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Biogerontology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771833/human-aging-finite-lives-and-the-idealization-of-clocks
#1
Jan Baars
Aging and time are interconnected because aging is basically living seen in a temporal perspective. This makes 'time' an important concept in trying to explain aging. However, throughout modernity time has increasingly been identified as clock time: perfectly fit to measure 'age' as time since birth but failing to explain 'age' as an indicator of aging processes and even less adequate to grasp the lived time of human beings. Moreover, the clock as a cultural idol of instrumentalist perfection has led to approaching human aging in terms of maintenance and repair, inspiring a neglect and depreciation of human vulnerability...
October 22, 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27241672/middle-age-has-a-significant-impact-on-gene-expression-during-skin-wound-healing-in-male-mice
#2
Hagai Yanai, David Benjamin Lumenta, Klemens Vierlinger, Manuela Hofner, Hugo-Benito Kitzinger, Lars-Peter Kamolz, Christa Nöhammer, Marco Chilosi, Vadim E Fraifeld
The vast majority of research on the impact of age on skin wound healing (WH) compares old animals to young ones. The middle age is often ignored in biogerontological research despite the fact that many functions that decline in an age-dependent manner have starting points in mid-life. With this in mind, we examined gene expression patterns during skin WH in late middle-aged versus young adult male mice, using the head and back punch models. The rationale behind this study was that the impact of age would first be detectable at the transcriptional level...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27069592/evolutionary-ecology-of-aging-time-to-reconcile-field-and-laboratory-research
#3
Martin Reichard
Aging is an increase in mortality risk with age due to a decline in vital functions. Research on aging has entered an exciting phase. Advances in biogerontology have demonstrated that proximate mechanisms of aging and interventions to modify lifespan are shared among species. In nature, aging patterns have proven more diverse than previously assumed. The paradigm that extrinsic mortality ultimately determines evolution of aging rates has been questioned and there appears to be a mismatch between intra- and inter-specific patterns...
May 2016: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27040825/ageing-with-elegans-a-research-proposal-to-map-healthspan-pathways
#4
Walter Luyten, Peter Antal, Bart P Braeckman, Jake Bundy, Francesca Cirulli, Christopher Fang-Yen, Georg Fuellen, Armand Leroi, Qingfei Liu, Patricia Martorell, Andres Metspalu, Markus Perola, Michael Ristow, Nadine Saul, Liliane Schoofs, Karsten Siems, Liesbet Temmerman, Tina Smets, Alicja Wolk, Suresh I S Rattan
Human longevity continues to increase world-wide, often accompanied by decreasing birth rates. As a larger fraction of the population thus gets older, the number of people suffering from disease or disability increases dramatically, presenting a major societal challenge. Healthy ageing has therefore been selected by EU policy makers as an important priority ( http://www.healthyageing.eu/european-policies-and-initiatives ); it benefits not only the elderly but also their direct environment and broader society, as well as the economy...
August 2016: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26343259/comparative-cellular-biogerontology-where-do-we-stand
#5
REVIEW
Samantha J Alper, Anne M Bronikowski, James M Harper
Due to the extreme variation in life spans among species, using a comparative approach to address fundamental questions about the aging process has much to offer. For example, maximum life span can vary by as much as several orders of magnitude among taxa. In recent years, using primary cell lines cultured from species with disparate life spans and aging rates has gained considerable momentum as a means to dissect the mechanisms underlying the variation in aging rates among animals. In this review, we reiterate the strengths of comparative cellular biogerontology, as well as provide a survey of the current state of the field...
November 2015: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26325590/why-is-the-dog-an-ideal-model-for-aging-research
#6
REVIEW
Keiva M Gilmore, Kimberly A Greer
With many caveats to the traditional vertebrate species pertaining to biogerontology investigations, it has been suggested that a most informative model is the one which: 1) examines closely related species, or various members of the same species with naturally occurring lifespan variation, 2) already has adequate medical procedures developed, 3) has a well annotated genome, 4) does not require artificial housing, and can live in its natural environment while being investigated, and 5) allows considerable information to be gathered within a relatively short period of time...
November 2015: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26296933/genetics-and-pharmacology-of-longevity-the-road-to-therapeutics-for-healthy-aging
#7
REVIEW
Jorge Iván Castillo-Quan, Kerri J Kinghorn, Ivana Bjedov
Aging can be defined as the progressive decline in tissue and organismal function and the ability to respond to stress that occurs in association with homeostatic failure and the accumulation of molecular damage. Aging is the biggest risk factor for human disease and results in a wide range of aging pathologies. Although we do not completely understand the underlying molecular basis that drives the aging process, we have gained exceptional insights into the plasticity of life span and healthspan from the use of model organisms such as the worm Caenorhabditis elegans and the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster...
2015: Advances in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26277618/asynchrony-of-senescence-among-phenotypic-traits-in-a-wild-mammal-population
#8
Adam D Hayward, Jacob Moorad, Charlotte E Regan, Camillo Berenos, Jill G Pilkington, Josephine M Pemberton, Daniel H Nussey
The degree to which changes in lifespan are coupled to changes in senescence in different physiological systems and phenotypic traits is a central question in biogerontology. It is underpinned by deeper biological questions about whether or not senescence is a synchronised process, or whether levels of synchrony depend on species or environmental context. Understanding how natural selection shapes patterns of synchrony in senescence across physiological systems and phenotypic traits demands the longitudinal study of many phenotypes under natural conditions...
November 2015: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26236330/should-we-treat-aging-as-a-disease-the-consequences-and-dangers-of-miscategorisation
#9
Richard G A Faragher
The aging of the population represents one of the largest healthcare challenges facing the world today. The available scientific evidence shows that interventions are available now that can target fundamental "aging" processes or pathways. Sufficient economic evidence is available to argue convincingly that this approach will also save enormous sums of money which could then be deployed to solve other urgent global problems. However, as yet this scenario has barely entered the public consciousness and, far from being a point of vigorous debate, seems to be ignored by policy makers...
2015: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26162840/h2s-a-new-approach-to-lifespan-enhancement-and-healthy-ageing
#10
REVIEW
Bedoor Qabazard, Stephen R Stürzenbaum
Ageing, a progressive structural and functional decline, is considered to be a major risk factor for virtually all ageing-associated pathologies and disabilities, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, diabetes, atherosclerosis and certain cancers. Biogerontology research has now been largely directed towards finding novel drug targets to decelerate the ageing process and attain healthy ageing in order to delay the onset of all ageing-related diseases. H2S has been reported to exert vasodilatory, antioxidant, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory actions and has been shown to act as a signalling molecule, neuromodulator and cytoprotectant...
2015: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25902458/do-we-have-genes-that-exist-to-hasten-aging-new-data-new-arguments-but-the-answer-is-still-no
#11
REVIEW
Aubrey D N J de Grey
In the 60 years since Medawar questioned the assumption that aging is a selected trait with a fitness benefit, mainstream biogerontology has overwhelmingly adopted the view that aging is a product of evolutionary neglect rather than evolutionary intent. Recently, however, this question has come to merit further scrutiny, for three reasons: a variety of new ways in which aging could indeed be "programmed" have been proposed, several phenomena with superficial similarities to programmed aging have been suggested to offer evidence for it and against the mainstream consensus, and above all it has become appreciated that the existence or otherwise of "pro-aging genes" has enormous implications for determining our optimal strategy for the medical postponement of age-related ill-health...
2015: Current Aging Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25666896/neurogenic-mechanisms-in-bladder-and-bowel-ageing
#12
REVIEW
Richard N Ranson, M Jill Saffrey
The prevalence of both urinary and faecal incontinence, and also chronic constipation, increases with ageing and these conditions have a major impact on the quality of life of the elderly. Management of bladder and bowel dysfunction in the elderly is currently far from ideal and also carries a significant financial burden. Understanding how these changes occur is thus a major priority in biogerontology. The functions of the bladder and terminal bowel are regulated by complex neuronal networks. In particular neurons of the spinal cord and peripheral ganglia play a key role in regulating micturition and defaecation reflexes as well as promoting continence...
April 2015: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25642019/rotifers-as-experimental-tools-for-investigating-aging
#13
Terry W Snell, Rachel K Johnston, Kristin E Gribble, David B Mark Welch
Comparative biogerontology has much to contribute to the study of aging. A broad range of aging rates has evolved to meet environmental challenges, and understanding these adaptations can produce valuable insights into aging. The supra Phylum Lophotrochozoa is particularly understudied and has several groups that have intriguing patterns of aging. Members of the lophotrochozoan phylum Rotifera are particularly useful for aging studies because cohort life tables can be conducted with them easily, and biochemical and genomic tools are available for examining aging mechanisms...
January 1, 2015: Invertebrate Reproduction & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25470422/nutrigerontology-why-we-need-a-new-scientific-discipline-to-develop-diets-and-guidelines-to-reduce-the-risk-of-aging-related-diseases
#14
REVIEW
Kris Verburgh
Many diets and nutritional advice are circulating, often based on short- or medium-term clinical trials and primary outcomes, like changes in LDL cholesterol or weight. It remains difficult to assess which dietary interventions can be effective in the long term to reduce the risk of aging-related disease and increase the (healthy) lifespan. At the same time, the scientific discipline that studies the aging process has identified some important nutrient-sensing pathways that modulate the aging process, such as the mTOR and the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway...
February 2015: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25252831/gadd45-expression-correlates-with-age-dependent-neurodegeneration-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Natalia Bgatova, Tatiana Dubatolova, Leonid Omelyanchuk, Ekaterina Plyusnina, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Alexey Moskalev
The neurodegeneration is one of the features of aging and age-related disorders. Yet, only several antiaging interventions are known to affect the processes of neurodegeneration. Here we show that overexpression of the pro-longevity gene D-GADD45 in Drosophila neurons leads to a postponed manifestation of histological and ultrastructural features of age-dependent neurodegeneration, such as decrease in the packing density of neurons, increasing the degree of neuron cytoplasmic vacuolization, and morphological defects of mitochondrial cristae...
February 2015: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25017442/what-is-an-anti-aging-treatment
#16
David Gems
Key objectives of biogerontology are to understand the biology of aging and to translate scientific insight into interventions that improve late-life health - or anti-aging treatments. In this context, when considering the problem of how to effect translational research, it is useful to have a clear, consensus view on what exactly constitutes an anti-aging treatment. This essay critically assesses the understanding of this concept common among biogerontologists, and proposes a new definition. A current conception of anti-aging treatment imagines a primary cause of aging that is causally upstream of, and the cause of, all age-related pathology...
October 2014: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25001537/sirt6-a-promising-target-for-cancer-prevention-and-therapy
#17
REVIEW
Michael Van Meter, Vera Gorbunova, Andrei Seluanov
Many of the pathologies associated with the aging process also contribute to tumor initiation, growth or metastasis. Insights from biogerontology may be instrumental for developing new therapies for cancer. This chapter highlights the rationale for combining biogerontology and cancer research to generate new strategies for cancer treatment. In particular, this chapter focuses on one gene, SIRT6, which has emerged as an important regulator of longevity in mammals and appears to have multiple biochemical functions, which antagonize tumor development and may be useful in cancer prevention and treatment...
2014: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24896352/calorie-restriction-and-nad%C3%A2-%C2%BA-sirtuin-counteract-the-hallmarks-of-aging
#18
REVIEW
Shaday Michan
Among diverse environmental factors that modify aging, diet has a profound effect. Calorie restriction (CR), which entails reduced calorie consumption without malnutrition, is the only natural regimen shown to extend maximum and mean lifespan, as well as healthspan in a wide range of organisms. Although the knowledge about the biological mechanisms underlying CR is still incipient, various approaches in biogerontology research suggest that CR can ameliorate hallmarks of aging at the cellular level including telomere erosion, epigenetic alterations, stem cells depletion, cellular senescence, mitochondrial dysfunction, genomic instability, proteostasis imbalance, impaired nutrient sensing and abnormal intercellular communication...
2014: Frontiers in Bioscience (Landmark Edition)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24810145/limitations-of-log-rank-tests-for-analysing-longevity-data-in-biogerontology
#19
Eric Le Bourg
Log-rank tests are sometimes used to analyse longevity data when other tests should be preferred. When the experimental design involves more than one factor, some authors perform several log-rank tests with the same data, which increases the risk to wrongly conclude that a difference among groups does exist and does not allow to test interactions. When analysing the effect of a single factor with more than two groups, some authors also perform several tests (e.g. comparing a control group to each of the experimental groups), because post hoc analysis is not available with log-rank tests...
August 2014: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24079765/molecular-gerontology-from-homeodynamics-to-hormesis
#20
REVIEW
Suresh I S Rattan
The science and study of the biological basis of aging, biogerontology, is now a well-established field with solid scientific base. A paradigm-shift in gerontology has occurred by realising the fact that biological aging occurs in spite of the presence of complex homeodynamic pathways of maintenance, repair and defence, and there is no "enemy within". This viewpoint separates the modulation of aging from the treatment of one or more age-related diseases. A promising strategy in biogerontology is to slow down aging and to extend healthspan by hormetin-mediated hormesis...
2014: Current Pharmaceutical Design
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