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Robert P Archer
The incidents of mass violence that have occurred in the United States have been deeply disturbing to the public as well as to mental health professionals. The public, the media, as well as our patients, family members, and friends have reached out to mental health professionals in the hope that we can provide an understanding of these events that might serve to reduce their frequency in the future. This article explores how we can best respond to these requests, including the current limitations of psychologists in the prediction of mass violence...
June 21, 2018: Journal of Personality Assessment
Ran Yin, Li Ling, Chii Shang
UV-LEDs are considered as the most promising UV light sources, because it has the potential to replace conventional UV lamps in some water treatment applications in the foreseeable future. In this study, UV-LEDs at four wavelengths in the UV-C or near UV-C range (i.e., 257.7, 268, 282.3, and 301.2 nm) were used to investigate the wavelength-dependency on chlorine photolysis and its subsequent radical formation. The fluence-based photodecay rates of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hypochlorite (OCl- ) were monotonically correlated to their molar absorption coefficients and quantum yields, and the chlorine photodecay rates were much more significantly affected by molar absorption coefficients (β  = 0...
June 14, 2018: Water Research
Samantha Gualtieri, Stephanie Denison
In classic examinations of the representativeness heuristic, Kahneman and Tversky (1973) presented adult participants with a description of an individual who fit their stereotype of a typical engineer. Importantly, even when participants were told that the individual was drawn from a sample of 70 lawyers and 30 engineers, they estimated that the individual was an engineer at very high levels, showing that they relied almost exclusively on the personality description. Relying on the representativeness heuristic can lead to base-rate neglect and, thus, biased judgments...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Child Psychology
Shu-Chen Kuo, Shu-Man Shih, Tsai-Ling Yang Lauderdale, I-Shou Chang, Yee-Chun Chen, Chao A Hsiung, Shang-Chwen Chang
OBJECTIVE: A policy initiated in 2001 by Taiwan's National Health Insurance (NHI) Administration has effectively reduced outpatient antibiotic use except fluoroquinolones (FQs). The influence of differential regulation policy of narrow-spectrum versus broad-spectrum FQs on the prescriptions is unknown. METHODS: This study analyzed the claim records of oral FQs prescription at outpatient visits during 2000-2010 using the NHI Research Database and compared prescriptions for narrow-spectrum FQs, which are inactive against Streptococcus pneumoniae and lack formulary restriction, with those for broad-spectrum FQs...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Microbiology, Immunology, and Infection, Wei Mian Yu Gan Ran za Zhi
Fei Jin, Xiao Li, Zuoguang Wang, Ya Liu, Jielin Liu, Dongdong Sun, Yongxin Jin, Shiqi Wang, Shaojun Wen, Yongxiang Wei
Mitofusin 2 (Mfn2), a gene that negatively regulates the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), is expressed at low levels in the VSMCs of hypertensive patients. DNA methylation can inhibit gene expression. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between Mfn2 methylation and essential hypertension (EH). After bioinformatics analysis, five EH patients and five normal control (NC) subjects were selected for methylation chip screening. Then, bisulfite DNA sequencing was used to analyze the methylation status of differentially methylated fragments of Mfn2 in 40 EH patients and 36 NC subjects...
June 7, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Apoorva Bhandari, Christopher Gagne, David Badre
The prefrontal cortex (pFC) is central to flexible, goal-directed cognition, and understanding its representational code is an important problem in cognitive neuroscience. In humans, multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA) of fMRI blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) measurements has emerged as an important approach for studying neural representations. Many previous studies have implicitly assumed that MVPA of fMRI BOLD is just as effective in decoding information encoded in pFC neural activity as it is in visual cortex...
June 7, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Dagmar Van Liefferinge, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Marina Danckaerts, Kirill Fayn, Nady Van Broeck, Saskia van der Oord
OBJECTIVES: Emotional lability (EL) is an important trans-diagnostic concept that is associated with significant functional impairment in childhood and adolescence. EL is typically measured with questionnaires, although little is known about the ecological validity of these ratings. In this paper, we undertook 2 studies addressing this issue by examining the relationship between rating-based measures of EL and directly measured emotional expressions and experiences. Furthermore, the associations between directly measured emotional expressions and experiences and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology were also examined, given the clear association of EL with ADHD in former research...
May 30, 2018: International Journal of Methods in Psychiatric Research
Marie Ryan, Mark Heverin, Mark A Doherty, Nicola Davis, Emma M Corr, Alice Vajda, Niall Pender, Russell McLaughlin, Orla Hardiman
Objective: To assess temporal trends in familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) incidence rates in an Irish population and to determine factors influencing FALS ascertainment. Methods: Population-based data collected over 23 years, using the Irish amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) register and DNA biobank, were analyzed and age-standardized rates of FALS and associated familial neuropsychiatric endophenotypes were identified. Results: Between 1994 and 2016, 269 patients with a family history of ALS from 197 unique families were included on the register...
June 2018: Neurology. Genetics
Stefanie A Wind, Yogendra J Patil
Recent research has explored the use of models adapted from Mokken scale analysis as a nonparametric approach to evaluating rating quality in educational performance assessments. A potential limiting factor to the widespread use of these techniques is the requirement for complete data, as practical constraints in operational assessment systems often limit the use of complete rating designs. In order to address this challenge, this study explores the use of missing data imputation techniques and their impact on Mokken-based rating quality indicators related to rater monotonicity, rater scalability, and invariant rater ordering...
April 2018: Educational and Psychological Measurement
Mengkai Li, Mengyu Hao, Laxiang Yang, Hong Yao, James R Bolton, Ernest R Blatchley, Zhimin Qiang
The vacuum-ultraviolet/ultraviolet/chlorine (VUV/UV/chlorine) process, with a VUV/UV mercury lamp used as the light source, was found to be a highly efficient advanced oxidation process (AOP) in a previous study. Hence, its application feasibility for trace organic pollutant removal from drinking water becomes attractive. In this work, a bench-scale mini-fluidic VUV/UV photoreaction system was used to determine the degradation kinetics of sulfamethazine (SMN), a model sulfonamide antibiotic frequently detected with trace levels in aquatic environments...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Eva Györi, Christopher Przestrzelski, Igor Pona, Michael Hagmann, Thomas Rath, Christine Radtke, Chieh-Han John Tzou
BACKGROUND: Facial palsy leads to functional and aesthetic deficits, which impair the quality of life of affected patients. General health-related and disease-specific questionnaires are available for quality of life assessment. In this study, observer-based analysis of facial function (Sunnybrook Facial Grading Scale) was compared patient-based to facial palsy-specific gradings (Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale and Facial Disability Index), and general health-related quality of life questionnaires (SF-36)...
May 19, 2018: International Journal of Surgery
Alexander B Swan, Dustin P Calvillo, Russell Revlin
When faced with a decision, people generally show a bias toward heuristic processing, even if it leads to the incorrect decision, such as in the base-rate neglect task. The crucial question is whether people know that they are biased. Recently, the three-stage model (Pennycook, Fugelsang, & Koehler, 2015) suggested that detecting this bias (conflict detection) is imperfect and a consistent source of bias because some people do not recognize that they are making biased decisions. In Experiment 1, participants completed a base-rate neglect task as replication of Pennycook et al...
May 15, 2018: Acta Psychologica
Sarah Pillemer, George D Papandonatos, Cara Crook, Brian R Ott, Geoffrey Tremont
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of a modified version of the Minnesota Cognitive Acuity Screen (MCAS-m), by adding learning and recognition memory components, to the original version MCAS to distinguish amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) from healthy controls (HCs). METHODS/DESIGN: A total of 30 individuals with aMCI and 30 HCs underwent neuropsychological testing, neurologic examination, laboratory, and brain imaging tests...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology
Katherine J Harmon, Scott K Proescholdbell, Johna Register-Mihalik, David B Richardson, Anna E Waller, Stephen W Marshall
BACKGROUND: Sports and recreational activities are an important cause of injury among children and youth, with sports-related traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) being of particular concern given the developing brain. This paper reports the characteristics of sport and recreation-related (SR) emergency department (ED) visits among school-age children and youth in a statewide population. METHODS: This study included all injury-related visits made to all North Carolina 24/7 acute-care civilian hospital-affiliated EDs by school-age youth, 5-18 years of age, during 2010-2014 (N = 918,662)...
May 15, 2018: Injury Epidemiology
Javier Oltra-Cucarella, Miriam Sánchez-SanSegundo, Darren M Lipnicki, Perminder S Sachdev, John D Crawford, José A Pérez-Vicente, Luis Cabello-Rodríguez, Rosario Ferrer-Cascales
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the implications of obtaining one or more low scores on a battery of cognitive tests on diagnosing mild cognitive impairment (MCI). DESIGN: Observational longitudinal study. SETTING: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative. PARTICIPANTS: Normal controls (NC, n = 280) and participants with MCI (n = 415) according to Petersen criteria were reclassified using the Jak/Bondi criteria and number of impaired tests (NIT) criteria...
May 10, 2018: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
Phillip R Worts, Philip Schatz, Scott O Burkhart
BACKGROUND: The Vestibular/Ocular Motor Screening (VOMS) and King-Devick (K-D) test are tools designed to assess ocular or vestibular function after a sport-related concussion. PURPOSE: To determine the test-retest reliability and rate of false-positive results of the VOMS and K-D test in a healthy athlete sample. STUDY DESIGN: Cohort study (diagnosis); Level of evidence, 2. METHODS: Forty-five healthy high school student-athletes (mean age, 16...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Francesco A Aiello, Dejah R Judelson, Jonathan M Durgin, Danielle R Doucet, Jessica P Simons, Dawn M Durocher, Julie M Flahive, Andres Schanzer
INTRODUCTION: Clinical documentation is the key determinant of inpatient acuity of illness and payer reimbursement. Every inpatient hospitalization is placed into a diagnosis related group with a relative value based on documented procedures, conditions, comorbidities and complications. The Case Mix Index (CMI) is an average of these diagnosis related groups and directly impacts physician profiling, medical center profiling, reimbursement, and quality reporting. We hypothesize that a focused, physician-led initiative to improve clinical documentation of vascular surgery inpatients results in increased CMI and contribution margin...
May 4, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Andrea Pereira, Jan-Willem van Prooijen
Because punishments are expected to give offenders what they deserve proportionally to the severity of their offenses, the punishment of an entire group because of the misdeed of a few of its members is generally considered as unfair. Group entitativity might increase support for such collective punishment, because members of highly entitative groups are perceived as more similar and interchangeable. We designed three experiments comparing support for third-party collective punishment of low versus high entitative groups...
2018: PloS One
Brett O Gardner, Daniel C Murrie, Angela N Torres
Evaluations of legal sanity are some of the most complex and consequential mental health evaluations that forensic clinicians perform for the courts. Thus, there is strong reason to monitor the wide-scale process and conclusions of sanity evaluations. In this study, we review 1,111 court-ordered sanity evaluation reports submitted by 74 evaluators in Virginia from the first year after the state initiated an oversight system that allowed for such comprehensive review. Overall, the base rate of insanity findings was 16...
May 2, 2018: Behavioral Sciences & the Law
Eve Griffin, Elaine McMahon, Fiona McNicholas, Paul Corcoran, Ivan J Perry, Ella Arensman
PURPOSE: Rates of hospital-treated self-harm are highest among young people. The current study examined trends in rates of self-harm among young people in Ireland over a 10-year period, as well as trends in self-harm methods. METHODS: Data from the National Self-Harm Registry Ireland on presentations to hospital emergency departments (EDs) following self-harm by those aged 10-24 years during the period 2007-2016 were included. We calculated annual self-harm rates per 100,000 by age, gender and method of self-harm...
May 2, 2018: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
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