollutants occur worldwide in the environment at low concentrations and in complex mixtures, and how they affect the ecology of natural systems is still uncertain. Dynamics of natural communities are driven by the interaction between individual organisms and their growth environment, which is mediated by the organisms' expressed phenotypic traits. We tested whether exposure to a mixture of 12 pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCP) influences phenotypic trait diversity in lake phytoplankton communities and their ability to regulate biomass production to fit environmental changes (response capacity)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328519/a-framework-for-mixed-type-multi-outcome-prediction-with-applications-in-healthcare
#6
Budhaditya Saha, Sunil Gupta, Dinh Phung, Svetha Venkatesh
Health analysis often involves prediction of multiple outcomes of mixed-type. Existing work is restrictive to either a limited number or specific outcome types. We propose a framework for mixed-type multi-outcome prediction. Our proposed framework proposes a cumulative loss function composed of a specific loss function for each outcome type - as an example, least square (continuous outcome), hinge (binary outcome), poisson (count outcome) and exponential (non-negative outcome). To model these outcomes jointly, we impose a commonality across the prediction parameters through a common matrix-Normal prior...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Journal of Biomedical and Health Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328515/solving-multiextremal-problems-by-using-recurrent-neural-networks
#7
Alaeddin Malek, Najmeh Hosseinipour-Mahani
In this paper, a neural network model for solving a class of multiextremal smooth nonconvex constrained optimization problems is proposed. Neural network is designed in such a way that its equilibrium points coincide with the local and global optimal solutions of the corresponding optimization problem. Based on the suitable underestimators for the Lagrangian of the problem, one give geometric criteria for an equilibrium point to be a global minimizer of multiextremal constrained optimization problem with or without bounds on the variables...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328512/multitarget-sparse-latent-regression
#8
Xiantong Zhen, Mengyang Yu, Feng Zheng, Ilanit Ben Nachum, Mousumi Bhaduri, David Laidley, Shuo Li
Multitarget regression has recently generated intensive popularity due to its ability to simultaneously solve multiple regression tasks with improved performance, while great challenges stem from jointly exploring inter-target correlations and input-output relationships. In this paper, we propose multitarget sparse latent regression (MSLR) to simultaneously model intrinsic intertarget correlations and complex nonlinear input-output relationships in one single framework. By deploying a structure matrix, the MSLR accomplishes a latent variable model which is able to explicitly encode intertarget correlations via ℓ2,1-norm-based sparse learning; the MSLR naturally admits a representer theorem for kernel extension, which enables it to flexibly handle highly complex nonlinear input-output relationships; the MSLR can be solved efficiently by an alternating optimization algorithm with guaranteed convergence, which ensures efficient multitarget regression...
March 16, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328084/control-of-nanoparticle-release-kinetics-from-3d-printed-hydrogel-scaffolds
#9
Bernhard Baumann, Tomasz Jungst, Simone Stichler, Susanne Feineis, Oliver Wiltschka, Matthias Kuhlmann, Mika Lindén, Jürgen Groll
The convergence of biofabrication with nanotechnology is largely unexplored but enables geometrical control of cell-biomaterial arrangement combined with controlled drug delivery and release. As a step towards integration of these two fields of research, this study demonstrates that modulation of electrostatic nanoparticle-polymer and nanoparticle-nanoparticle interactions can be used for tuning nanoparticle release kinetics from 3D printed hydrogel scaffolds. This generic strategy can be used for spatiotemporal control of the release kinetics of nanoparticulate drug vectors in biofabricated constructs...
March 22, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327771/the-roles-of-surface-chemistry-dissolution-rate-and-delivered-dose-in-the-cytotoxicity-of-copper-nanoparticles
#10
Miao Shi, Karen L de Mesy Bentley, Goutam Palui, Hedi Mattoussi, Alison Elder, Hong Yang
The understanding of nanoparticle (NP) cytotoxicity is challenging because of incomplete information about physicochemical changes particles undergo once they come into contact with biological fluids. It is therefore essential to characterize changes in NP properties to better understand their biological fate and effects in mammalian cells. In this paper, we present a study on the effect of particle surface oxidation and dissolution rates of Cu NPs. Particle dissolution, cell-associated Cu doses, and oxidative stress responses in A549 luciferase reporter cells were examined for Cu NPs modified with mercaptocarboxylic acids with different carbon chain lengths and a thiotic acid appended-PEG ligand (TA)...
March 22, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327088/the-development-and-preliminary-psychometric-properties-of-two-positive-psychology-outcome-measures-for-people-with-dementia-the-ppom-and-the-eid-q
#11
Charlotte R Stoner, Martin Orrell, Maria Long, Emese Csipke, Aimee Spector
BACKGROUND: Positive psychology research in dementia care has largely been confined to the qualitative literature because of the lack of robust outcome measures. The aim of this study was to develop positive psychology outcome measures for people with dementia. METHODS: Two measures were each developed in four stages. Firstly, literature reviews were conducted to identify and operationalise salient positive psychology themes in the qualitative literature and to examine existing measures of positive psychology...
March 21, 2017: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327073/the-influence-of-axial-grooves-on-dislodgment-resistance-of-prosthetic-metal-crowns-in-canine-teeth-of-dogs
#12
Stephanie Goldschmidt, Caitlyn J Collins, Scott Hetzel, Heidi-Lynn Ploeg, Jason W Soukup
The reported failure rate for full veneer crowns of canine teeth of dogs is suboptimal, particularly in teeth with naturally poor retentive features, such as those with low height/diameter (H/D) ratios or high convergence angles (CAs). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of axial grooves in an effort to develop a crown preparation design that enhances the retention of full veneer crowns in dogs. Crown dislodgment testing was performed on cast alloy dies of canine teeth with unfavorable retention features (low H/D and high CA) prepared with (n = 14) and without axial grooves (n = 15) to evaluate the force required to dislodge a cemented full veneer crown...
September 2016: Journal of Veterinary Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326990/native-and-non-native-perception-of-stress-in-mapudungun-assessing-structural-maintenance-in-the-phonology-of-an-endangered-language
#13
Benjamin J Molineaux
Today, virtually all speakers of Mapudungun (formerly Araucanian), an endangered language of Chile and Argentina, are bilingual in Spanish. As a result, the firmness of native speaker intuitions-especially regarding perceptually complex issues such as word-stress-has been called into question. Even though native intuitions are unavoidable in the investigation of stress position, efforts can be made in order to clarify what the actual sources of the intuitions are, and how consistent and 'native' they remain given the language's asymmetrical contact conditions...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326539/isotopic-niche-partitioning-between-two-apex-predators-over-time
#14
M Drago, L Cardona, V Franco-Trecu, E A Crespo, D Vales, F Borella, L Zenteno, E M Gonzáles, P Inchausti
1.Stable isotope analyses have become an important tool in reconstructing diets, analyzing resource use patterns, elucidating trophic relations among predators and understanding the structure of food webs. 2.Here, we use stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios in bone collagen to reconstruct and compare the isotopic niches of adult South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis; n = 86) and sea lions (Otaria flavescens; n = 49) -two otariid species with marked morphological differences- in the Río de la Plata estuary (Argentina - Uruguay) and the adjacent Atlantic Ocean during the second half of the 20(th) century and the beginning of the 21(st) century...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326356/effect-of-four-monthly-doses-of-a-human-monoclonal-anti-fgf23-antibody-krn23-on-quality-of-life-in-x-linked-hypophosphatemia
#15
Mary D Ruppe, Xiaoping Zhang, Erik A Imel, Thomas J Weber, Mark A Klausner, Takahiro Ito, Maria Vergeire, Jeffrey S Humphrey, Francis H Glorieux, Anthony A Portale, Karl Insogna, Munro Peacock, Thomas O Carpenter
X-linked hypophosphatemia (XLH) is characterized by lower extremity deformities that lead to bone and/or joint pain that result from decreased renal tubular reabsorption leading to hypophosphatemia caused by elevated levels of fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23). OBJECTIVE: Validate the use of SF-36v2 Health Survey (SF-36v2) and the Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) to measure previously unstudied health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in XLH patients and determine the change in HRQoL before and after treatment with KRN23, a human monoclonal anti-FGF23 antibody...
December 2016: Bone Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326057/psychometric-properties-of-the-chinese-shortened-version-of-the-zuckerman-kuhlman-personality-questionnaire-in-a-sample-of-adolescents-and-young-adults
#16
Daoyang Wang, Mingming Hu, Chanjin Zheng, Zhengguang Liu
Introduction: The original 89-item Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (form III Revised, ZKPQ-III-R) is a widely accepted and used self-report measure for personality traits. This study assessed the reliability and construct validity of the Chinese short 46-item version of the ZKPQ-III-R in a sample of adolescents and young adults. Methodology: A total of 1,019 Chinese adolescents and young adults completed the Chinese version of the original 89-item version ZKPQ-III-R and short 46-item version ZKPQ-III-R, self-report measures of depression, life satisfaction, and subjective health complaints (SHC), the Big Five personality traits, and a substance use risk profile...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325918/robust-analysis-of-fluxes-in-genome-scale-metabolic-pathways
#17
Michael MacGillivray, Amy Ko, Emily Gruber, Miranda Sawyer, Eivind Almaas, Allen Holder
Constraint-based optimization, such as flux balance analysis (FBA), has become a standard systems-biology computational method to study cellular metabolisms that are assumed to be in a steady state of optimal growth. The methods are based on optimization while assuming (i) equilibrium of a linear system of ordinary differential equations, and (ii) deterministic data. However, the steady-state assumption is biologically imperfect, and several key stoichiometric coefficients are experimentally inferred from situations of inherent variation...
March 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324855/impacts-of-local-circulations-on-the-wintertime-air-pollution-in-the-guanzhong-basin-china
#18
Naifang Bei, Linna Zhao, Bo Xiao, Ning Meng, Tian Feng
Urbanization and industrialization in the recent 30years have caused frequent heavy haze pollution in the Guanzhong basin, China during wintertime. Based on the categorized large-scale synoptic situations, the local circulation and its impact on the air pollution in the basin have been investigated using observational data analyses and model simulations with the WRF-CHEM model. The simulated mountain-valley breeze circulations are well established under most of the large-scale synoptic situations in the south-north direction...
March 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324483/the-contribution-of-drug-overdose-to-educational-gradients-in-life-expectancy-in-the-united-states-1992-2011
#19
Jessica Y Ho
Since the mid-1990s, the United States has witnessed a dramatic rise in drug overdose mortality. Educational gradients in life expectancy widened over the same period, and drug overdose likely plays a role in this widening, particularly for non-Hispanic whites. The contemporary drug epidemic is distinctive in terms of its scope, the nature of the substances involved, and its geographic patterning, which influence how it impacts different education groups. I use vital statistics and National Health Interview Survey data to examine the contribution of drug overdose to educational gradients in life expectancy from 1992-2011...
March 21, 2017: Demography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323830/on-the-evolutionary-origins-of-equity
#20
Stéphane Debove, Nicolas Baumard, Jean-Baptiste André
Equity, defined as reward according to contribution, is considered a central aspect of human fairness in both philosophical debates and scientific research. Despite large amounts of research on the evolutionary origins of fairness, the evolutionary rationale behind equity is still unknown. Here, we investigate how equity can be understood in the context of the cooperative environment in which humans evolved. We model a population of individuals who cooperate to produce and divide a resource, and choose their cooperative partners based on how they are willing to divide the resource...
2017: PloS One
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