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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100928/stochastic-resonance-in-the-human-vestibular-system-noise-induced-facilitation-of-vestibulospinal-reflexes
#1
M Wuehr, J C Boerner, C Pradhan, J Decker, K Jahn, T Brandt, R Schniepp
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that the presence of noise can enhance information processing in sensory systems via stochastic resonance (SR). OBJECTIVES: To examine the presence of SR in human vestibulospinal reflex function. METHODS: Healthy subjects were stimulated with 1 Hz sinusoidal GVS of varying amplitudes (0-1.9 mA). Coherence between GVS input and stimulation-induced motion responses was determined and psychometric function fits were subsequently used to determine individual vestibulospinal reflex thresholds...
October 31, 2017: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929183/altered-neurofilament-protein-expression-in-the-lateral-vestibular-nucleus-in-parkinson-s-disease
#2
Thomas P Wellings, Alan M Brichta, Rebecca Lim
A major cause of morbidity in Parkinson's disease (PD) is postural instability. The neuropathology underlying postural instability is unknown. Postural control is mediated by Deiters' neurons of the lateral vestibular nucleus (LVN), which are the brainstem origin of descending vestibulospinal reflexes. Deiters' neurons express the cytostructural protein, non-phosphorylated neurofilament protein (NPNFP). In PD, reduced expression of NPNFP in substantia nigra (SN) neurons is believed to contribute to dysfunction...
December 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822327/improvements-in-balance-control-in-individuals-with-pcs-detected-following-vestibular-training-a-case-study
#3
Alyssa Prangley, Mathew Aggerholm, Michael Cinelli
Concussed individuals have been found to experience balance deficits in the anterior-posterior (AP) direction as indicated by greater Center of Pressure (COP) displacement and velocity. One possible reason for this change in balance control could be due to damage to the lateral vestibulospinal tract which sends signals to control posterior muscles, specifically ankle extensors leading to compensatory torques about the ankle. The purpose of the study was to quantify balance assessments in individuals experiencing persistent post-concussion symptoms (PCS) to determine balance control changes following a vestibular training intervention...
October 2017: Gait & Posture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798718/vestibular-modulation-of-sympathetic-nerve-activity-to-muscle-and-skin-in-humans
#4
REVIEW
Elie Hammam, Vaughan G Macefield
We review the existence of vestibulosympathetic reflexes in humans. While several methods to activate the human vestibular apparatus have been used, galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a means of selectively modulating vestibular afferent activity via electrodes over the mastoid processes, causing robust vestibular illusions of side-to-side movement. Sinusoidal GVS (sGVS) causes partial entrainment of sympathetic outflow to muscle and skin. Modulation of muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) from vestibular inputs competes with baroreceptor inputs, with stronger temporal coupling to the vestibular stimulus being observed at frequencies remote from the cardiac frequency; "super entrainment" was observed in some individuals...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28567027/transient-vestibulopathy-in-wallenberg-s-syndrome-pathologic-analysis
#5
Jorge C Kattah, Ali S Saber Tehrani, Sigrun Roeber, Meena Gujrati, Sarah E Bach, David E Newman Toker, Ari M Blitz, Anja K E Horn
OBJECTIVE: To report an unusual lateral medullary stroke (LMS) associated with transient unidirectional horizontal, nystagmus, and decreased horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (h-VOR) gain that mimicked a peripheral vestibulopathy. MRI suggested involvement of caudal medial vestibular nucleus (MVN); however, the rapid resolution of the nystagmus and improved h-VOR gain favored transient ischemia without infarction. Decreased h-VOR gain is expected with peripheral vestibular lesions within the labyrinth or superior vestibular nerve; less frequently lateral pontine strokes involving the vestibular root entry, the vestibular fascicle, or neurons within the MVN may be responsible...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470551/nuclear-derivatives-and-axonal-projections-originating-from-rhombomere-4-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#6
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer, Luis Puelles
The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts contribute to the lateral lemniscus, the trigeminothalamic tracts, the medial tegmental tract and the medial forebrain bundle, which variously project to the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus and telencephalon...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396651/descending-influences-on-vestibulospinal-and-vestibulosympathetic-reflexes
#7
REVIEW
Andrew A McCall, Derek M Miller, Bill J Yates
This review considers the integration of vestibular and other signals by the central nervous system pathways that participate in balance control and blood pressure regulation, with an emphasis on how this integration may modify posture-related responses in accordance with behavioral context. Two pathways convey vestibular signals to limb motoneurons: the lateral vestibulospinal tract and reticulospinal projections. Both pathways receive direct inputs from the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and also integrate vestibular, spinal, and other inputs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368883/effect-of-gaze-stabilization-exercises-on-vestibular-function-during-postural-control
#8
Akiyoshi Matsugi, Yusuke Ueta, Kosuke Oku, Kojiro Okuno, Yoshiki Tamaru, Shohei Nomura, Hiroaki Tanaka, Nobuhiko Mori
Gaze-stabilization exercise (GSE) is often conducted in vestibular rehabilitation, but its effect on vestibular function in postural control is not clear. We investigated whether GSE affects vestibular function during static upright standing and vestibulospinal reflex (VSR) in healthy young adults. First, the center of pressure of the total trajectory length (CoP-L) was measured before each GSE task or control (only standing) task (pre), immediately after (post), and 10 min after (post10) in the static standing position on foam rubber with the eyes open or closed (EC)...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332011/delayed-otolith-development-does-not-impair-vestibular-circuit-formation-in-zebrafish
#9
Richard Roberts, Jeffrey Elsner, Martha W Bagnall
What is the role of normally patterned sensory signaling in development of vestibular circuits? For technical reasons, including the difficulty in depriving animals of vestibular inputs, this has been a challenging question to address. Here we take advantage of a vestibular-deficient zebrafish mutant, rock solo (AN66) , in order to examine whether normal sensory input is required for formation of vestibular-driven postural circuitry. We show that the rock solo (AN66) mutant is a splice site mutation in the secreted glycoprotein otogelin (otog), which we confirm through both whole genome sequencing and complementation with an otog early termination mutant...
June 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291479/does-combat-hearing-preservation-equipment-affect-balance
#10
Art Ambrosio, Ali N Hoffer, Michael Hoffer
OBJECTIVES: (1) To investigate whether the occlusion effect and hearing attenuation produced by 3M Combat Arms Ear Plugs (CAEP) affects balance when compared to no hearing protection and (2) to investigate whether the occlusion effect and noise-canceling capabilities of the Nacre QuietPro system affects balance when compared to no hearing protection. METHODS: This prospective study collected pilot data for investigation of mechanisms of balance. 20 subjects with normal hearing and no vestibular dysfunction were tested with blackened goggles in three conditions-no hearing protection, CAEP, and with the Nacre QuietPro...
March 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177166/splenius-capitis-is-a-reliable-target-for-measuring-cervical-vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potentials-in-adults
#11
Aaron J Camp, Chao Gu, Sharon L Cushing, Karen A Gordon, Brian D Corneil
The cervical vestibular evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) is a common and simple test of vestibulospinal reflex patency. In the clinic, cVEMPs are measured in response to loud sounds from the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) on the ventral neck, as subjects maintain an uncomfortable head posture needed to recruit SCM. Here we characterize the cVEMP in a dorsal neck turner (splenius capitis; SPL), and compare it with the SCM cVEMP. cVEMPs were recorded simultaneously via surface electromyography from SCM and SPL from 17 healthy subjects in a variety of postures, including head-turned postures adopted while either seated or standing, and the clinical posture...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054910/examining-effects-of-physical-exertion-on-the-dynamic-visual-acuity-test-in-collegiate-athletes
#12
Jessie N Patterson, Anna M Murphy, Julie A Honaker
BACKGROUND: Acute symptoms of dizziness and/or imbalance commonly experienced in athletes postconcussion are speculated to arise from dysfunction at multiple levels (i.e., inner ear or central vestibular system) to appropriately integrate afferent sensory information. Disruption along any pathway of the balance system can result in symptoms of dizziness, decreased postural control function (vestibulospinal reflex), and reduced vestibulo-ocular reflex function. This may also lead to decreased gaze stability with movements of the head and may account for symptoms of blurred vision or diplopia reported in almost half of athletes sustaining a concussion...
January 2017: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039767/static-otolithic-drive-alters-presynaptic-inhibition-in-soleus-motor-pool
#13
Apollonia Fox, David Koceja
The vestibular system has both direct and indirect connections to the soleus motor pool via the vestibulospinal and reticulospinal tracts. The exact nature of how this vestibular information is integrated within the spinal cord is largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to identify whether changes in static otolithic drive altered the amount of presynaptic inhibition in the soleus H-reflex pathway. Changes in static otolithic drive were investigated in sixteen healthy participants using a tilt table...
February 2017: Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911755/transformation-of-vestibular-signals-for-the-control-of-standing-in-humans
#14
Patrick A Forbes, Billy L Luu, H F Machiel Van der Loos, Elizabeth A Croft, J Timothy Inglis, Jean-Sébastien Blouin
During standing balance, vestibular signals encode head movement and are transformed into coordinates that are relevant to maintaining upright posture of the whole body. This transformation must account for head-on-body orientation as well as the muscle actions generating the postural response. Here, we investigate whether this transformation is dependent upon a muscle's ability to stabilize the body along the direction of a vestibular disturbance. Subjects were braced on top of a robotic balance system that simulated the mechanics of standing while being exposed to an electrical vestibular stimulus that evoked a craniocentric vestibular error of head roll...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638060/physiology-of-central-pathways
#15
REVIEW
K E Cullen
The relative simplicity of the neural circuits that mediate vestibular reflexes is well suited for linking systems and cellular levels of analyses. Notably, a distinctive feature of the vestibular system is that neurons at the first central stage of sensory processing in the vestibular nuclei are premotor neurons; the same neurons that receive vestibular-nerve input also send direct projections to motor pathways. For example, the simplicity of the three-neuron pathway that mediates the vestibulo-ocular reflex leads to the generation of compensatory eye movements within ~5ms of a head movement...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27169000/the-influence-of-scopolamine-on-motor-control-and-attentional-processes
#16
Emma Bestaven, Charline Kambrun, Dominique Guehl, Jean-René Cazalets, Etienne Guillaud
BACKGROUND: Motion sickness may be caused by a sensory conflict between the visual and the vestibular systems. Scopolamine, known to be the most effective therapy to control the vegetative symptoms of motion sickness, acts on the vestibular nucleus and potentially the vestibulospinal pathway, which may affect balance and motor tasks requiring both attentional process and motor balance. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of scopolamine on motor control and attentional processes...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27128806/vestibular-evoked-myogenic-potential-vemp-triggered-by-galvanic-vestibular-stimulation-gvs-a-promising-tool-to-assess-spinal-cord-function-in-schistosomal-myeloradiculopathy
#17
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Júlia Fonseca de Morais Caporali, Denise Utsch Gonçalves, Ludimila Labanca, Leonardo Dornas de Oliveira, Guilherme Vaz de Melo Trindade, Thiago de Almeida Pereira, Pedro Henrique Diniz Cunha, Marina Santos Falci Mourão, José Roberto Lambertucci
BACKGROUND: Schistosomal myeloradiculopathy (SMR), the most severe and disabling ectopic form of Schistosoma mansoni infection, is caused by embolized ova eliciting local inflammation in the spinal cord and nerve roots. The treatment involves the use of praziquantel and long-term corticotherapy. The assessment of therapeutic response relies on neurological examination. Supplementary electrophysiological exams may improve prediction and monitoring of functional outcome. Vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) triggered by galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is a simple, safe, low-cost and noninvasive electrophysiological technique that has been used to test the vestibulospinal tract in motor myelopathies...
April 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27001775/-neuroanatomy-of-isolated-body-lateropulsion
#18
REVIEW
Yoshihiko Nakazato, Naotoshi Tamura, Kei Ikeda, Ai Tanaka, Toshimasa Yamamoto
Axial body lateropulsion, a phenomenon where the body is pulled toward the side of the lesion, with tendency of falling down, is the well-known transient feature of lateral medullary syndrome. In some cases, axial body lateropulsion occurs without vestibular and cerebellar symptoms (isolated body lateropulsion:[iBL]). Patients with iBL have a lesion located in the spinocerebellar tract, descending lateral vestibulospinal tract, vestibulo-thalamic pathway, dentatorubrothalamic pathway, or thalamocortical fascicle...
March 2016: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26977334/blindfolded-balance-training-in-patients-with-parkinson-s-disease-a-sensory-motor-strategy-to-improve-the-gait
#19
M Tramontano, S Bonnì, A Martino Cinnera, F Marchetti, C Caltagirone, G Koch, A Peppe
Aim. Recent evidence suggested that the use of treadmill training may improve gait parameters. Visual deprivation could engage alternative sensory strategies to control dynamic equilibrium and stabilize gait based on vestibulospinal reflexes (VSR). We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a blindfolded balance training (BBT) in the improvement of stride phase percentage reliable gait parameters in patients with Parkinson's Disease (PD) compared to patients treated with standard physical therapy (PT). Methods...
2016: Parkinson's Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26730404/loss-of-projections-functional-compensation-and-residual-deficits-in-the-mammalian-vestibulospinal-system-of-hoxb1-deficient-mice
#20
Maria Di Bonito, Jean-Luc Boulland, Wojciech Krezel, Eya Setti, Michèle Studer, Joel C Glover
The genetic mechanisms underlying the developmental and functional specification of brainstem projection neurons are poorly understood. Here, we use transgenic mouse tools to investigate the role of the gene Hoxb1 in the developmental patterning of vestibular projection neurons, with particular focus on the lateral vestibulospinal tract (LVST). The LVST is the principal pathway that conveys vestibular information to limb-related spinal motor circuits and arose early during vertebrate evolution. We show that the segmental hindbrain expression domain uniquely defined by the rhombomere 4 (r4) Hoxb1 enhancer is the origin of essentially all LVST neurons, but also gives rise to subpopulations of contralateral medial vestibulospinal tract (cMVST) neurons, vestibulo-ocular neurons, and reticulospinal (RS) neurons...
November 2015: ENeuro
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