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"base rates"

Adam Flintoff, Ewen Speed, Susan McPherson
From the 1980s onwards, discourses of risk have continued to grow, almost in ubiquity. Ideas and practices of risk and risk aversion have extended to UK mental health care where services are expected to assess and manage risks, and high-quality clinical assessment has been revised to incorporate risk assessment. This article problematises practices of risk assessment in mental health provision, focussing on the base-rate problem. It presents an analysis of audio recordings of risk assessments completed within a primary care mental health service...
April 1, 2018: Health (London)
Christopher J Boyce, Liam Delaney, Eamonn Ferguson, Alex M Wood
BACKGROUND: Central banks set economy-wide interest rates to meet exclusively economic objectives. There is a strong link between indebtedness and psychiatric morbidity at the individual level, with interest rates being an important factor determining ability to repay debt. However, no prior research has explored whether central bank interest rate changes directly influence mental health, nor whether this varies by levels of indebtedness. METHODS: We use British data (N = 93,255) to explore whether the Bank of England base-rate affected how perceived burden of non-mortgage debt (low, medium, and high) influenced psychiatric morbidity...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Scott R Mooney, Jane Stafford, Elizabeth Seats
Introduction: Military Service Members (SMs) with post-concussive symptoms are commonly referred for further evaluation and possible treatment to Department of Defense Traumatic Brain Injury Clinics where neuropsychological screening/evaluations are being conducted. Understudied to date, the base rates of noncredible task engagement/performance validity testing (PVT) during cognitive screening/evaluations in military settings appears to be high. The current study objectives are to: (1) examine the base rates of noncredible PVTs of SMs undergoing routine clinical or Medical Evaluation Board (MEB) related workups using multiple objective performance-based indicators; (2) determine whether involvement in MEB is associated with PVT or symptom exaggeration/symptom validity testing (SVT) results; (3) elucidate which psychiatric symptoms are associated with noncredible PVT performances; and (4) determine whether MEB participation moderates the relationship between psychological symptom exaggeration and whether or not SM goes on to demonstrate PVTs failures - or vice versa...
March 26, 2018: Military Medicine
Niam Yaraghi, Weiguang Wang, Guodong Gordon Gao, Ritu Agarwal
BACKGROUND: In recent years, the information environment for patients to learn about physician quality is being rapidly changed by Web-based ratings from both commercial and government efforts. However, little is known about how various types of Web-based ratings affect individuals' choice of physicians. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this research was to measure the relative importance of Web-based quality ratings from governmental and commercial agencies on individuals' choice of primary care physicians...
March 26, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Caroline Byrd Hornburg, Lijuan Wang, Nicole M McNeil
A prevailing theory of mathematical problem solving predicts that children will be less accurate solving a + b = c + __ problems versus a + b = __ + c. However, this has never been tested directly. Because of low base rates, information combined from multiple studies can help improve estimation accuracy and precision. This study compared meta-analysis and individual person data (IPD) analysis using raw data from 14 studies (N = 1,414; ns = 30-232; Mage reported = 8;7). Substantive results challenge the prevailing theory...
March 25, 2018: Child Development
Antonella Somma, Serena Borroni, Shannon E Kelley, John F Edens, Andrea Fossati
Response inconsistency represents a major component of careless responding. Keeley, J. W., Webb, Peterson, Roussin, and Flanagan (2016) proposed a measure of response inconsistency for the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5-VRIN). In order to evaluate the ability of the PID-5-VRIN scale to detect inconsistent responding, we examined 3 independent archival samples of Italian community-dwelling adolescents (N = 1,264), community-dwelling adults (N = 2,143), and clinical adults (N = 706) who were administered the PID-5...
March 22, 2018: Psychological Assessment
Andrea M Byrne, Tal Schechter, Robyn Westmacott
We report the neuropsychological profile of a 6-year-old girl with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, a rare X-linked immunodeficiency disorder associated with thrombocytopenia, eczema, recurrent infections, and malignancy. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome occurs almost exclusively in males and is extremely rare in females, with no known research focused on cognitive and academic functioning in this population. Our patient was referred due to concerns about her memory and academic functioning. She had a history of progressive thrombocytopenia and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation at age 15 months...
March 2018: Cognitive and Behavioral Neurology: Official Journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology
Kosuke Sakitani, Nobumi Suzuki, Sozaburo Ihara, Yoshihiro Hirata, Shoji Kawazu, Yasuhiko Iwamoto, Kazuhiko Koike
OBJECTIVES: To determine if a discrepancy exists between subjective symptoms and the grade of endoscopic gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) in diabetes mellitus (DM) patients. METHODS: All 2,884 patients who underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy completed the modified Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale (GSRS), an interview-based rating scale consisting of 16 items including a question on acid regurgitation. Patients were divided into DM and non-DM groups (1,135 and 1,749 patients, respectively)...
2018: PloS One
Shahram Saghafi, Lisa Ferguson, Olivia Hogue, Jordan M Gales, Richard Prayson, Robyn M Busch
OBJECTIVE: The International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) proposed a classification system for hippocampal sclerosis (HS) based on location and extent of hippocampal neuron loss. The literature debates the usefulness of this classification system when studying memory in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and determining memory outcome after temporal lobe resection (TLR). This study further explores the relationship between HS ILAE subtypes and episodic memory performance in patients with TLE and examines memory outcomes after TLR...
March 14, 2018: Epilepsia
Christopher A Abeare, Isabelle Messa, Brandon G Zuccato, Bradley Merker, Laszlo Erdodi
Importance: Estimated base rates of invalid performance on baseline testing (base rates of failure) for the management of sport-related concussion range from 6.1% to 40.0%, depending on the validity indicator used. The instability of this key measure represents a challenge in the clinical interpretation of test results that could undermine the utility of baseline testing. Objectives: To determine the prevalence of invalid performance on baseline testing and to assess whether the prevalence varies as a function of age and validity indicator...
March 12, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Lauren M Dinour, Jacalyn Szaro, Renata Blumberg, Mousumi Bose
OBJECTIVE: To examine the impact of a community-engaged assignment on graduate student learning in the nutritional sciences. DESIGN: Convergent mixed-methods design with parallel data collection and terminal merging of data. Data were composed of grant proposals, reflection papers, and informal course evaluations from 2 semesters of the same course. Fall students wrote proposals on behalf of a community partner whereas spring students wrote fictitious grants to improve nutrition on their campus...
March 6, 2018: Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior
Juan Liang, Yi Mu, Xiaohong Li, Wen Tang, Yanping Wang, Zheng Liu, Xiaona Huang, Robert W Scherpbier, Sufang Guo, Mingrong Li, Li Dai, Kui Deng, Changfei Deng, Qi Li, Leni Kang, Jun Zhu, Carine Ronsmans
OBJECTIVE: To examine how the relaxation of the one child policy and policies to reduce caesarean section rates might have affected trends over time in caesarean section rates and perinatal and pregnancy related mortality in China. DESIGN: Observational study. SETTING: China's National Maternal Near Miss Surveillance System (NMNMSS). PARTICIPANTS: 6 838 582 births at 28 completed weeks or more of gestation or birth weight ≥1000 g in 438 hospitals in the NMNMSS between 2012 and 2016...
March 5, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Lauren Harris, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple, Theresa Morgan, Mark Zimmerman
BACKGROUND: Suicidal behavior has been associated with maladaptive strategies for emotion regulation; however, limited research has explored this association after controlling for diagnosis. This study aims to explore this connection across diagnoses. We hypothesized that patients who reported greater difficulty with emotion regulation would be more likely to have made suicide attempts. METHOD: Participants included 1046 psychiatric outpatients. Diagnoses and information about suicide history were determined using semi-structured interviews...
February 21, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
M Strassnig, R Kotov, L Fochtmann, M Kalin, E J Bromet, P D Harvey
BACKGROUND: Since the Iowa 500 study, residential and occupational status have been frequently used as indicators of everyday achievements in research on schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. The relationships of residential and occupational status with impairment in multiple domains including physical health indicators across these two diagnoses, however, have rarely been studied. We examined these relationships at the 20-year follow-up assessment of a first-admission sample. METHODS: We included 146 participants with schizophrenia and 87 with bipolar disorder with psychosis who participated in the 20-year follow-up of the Suffolk County Mental Health Project...
February 19, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Nancy N Baxter, Hadas D Fischer, Devon P Richardson, David R Urbach, Chaim M Bell, Paula Rochon, Anthony Brade, Craig C Earle
BACKGROUND: Patients receiving Bevacizumab, a vascular endothelial growth factor inhibitor used to treat metastatic colorectal cancer, may be at greater risk of complications after colorectal surgery because of impaired healing. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to describe population-based rates of complications of colorectal surgery after Bevacizumab treatment and evaluate the relationship between time since last treatment and risk of complications. DESIGN: This was a population-based retrospective cohort study using administrative and cancer registry data...
March 2018: Diseases of the Colon and Rectum
Lisa K Chinn, Carolyn S Pauker, Edward J Golob
Cognitive control of attention in conflict situations is a basic skill that is vital for goal-oriented behaviors. Behavioral evidence shows that conflict control occurs over successive trials as well as longer time scales of trial blocks, but the relation among time scales as well as their neural mechanisms are unclear. This study used measures of behavior, EEG, and a simple quantitative model to test the hypothesis that conflict control at the block level is not exclusively driven by the control adjustments over successive trials...
February 1, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Drew H Abney, Anne S Warlaumont, D Kimbrough Oller, Sebastian Wallot, Christopher T Kello
The study of vocal coordination between infants and adults has led to important insights into the development of social, cognitive, emotional and linguistic abilities. We used an automatic system to identify vocalizations produced by infants and adults over the course of the day for fifteen infants studied longitudinally during the first two years of life. We measured three different types of vocal coordination: coincidence-based, rate-based, and cluster-based. Coincidence-based and rate-based coordination are established measures in the developmental literature...
July 2017: Infancy: the Official Journal of the International Society on Infant Studies
Abigail K Mansfield, Gabor I Keitner, Thomas Sheeran
The purpose of the present study is to compare results from the 12-item General Functioning Scale (GF-FAD) of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) to a three-item version, the Brief Assessment of Family Functioning Scale (BAFFS), designed to be used when brevity is especially important. We used principal components analysis of the GF-FAD, followed by multiple sample confirmatory factor analyses to test the robustness of the BAFFS in different samples. The BAFFS correlated highly with the GF-FAD, and demonstrated good concurrent validity with another measure of global marital functioning, the Dyadic Adjustment Scale-4 in a help-seeking sample...
January 19, 2018: Psychotherapy Research: Journal of the Society for Psychotherapy Research
Melanie Sauerland, Anna Sagana, Siegfried L Sporer, John T Wixted
In vast contrast to the multitude of lineup studies that report on the link between decision time, confidence, and identification accuracy, only a few studies looked at these associations for showups, with results varying widely across studies. We therefore set out to test the individual and combined value of decision time and post-decision confidence for diagnosing the accuracy of positive showup decisions using confidence-accuracy characteristic curves and Bayesian analyses. Three-hundred-eighty-four participants viewed a stimulus event and were subsequently presented with two showups which could be target-present or target-absent...
2018: PloS One
Danielle R DeSorcy, Mark E Olver, J Stephen Wormith
The present study examined the working alliance, as measured by the full-length Working Alliance Inventory (WAI), and its association with psychopathy, treatment completion, and recidivism in a sample of 111 incarcerated adult male sexual offenders. The men completed the WAI 3 months into their treatment program, while psychopathy was measured via file-based ratings of the Hare's Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R), and outcome data were collected via the Canadian Police Information Centre. The majority (85%) of high PCL-R scoring men (PCL-R 25+) successfully completed their treatment program, and by and large, the men demonstrated strong working alliances with their primary therapists...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
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