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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163937/development-and-validation-of-a-simplified-algorithm-for-neonatal-gestational-age-assessment-protocol-for-the-alliance-for-maternal-newborn-health-improvement-amanhi-prospective-cohort-study
#1
Abdullah Baqui, Parvez Ahmed, Sushil Kanta Dasgupta, Nazma Begum, Mahmoodur Rahman, Nasreen Islam, Mohammad Quaiyum, Betty Kirkwood, Karen Edmond, Caitlin Shannon, Samuel Newton, Lisa Hurt, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Nisar, Atiya Hussain, Naila Nadeem, Muhammad Ilyas, Anita Zaidi, Sunil Sazawal, Saikat Deb, Arup Dutta, Usha Dhingra, Said Moh'd Ali, Davidson H Hamer, Katherine Ea Semrau, Marina Straszak-Suri, Caroline Grogan, Godfrey Bemba, Anne Cc Lee, Blair J Wylie, Alexander Manu, Sachiyo Yoshida, Rajiv Bahl
Objective: The objective of the Alliance for Maternal and Newborn Health Improvement (AMANHI) gestational age study is to develop and validate a programmatically feasible and simple approach to accurately assess gestational age of babies after they are born. The study will provide accurate, population-based rates of preterm birth in different settings and quantify the risks of neonatal mortality and morbidity by gestational age and birth weight in five South Asian and sub-Saharan African sites...
December 2017: Journal of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29156414/schizophrenia-heterogeneity-revisited-clinical-cognitive-and-psychosocial-correlates-of-statistically-derived-negative-symptoms-subgroups
#2
Anthony O Ahmed, Gregory P Strauss, Robert W Buchanan, Brian Kirkpatrick, William T Carpenter
Traditional efforts to delineate the clinical heterogeneity of schizophrenia have been unsuccessful because of the absence of a valid, stable, and meaningful subtyping scheme. A clinically-informed nosology supported by multivariate statistical classification methods may provide a better approach for classifying schizophrenia. The goals of the current study were to 1) use multivariate classification methods to validate a clinical subtyping scheme based on the profile of negative symptoms; and 2) following validation to contrast the statistically-derived subgroups to ascertain distinguishing demographic, clinical, cognitive, and functional characteristics...
November 12, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29154624/task-demands-determine-comparison-strategy-in-whole-probe-change-detection
#3
Rob Udale, Simon Farrell, Chris Kent
Detecting a change in our visual world requires a process that compares the external environment (test display) with the contents of memory (study display). We addressed the question of whether people strategically adapt the comparison process in response to different decision loads. Study displays of 3 colored items were presented, followed by 'whole-display' probes containing 3 colored shapes. Participants were asked to decide whether any probed items contained a new feature. In Experiments 1-4, irrelevant changes to the probed item's locations or feature bindings influenced memory performance, suggesting that participants employed a comparison process that relied on spatial locations...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149753/identifying-relapse-prevention-elements-during-psychological-treatment-of-depression-development-of-an-observer-based-rating-instrument
#4
Katja Machmutow, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Tobias Krieger, Birgit Watzke
BACKGROUND: Although observer-rated instruments assessing therapist's adherence to relapse-preventive treatments are available, they do not adequately cover specific relapse-preventive elements that focus on implementation of strategies after terminating treatment. This study describes the development of the KERI-D (Kodierbogen zur Erfassung Rückfallprophylaktischer Interventionen bei Depression/Coding System to Assess Interventions of Relapse Prevention in Depression). The KERI-D is a new observer-based rating tool for acute or continuation/maintenance-phase sessions and assesses relapse-prevention elements including implementation into patient's daily routines...
November 6, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143542/structure-longitudinal-invariance-and-stability-of-the-child-behavior-checklist-1%C3%A2-5-s-diagnostic-and-statistical-manual-of-mental-disorders-autism-spectrum-disorder-scale-findings-from-generation-r-rotterdam
#5
Leslie A Rescorla, Akhgar Ghassabian, Masha Y Ivanova, Vincent Wv Jaddoe, Frank C Verhulst, Henning Tiemeier
Although the Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5's 12-item Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Autism Spectrum Problems Scale (formerly called Pervasive Developmental Problems scale) has been used in several studies as an autism spectrum disorder screener, the base rate and stability of its items and its measurement model have not been previously studied. We therefore examined the structure, longitudinal invariance, and stability of the Child Behavior Checklist 1½-5's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-Autism Spectrum Problems Scale in the diverse Generation R (Rotterdam) sample based on mothers' ratings at 18 months ( n = 4695), 3 years ( n = 4571), and 5 years ( n = 5752)...
November 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136515/associations-between-feelings-of-social-anxiety-and-emotion-perception
#6
Spencer K Lynn, Eric Bui, Susanne S Hoeppner, Emily B O'Day, Sophie A Palitz, Lisa Feldman Barrett, Naomi M Simon
BACKGROUND: Abnormally biased perceptual judgment is a feature of many psychiatric disorders. Thus, individuals with social anxiety disorder are biased to recall or interpret social events negatively. Cognitive behavioral therapy addresses such bias by teaching patients, via verbal instruction, to become aware of and change pathological misjudgment. The present study examined whether targeting verbal instruction to specific decision parameters that influence perceptual judgment may affect changes in anger perception...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122599/impact-of-experience-on-self-assessment-accuracy-of-clinical-colonoscopy-competence
#7
Michael A Scaffidi, Samir C Grover, Heather Carnahan, Rishad Khan, Jennifer M Amadio, Jeffrey J Yu, Callum Dargavel, Nitin Khanna, Simon C Ling, Elaine Yong, Geoffrey C Nguyen, Catharine M Walsh
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Self-assessment is important for life-long learning and a recommended assessment method for endoscopy skills. Prior literature has not investigated self-assessment accuracy of colonoscopic competence in the clinical setting. This study aimed to determine the self-assessment accuracy of novice, intermediate, and experienced endoscopists. METHODS: Novice (performed <50 previous colonoscopies), intermediate (50-500), and experienced (>1000) endoscopists from 5 hospitals each performed a clinical colonoscopy...
November 6, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120276/personality-disorder-features-and-paraphilic-interests-among-undergraduates-differential-relations-and-potential-antecedents
#8
Ashley L Watts, Madeline G Nagel, Robert D Latzman, Scott O Lilienfeld
We examined the relations between: (1) narcissism, psychopathy, DSM-5 personality disorder symptom counts; and (2) paraphilic interests among undergraduates (N = 608). Base rates of paraphilic interests were appreciable. The disinhibition and meanness features of psychopathy and the entitlement and exploitativeness features of narcissism were robustly associated with paraphilic interests, particularly sexual sadism, whereas the boldness features of narcissism and psychopathy were essentially unrelated to these interests...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Personality Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29106578/cancer-risk-in-children-born-after-donor-art
#9
C L Williams, K J Bunch, M F G Murphy, C A Stiller, B J Botting, W H Wallace, M C Davies, A G Sutcliffe
STUDY QUESTION: Do children born after donor ART have an increased risk of developing childhood cancer in comparison to the general population? SUMMARY ANSWER: This study showed no overall increased risk of childhood cancer in individuals born after donor ART. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Most large population-based studies have shown no increase in overall childhood cancer incidence after non-donor ART; however, other studies have suggested small increased risks in specific cancer types, including haematological cancers...
November 2, 2017: Human Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062288/perception-of-risk-and-terrorism-related-behavior-change-dual-influences-of-probabilistic-reasoning-and-reality-testing
#10
Andrew Denovan, Neil Dagnall, Kenneth Drinkwater, Andrew Parker, Peter Clough
The present study assessed the degree to which probabilistic reasoning performance and thinking style influenced perception of risk and self-reported levels of terrorism-related behavior change. A sample of 263 respondents, recruited via convenience sampling, completed a series of measures comprising probabilistic reasoning tasks (perception of randomness, base rate, probability, and conjunction fallacy), the Reality Testing subscale of the Inventory of Personality Organization (IPO-RT), the Domain-Specific Risk-Taking Scale, and a terrorism-related behavior change scale...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042020/kuhnian-theory-choice-and-virtue-convergence-facing-the-base-rate-fallacy
#11
Samuel Schindler
Perhaps the strongest argument for scientific realism, the no-miracles-argument, has been said to commit the so-called base rate fallacy. The apparent elusiveness of the base rate of true theories has even been said to undermine the rationality of the entire realism debate. On the basis of the Kuhnian picture of theory choice, I confront this challenge by arguing that a theory is likely to be true if it possesses multiple theoretical virtues and is embraced by numerous scientists-even when the base rate converges to zero...
August 2017: Studies in History and Philosophy of Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034135/heterogeneity-in-trajectories-of-depression-in-response-to-divorce-is-associated-with-differential-risk-for-mortality
#12
Matteo Malgaroli, Isaac R Galatzer-Levy, George A Bonanno
Divorce is a common stressful event associated with both increased rates of depression and mortality. Given evidence of significant individual differences in depression following major life stressors, we examined if heterogeneous depression responses confer differential risk for mortality. Data from a population based longitudinal study was utilized to identify individuals who experienced divorce (n=559). Prospective trajectories of depression severity from before to after divorce were identified using latent growth mixture modeling, and rates of mortality between trajectories were compared as a distal outcome...
September 2017: Clinical Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030262/combining-actigraphy-ecological-momentary-assessment-and-neuroimaging-to-study-apathy-in-patients-with-schizophrenia
#13
Agne Kluge, Matthias Kirschner, Oliver M Hager, Martin Bischof, Benedikt Habermeyer, Erich Seifritz, Sebastian Walther, Stefan Kaiser
BACKGROUND: Apathy can be defined as a reduction of goal-directed behavior and is a strong predictor for poor functional outcome in schizophrenia. However, no objective measure of apathy has been identified and assessment is limited to retrospective interview-based ratings. Here we aimed to identify more precise objective readouts of apathy for translational research and clinical practice. METHODS: We employed a combined approach including interview-based ratings of the two negative symptom factors apathy and diminished expression, actigraphy based measures of spontaneous motor activity and the evaluation of daily activities using ecological momentary assessment...
October 10, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992752/comorbid-internalizing-and-externalizing-disorders-predict-lability-of-negative-emotions-among-children-with-adhd
#14
Kirsten D Leaberry, Paul J Rosen, Nicholas D Fogleman, Danielle M Walerius, Kelly E Slaughter
OBJECTIVE: A subset of children with ADHD experience more frequent, sudden, and intense shifts toward negative emotions. The current study utilized ecological momentary assessment (EMA) to provide a valid assessment of the impact of comorbid internalizing and externalizing disorders on negative emotional lability (EL) among children with ADHD. METHOD: Parents of 58, 8- to 12-year-old children with ADHD were administered a diagnostic interview to assess for ADHD and for the presence of comorbid disorders...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28988490/the-measurement-of-functioning-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-comparing-qualifier-ratings-with-existing-health-status-instruments
#15
Birgit Prodinger, Gerold Stucki, Michaela Coenen, Alan Tennant
BACKGROUND: The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health is the international standard for describing and monitoring functioning. While the categories, the units of the classification, were not designed with measurement in mind, the hierarchical structure of the classification lends itself to the possibility of summating categories into some higher order domain. Focusing on the chapters of d4 Mobility, d5 Self-Care and d6 Domestic Life, this study seeks to ascertain if qualifiers rating of categories (0-No problem to 4-Complete problem) within those chapters can be summated, and whether such derived measurement is consistent with estimates obtained from well-known instruments which purport to measure the same constructs...
October 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971273/a-cluster-randomized-trial-of-getting-to-outcomes-impact-on-sexual-health-outcomes-in-community-based-settings
#16
Matthew Chinman, Joie Acosta, Patricia Ebener, Patrick S Malone, Mary E Slaughter
The USA has high teen pregnancy rates compared to other developed nations. Many community-based organizations need assistance conducting evidence-based teen pregnancy prevention programs (EBPs) appropriately. This study evaluated the impact of an implementation support intervention called Getting To Outcomes (GTO) designed to help such organizations. This cluster randomized controlled trial compared 16 Boys and Girls Clubs (BGCs) implementing a teen pregnancy prevention EBP called Making Proud Choices for two years, with 16 BGCs implementing MPC augmented with GTO training, tools, and technical assistance...
October 2, 2017: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28964979/the-effectiveness-of-assertiveness-communication-training-programs-for-healthcare-professionals-and-students-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Mieko Omura, Jane Maguire, Tracy Levett-Jones, Teresa Elizabeth Stone
BACKGROUND: Communication errors have a negative impact on patient safety. It is therefore essential that healthcare professionals have the skills and confidence to speak up assertively when patient safety is at risk. Although the facilitators to and barriers of assertive communication have been the subject of previous reviews, evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance assertive communication is lacking. Thus, this paper reports the findings from a systematic review of the effectiveness of assertiveness communication training programs for healthcare professionals and students...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28956311/-the-visual-association-test-to-study-episodic-memory-in-clinical-geriatric-psychology
#18
Han Diesfeldt, Marleen Prins, Gijs Lauret
The Visual Association Test (VAT) is a brief learning task that consists of six line drawings of pairs of interacting objects (association cards). Subjects are asked to name or identify each object and later are presented with one object from the pair (the cue) and asked to name the other (the target). The VAT was administered in a consecutive sample of 174 psychogeriatric day care participants with mild to major neurocognitive disorder. Comparison of test performance with normative data from non-demented subjects revealed that 69% scored within the range of a major deficit (0-8 over two recall trials), 14% a minor, and 17% no deficit (9-10, and ≥10 respectively)...
September 27, 2017: Tijdschrift Voor Gerontologie en Geriatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28947530/ranking-regional-drowning-mortality-rates-population-based-versus-aquatic-area-based-rate
#19
Chien-Hsing Wang, Wan-Hua Hsieh, Jo-Chi Lee, Hsin-Min Wu, Tsung-Hsueh Lu
Population, the most often used denominator in calculating drowning mortality rate, might not be a good measure of risk exposure. In this study, we sought to compare the rankings of township drowning mortality according to population-based rates with those according to aquatic area-based rates in Taitung County, Taiwan. The township with the highest mortality rate using population as the denominator (deaths per 100 000 persons) was Changbin (32.3) followed by Lanyu (22.4), Donghe (19.6) and Chenggong (18...
October 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28945885/single-fraction-radiosurgery-using-conservative-doses-for-brain-metastases-durable-responses-in-select-primaries-with-limited-toxicity
#20
Michael Cummings, Paul Youn, Derek P Bergsma, Kenneth Y Usuki, Kevin Walter, Manju Sharma, Paul Okunieff, Michael C Schell, Michael T Milano
BACKGROUND: Optimal doses for single-fraction stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) in the treatment of brain metastases are not well established. Our institution utilized conservative dosing compared to maximum-tolerated doses from the Radiation Therapy Oncology Group 90-05 Phase I study. OBJECTIVE: To report individual lesion control (LC) from conservative single-fraction doses and determine factors affecting LC. METHODS: From 2003 to 2015, patients who underwent linear accelerator-based single-fraction SRS for cerebral/cerebellar metastases and receiving at least 1 follow-up magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were identified...
August 12, 2017: Neurosurgery
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