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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638060/physiology-of-central-pathways
#1
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169000/the-influence-of-scopolamine-on-motor-control-and-attentional-processes
#2
Emma Bestaven, Charline Kambrun, Dominique Guehl, Jean-René Cazalets, Etienne Guillaud
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128806/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-vemp-triggered-by-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-a-promising-tool-to-assess-spinal-cord-function-in-schistosomal-myeloradiculopathy
#3
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Denise Utsch Gonçalves, Ludimila Labanca, Leonardo Dornas de Oliveira, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Thiago de Almeida Pereira, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, José Roberto Lambertucci
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR), the most severe and disabling ectopic form of Schistosoma mansoni infection, is caused by embolized ova eliciting local inflammation in the spinal cord and nerve roots. The treatment involves the use of praziquantel and long-term corticotherapy. The assessment of therapeutic response relies on neurological examination. Supplementary electrophysiological exams may improve prediction and monitoring of functional outcome. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) triggered by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive electrophysiological technique that has been used to test the vestibulospinal tract in motor myelopathies...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001775/-neuroanatomy-of-isolated-body-lateropulsion
#4
REVIEW
Yoshihiko Nakazato, Naotoshi Tamura, Kei Ikeda, Ai Tanaka, Toshimasa Yamamoto
Axial body lateropulsion, a phenomenon where the body is pulled toward the side of the lesion, with tendency of falling down, is the well-known transient feature of lateral medullary syndrome. In some cases, axial body lateropulsion occurs without vestibular and cerebellar symptoms (isolated body lateropulsion:[iBL]). Patients with iBL have a lesion located in the spinocerebellar tract, descending lateral vestibulospinal tract, vestibulo-thalamic pathway, dentatorubrothalamic pathway, or thalamocortical fascicle...
March 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977334/blindfolded-balance-training-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-sensory-motor-strategy-to-improve-the-gait
#5
M Tramontano, S Bonnì, A Martino Cinnera, F Marchetti, C Caltagirone, G Koch, A Peppe
Aim. Recent evidence suggested that the use of treadmill training may improve gait parameters. Visual deprivation could engage alternative sensory strategies to control dynamic equilibrium and stabilize gait based on vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a blindfolded balance training (BBT) in the improvement of stride phase percentage reliable gait parameters in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) compared to patients treated with standard physical therapy (PT). Methods...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26730404/loss-of-projections-functional-compensation-and-residual-deficits-in-the-mammalian-vestibulospinal-system-of-hoxb1-deficient-mice
#6
Maria Di Bonito, Jean-Luc Boulland, Wojciech Krezel, Eya Setti, Michèle Studer, Joel C Glover
The genetic mechanisms underlying the developmental and functional specification of brainstem projection neurons are poorly understood. Here, we use transgenic mouse tools to investigate the role of the gene Hoxb1 in the developmental patterning of vestibular projection neurons, with particular focus on the lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST). The LVST is the principal pathway that conveys vestibular information to limb-related spinal motor circuits and arose early during vertebrate evolution. We show that the segmental hindbrain expression domain uniquely defined by the rhombomere 4 (r4) Hoxb1 enhancer is the origin of essentially all LVST neurons, but also gives rise to subpopulations of contralateral medial vestibulospinal tract (cMVST) neurons, vestibulo-ocular neurons, and reticulospinal (RS) neurons...
November 2015: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26724676/early-postnatal-maturation-in-vestibulospinal-pathways-involved-in-neck-and-forelimb-motor-control
#7
François M Lambert, Hélène Bras, Laura Cardoit, Laurent Vinay, Patrice Coulon, Joel C Glover
To assess the organization and functional development of vestibulospinal inputs to cervical motoneurons (MNs), we have used electrophysiology (ventral root and electromyographic [EMG] recording), calcium imaging, trans-synaptic rabies virus (RV) and conventional retrograde tracing and immunohistochemistry in the neonatal mouse. By stimulating the VIIIth nerve electrically while recording synaptically mediated calcium responses in MNs, we characterized the inputs from the three vestibulospinal tracts, the separate ipsilateral and contralateral medial vestibulospinal tracts (iMVST/cMVST) and the lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST), to MNs in the medial and lateral motor columns (MMC and LMC) of cervical segments...
October 2016: Developmental Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26478874/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-patients-with-rheumatoid-arthritis
#8
Nahid Heydari, Fahimeh Hajiabolhassani, Jamileh Fatahi, Shafieh Movaseghi, Shohreh Jalaie
BACKGROUND: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune systemic disease. Most common autoimmune diseases are multisystem disorders that may also present with otological manifestations, and autoimmune inner ear disease accompanied by vestibular dysfunction. This study aimed to compare the vestibular function between RA patients and normal subjects using cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (cVEMPs). METHODS: In this cross- sectional study, 25patients with RA (19 female and 6 male: mean (±SD) age, 40...
2015: Medical Journal of the Islamic Republic of Iran
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26300768/the-lateral-reticular-nucleus-integration-of-descending-and-ascending-systems-regulating-voluntary-forelimb-movements
#9
Bror Alstermark, Carl-Fredrik Ekerot
Cerebellar control of movements is dependent on mossy fiber input conveying information about sensory and premotor activity in the spinal cord. While much is known about spino-cerebellar systems, which provide the cerebellum with detailed sensory information, much less is known about systems conveying motor information. Individual motoneurones do not have projections to spino-cerebellar neurons. Instead, the fastest route is from last order spinal interneurons. In order to identify the networks that convey ascending premotor information from last order interneurons, we have focused on the lateral reticular nucleus (LRN), which provides the major mossy fiber input to cerebellum from spinal interneuronal systems...
2015: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26282493/a-paradigm-of-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-diminishes-the-soleus-muscle-h-reflex-in-healthy-volunteers
#10
R Čobeljić, N Miljković, K Ribarić-Jankes, L Švirtlih
STUDY DESIGN: In this study, we explored how galvanic vestibular stimulation can modify the soleus H-reflex (Hoffman reflex), that is, the excitability of the spinal cord circuits, in healthy humans. OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to demonstrate H-reflex amplitude modulation caused by changing the duration and the intensity of the anodal galvanic vestibular stimulation. Therefore, we measured H-reflex before and after applied vestibular stimulation. SETTINGS: This study was conducted in Rehabilitation Clinic, Belgrade, Serbia...
February 2016: Spinal Cord
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26239221/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-central-vestibular-disorders
#11
Sun-Young Oh, Hyo-Jeong Kim, Ji-Soo Kim
Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are short latency manifestations of vestibulo-ocular and vestibulocollic reflexes that originate from the utricle and saccule. Although cervical and ocular VEMPs have mostly been applied to peripheral vestibular disorders, the characteristics and the diagnostic values of VEMPs have been expanded to assess the function of the central otolithic pathways. In the central nervous system, the cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) are mediated by the vestibular nuclei and uncrossed medial vestibulospinal tract descending in the lower brainstem and spinal cord...
February 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26186348/lateral-semicircular-canal-asymmetry-in-idiopathic-scoliosis-an-early-link-between-biomechanical-hormonal-and-neurosensory-theories
#12
Martin Hitier, Michèle Hamon, Pierre Denise, Julien Lacoudre, Marie-Aude Thenint, Jean-François Mallet, Sylvain Moreau, Gaëlle Quarck
INTRODUCTION: Despite its high incidence and severe morbidity, the physiopathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) is still unknown. Here, we looked for early anomalies in AIS which are likely to be the cause of spinal deformity and could also be targeted by early treatments. We focused on the vestibular system, which is suspected of acting in AIS pathogenesis and which exhibits an end organ with size and shape fixed before birth. We hypothesize that, in adolescents with idiopathic scoliosis, vestibular morphological anomalies were already present at birth and could possibly have caused other abnormalities...
2015: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26054378/deiters-nucleus-its-role-in-cerebellar-ideogenesis-the-ferdinando-rossi-memorial-lecture
#13
Jan Voogd
Otto Deiters (1834-1863) was a promising neuroscientist who, like Ferdinando Rossi, died too young. His notes and drawings were posthumously published by Max Schultze in the book "Untersuchungen über Gehirn und Rückenmark." The book is well-known for his dissections of nerve cells, showing the presence of multiple dendrites and a single axon. Deiters also made beautiful drawings of microscopical sections through the spinal cord and the brain stem, the latter showing the lateral vestibular nucleus which received his name...
February 2016: Cerebellum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26019332/segmental-organization-of-vestibulospinal-inputs-to-spinal-interneurons-mediating-crossed-activation-of-thoracolumbar-motoneurons-in-the-neonatal-mouse
#14
Nedim Kasumacic, François M Lambert, Patrice Coulon, Helene Bras, Laurent Vinay, Marie-Claude Perreault, Joel C Glover
Vestibulospinal pathways activate contralateral motoneurons (MNs) in the thoracolumbar spinal cord of the neonatal mouse exclusively via axons descending ipsilaterally from the vestibular nuclei via the lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST; Kasumacic et al., 2010). Here we investigate how transmission from the LVST to contralateral MNs is mediated by descending commissural interneurons (dCINs) in different spinal segments. We test the polysynaptic nature of this crossed projection by assessing LVST-mediated ventral root (VR) response latencies, manipulating synaptic responses pharmacologically, and tracing the pathway transynaptically from hindlimb extensor muscles using rabies virus (RV)...
May 27, 2015: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25914638/new-insights-into-the-pathophysiology-of-post-stroke-spasticity
#15
REVIEW
Sheng Li, Gerard E Francisco
Spasticity is one of many consequences after stroke. It is characterized by a velocity-dependent increase in resistance during passive stretch, resulting from hyperexcitability of the stretch reflex. The underlying mechanism of the hyperexcitable stretch reflex, however, remains poorly understood. Accumulated experimental evidence has supported supraspinal origins of spasticity, likely from an imbalance between descending inhibitory and facilitatory regulation of spinal stretch reflexes secondary to cortical disinhibition after stroke...
2015: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25890133/assessment-of-transmission-in-specific-descending-pathways-in-relation-to-gait-and-balance-following-spinal-cord-injury
#16
Dorothy Barthélemy, Maria Willerslev-Olsen, Henrik Lundell, Fin Biering-Sørensen, Jens Bo Nielsen
Human bipedal gait requires supraspinal control and gait is consequently severely impaired in most persons with spinal cord injury (SCI). Little is known of the contribution of lesion of specific descending pathways to the clinical manifestations of gait deficits. Here, we assessed transmission in descending pathways using imaging and electrophysiological techniques and correlated them with clinical measures of impaired gait in persons with SCI. Twenty-five persons with SCI participated in the study. Functional assessment of gait included the Walking Index for Spinal Cord Injury (WISCI), the Timed-Up and Go (TUG), the 6-Min Walking Test (6MWT), and the maximal treadmill gait speed...
2015: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25809702/passive-motion-reduces-vestibular-balance-and-perceptual-responses
#17
Richard C Fitzpatrick, Shaun R D Watson
With the hypothesis that vestibular sensitivity is regulated to deal with a range of environmental motion conditions, we explored the effects of passive whole-body motion on vestibular perceptual and balance responses. In 10 subjects, vestibular responses were measured before and after a period of imposed passive motion. Vestibulospinal balance reflexes during standing evoked by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) were measured as shear reaction forces. Perceptual tests measured thresholds for detecting angular motion, perceptions of suprathreshold rotation and perceptions of GVS-evoked illusory rotation...
May 15, 2015: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25791229/termination-of-vestibulospinal-fibers-arising-from-the-spinal-vestibular-nucleus-in-the-mouse-spinal-cord
#18
H Liang, T Bácskai, G Paxinos
The present study investigated the vestibulospinal system which originates from the spinal vestibular nucleus (SpVe) with both retrograde and anterograde tracer injections. We found that fluoro-gold (FG) labeled neurons were found bilaterally with a contralateral predominance after FG injections into the upper lumbar cord. Anterogradely labeled fibers from the rostral SpVe traveled in the medial part of the ventral funiculus ipsilaterally and the dorsolateral funiculus bilaterally in the cervical cord. They mainly terminated in laminae 5-8, and 10 of the ipsilateral spinal cord...
May 21, 2015: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25760424/electrophysiological-analysis-shows-dizziness-as-the-first-symptom-in-human-t-cell-lymphotropic-virus-type-associated-myelopathy-tropical-spastic-paraparesis
#19
Ludimila Labanca, Ana Lúcia Borges Starling, Silvio Roberto de Sousa-Pereira, Luiz Cláudio Ferreira Romanelli, Anna Bárbara de Freitas Carneiro-Proietti, Lucas Novaes Carvalho, Daniele Rosa Fernandes, Denise Utsch Gonçalves
Dizziness is a symptom in human T cell lymphotropic virus type-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) and may occur due to vestibulospinal tract dysfunction. This tract can be assessed by an electrophysiological test called vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP). The aim was to correlate the result of VEMP generated by acoustic stimuli and dizziness in individuals with human T cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-asymptomatic infection and HAM/TSP. VEMP was recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscle of 60 HTLV-1-negative adults (60±8 years) and 60 individuals infected with HTLV-1, 30 being asymptomatic (59±8 years) and 30 with HAM/TSP (59±8 years)...
June 2015: AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25711937/increased-gain-of-vestibulospinal-potentials-evoked-in-neck-and-leg-muscles-when-standing-under-height-induced-postural-threat
#20
E N Naranjo, J H J Allum, J T Inglis, M G Carpenter
OBJECTIVE: To measure changes in amplitudes of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) elicited from neck, upper and lower limb muscles during a quiet standing task with increased postural threat achieved by manipulating surface height. METHODS: Twenty eight subjects were tested while standing on a platform raised to 0.8 m and 3.2 m from the ground. Surface electromyography was recorded from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM), biceps brachii (BB), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles...
May 7, 2015: Neuroscience
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