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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636704/trends-in-nationwide-herpes-zoster-emergency-department-utilization-from-2006-to-2013
#1
Erica D Dommasch, Cara J Joyce, Arash Mostaghimi
Importance: The effect of vaccination on emergency department (ED) utilization for herpes zoster (HZ) has not been examined to date. Objective: To determine trends in US ED utilization and costs associated with HZ. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nationwide Emergency Department Sample data set was examined for temporal trends in the number of visits and costs for treatment of HZ in EDs in the United States from January 1, 2006, through December 31, 2013...
June 21, 2017: JAMA Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632779/base-rate-sensitivity-through-implicit-learning
#2
Andrew J Wismer, Corey J Bohil
Two experiments assessed the contributions of implicit and explicit learning to base-rate sensitivity. Using a factorial design that included both implicit and explicit learning disruptions, we tested the hypothesis that implicit learning underlies base-rate sensitivity from experience (and that explicit learning contributes comparatively little). Participants learned to classify two categories of simple stimuli (bar graph heights) presented in a 3:1 base-rate ratio. Participants learned either from "observational" training to disrupt implicit learning or "response" training which supports implicit learning...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631987/development-of-a-scale-of-executive-functioning-for-the-rbans
#3
Robert J Spencer, Katherine A Kitchen Andren, Kathryn A Tolle
The Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) is a cognitive battery that contains scales of several cognitive abilities, but no scale in the instrument is exclusively dedicated to executive functioning. Although the subtests allow for observation of executive-type errors, each error is of fairly low base rate, and healthy and clinical normative data are lacking on the frequency of these types of errors, making their significance difficult to interpret in isolation. The aim of this project was to create an RBANS executive errors scale (RBANS EE) with items comprised of qualitatively dysexecutive errors committed throughout the test...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631986/accuracy-statistics-in-predicting-independent-activities-of-daily-living-iadl-capacity-with-comprehensive-and-brief-neuropsychological-test-batteries
#4
Peter Karzmark, Gayle K Deutsch
This investigation was designed to determine the predictive accuracy of a comprehensive neuropsychological and brief neuropsychological test battery with regard to the capacity to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). Accuracy statistics that included measures of sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predicted power and positive likelihood ratio were calculated for both types of batteries. The sample was drawn from a general neurological group of adults (n = 117) that included a number of older participants (age >55; n = 38)...
February 22, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594222/can-credibility-criteria-be-assessed-reliably-a-meta-analysis-of-criteria-based-content-analysis
#5
Valerie Hauch, Siegfried Ludwig Sporer, Jaume Masip, Iris Blandón-Gitlin
This meta-analysis synthesizes research on interrater reliability of Criteria-Based Content Analysis (CBCA). CBCA is an important component of Statement Validity Assessment (SVA), a forensic procedure used in many countries to evaluate whether statements (e.g., of sexual abuse) are based on experienced or fabricated events. CBCA contains 19 verbal content criteria, which are frequently adapted for research on detecting deception. A total of k = 82 hypothesis tests revealed acceptable interrater reliabilities for most CBCA criteria, as measured with various indices (except Cohen's kappa)...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28594212/diagnostic-field-reliability-in-forensic-mental-health-evaluations
#6
W Neil Gowensmith, Stephanie N Sessarego, Meghan K McKee, Samantha Horkott, Nina MacLean, Katherine E McCallum
How likely are multiple forensic evaluators to agree on defendants' diagnoses in routine forensic mental health evaluations? A total of 720 evaluation reports were examined from 240 cases in which 3 evaluators, working independently, provided diagnoses for the same defendant. Results revealed perfect agreement across 6 independent diagnostic categories in 18.3% of cases. Agreement for individual diagnostic categories was higher, with all 3 evaluators agreeing on the separate presence of psychotic, mood, or substance disorders in more than 64...
June 2017: Psychological Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584072/impact-of-the-publication-of-appropriate-use-criteria-on-utilization-rates-of-myocardial-perfusion-imaging-studies-in-ontario-canada-a-population-based-study
#7
Idan Roifman, Peter C Austin, Feng Qiu, Harindra C Wijeysundera
BACKGROUND: Concern regarding overutilization of cardiac imaging has led to the development of appropriate use criteria (AUC). Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is one of the most commonly used cardiac imaging modalities worldwide. Despite multiple iterations of AUC, there is currently no evidence regarding their real-world impact on population-based utilization rates of MPI. Our goal was to assess the impact of the AUC on rates of MPI in Ontario, Canada. We hypothesized that publication of the AUC would be associated with a significant reduction in MPI rates...
June 5, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28574534/the-shifting-landscape-in-utilization-of-inpatient-observation-and-emergency-department-services-across-payers
#8
Teryl K Nuckols, Kathryn R Fingar, Marguerite Barrett, Claudia A Steiner, Carol Stocks, Pamela L Owens
Recent policies by public and private payers have increased incentives to reduce hospital admissions. Using data from four states from the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project, this study compared the payer-specific population-based rates of adults using inpatient, observation, and emergency department (ED) services for 10 common medical conditions in 2009 and in 2013. Patients had an expected primary payer of private insurance, Medicare, Medicaid, or no insurance...
June 2017: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28571515/advanced-clinical-interpretation-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system-multivariate-base-rates-of-low-scores
#9
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Multivariate base rates allow for the simultaneous statistical interpretation of multiple test scores, quantifying the normal frequency of low scores on a test battery. This study provides multivariate base rates for the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System (D-KEFS). METHOD: The D-KEFS consists of 9 tests with 16 Total Achievement scores (i.e. primary indicators of executive function ability). Stratified by education and intelligence, multivariate base rates were derived for the full D-KEFS and an abbreviated four-test battery (i...
June 1, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569527/pseudocontingencies-and-choice-behavior-in-probabilistic-environments-with-context-dependent-outcomes
#10
Thorsten Meiser, Jan Rummel, Hanna Fleig
Pseudocontingencies are inferences about correlations in the environment that are formed on the basis of statistical regularities like skewed base rates or varying base rates across environmental contexts. Previous research has demonstrated that pseudocontingencies provide a pervasive mechanism of inductive inference in numerous social judgment tasks (Fiedler, Freytag, & Meiser, 2009). The present research extended the analysis of pseudocontingencies from social judgment to actual choice behavior in a decision scenario of personal relevance...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552028/invalid-before-impaired-an-emerging-paradox-of-embedded-validity-indicators
#11
Laszlo A Erdodi, Jonathan D Lichtenstein
OBJECTIVE: Embedded validity indicators (EVIs) are cost-effective psychometric tools to identify non-credible response sets during neuropsychological testing. As research on EVIs expands, assessors are faced with an emerging contradiction: the range of credible impairment disappears between the 'normal' and 'invalid' range of performance. We labeled this phenomenon as the invalid-before-impaired paradox. This study was designed to explore the origin of this psychometric anomaly, subject it to empirical investigation, and generate potential solutions...
May 27, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523674/massachusetts-health-reform-s-effect-on-hospitalizations-with-substance-use-disorder-related-diagnoses
#12
Karen E Lasser, Amresh D Hanchate, Danny McCormick, Alexander Y Walley, Richard Saitz, Meng-Yun Lin, Nancy R Kressin
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether Massachusetts (MA) health reform affected substance (alcohol or drug) use disorder (SUD)-related hospitalizations in acute care hospitals. DATA/STUDY SETTING: 2004-2010 MA inpatient discharge data. DESIGN: Difference-in-differences analysis to identify pre- to postreform changes in age- and sex-standardized population-based rates of SUD-related medical and surgical hospitalizations, adjusting for secular trends...
May 19, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459259/using-standardized-patients-as-a-means-of-training-and-evaluating-behavioral-health-consultants-in-primary-care
#13
Neftali Serrano, Travis A Cos, Suzanne Daub, Natalie Levkovich
INTRODUCTION: The Health Federation of Philadelphia, which hosts a network of Behavioral Health Consultants (BHC) operating within the Primary Care Behavioral Health model (PCBH), identified a need to systematically evaluate PCBH model fidelity and to rigorously evaluate the competency assessment process to further their workforce development. A simulated patient exercise was developed for evaluating BHC PCBH specific competencies. METHOD: A simulated BHC encounter was held at a clinical learning center using standardized patients, repeated twice over 2 years...
June 2017: Families, Systems & Health: the Journal of Collaborative Family Healthcare
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28455625/toward-a-consensus-on-snp-and-str-mutation-rates-on-the-human-y-chromosome
#14
REVIEW
O Balanovsky
The mutation rate on the Y-chromosome matters for estimating the time-to-the-most-recent-common-ancestor (TMRCA, i.e. haplogroup age) in population genetics, as well as for forensic, medical, and genealogical studies. Large-scale sequencing efforts have produced several independent estimates of Y-SNP mutation rates. Genealogical, or pedigree, rates tend to be slightly faster than evolutionary rates obtained from ancient DNA or calibrations using dated (pre)historical events. It is, therefore, suggested to report TMRCAs using an envelope defined by the average aDNA-based rate and the average pedigree-based rate...
May 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438072/facial-expressions-as-performances-in-mime
#15
Mahsa Ershadi, Thalia R Goldstein, Joseph Pochedly, James A Russell
That facial expressions are universal emotion signals has been supported by observers agreeing on the emotion mimed by actors. We show that actors can mime a diverse range of states: emotions, cognitions, physical states, and actions. English, Hindi, and Malayalam speakers (N = 1200) viewed 25 video clips and indicated the state conveyed. Within each language, at least 23 of the 25 clips were recognised above chance and base rate. Facial expressions of emotions are not special in their recognisability, and it is miming that may be the universal human ability...
April 25, 2017: Cognition & Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431299/not-that-neglected-base-rates-influence-related-and-unrelated-judgments
#16
Michał Białek
It is claimed that people are unable (or unwilling) to incorporate prior probabilities into posterior assessments, such as their estimation of the likelihood of a person with characteristics typical of an engineer actually being an engineer given that they are drawn from a sample including a very small number of engineers. This paper shows that base rates are incorporated in classifications (Experiment 1) and, moreover, that base rates also affect unrelated judgments, such as how well a provided description of a person fits a stereotypical engineer (Experiment 2)...
April 17, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431030/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#17
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
Objective: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
May 1, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28419177/interpreting-patterns-of-low-scores-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery
#18
James A Holdnack, David S Tulsky, Brian L Brooks, Jerry Slotkin, Richard Gershon, Allen W Heinemann, Grant L Iverson
Introduction: The National Institutes of Health Toolbox for Assessment of Neurological and Behavioral Function Cognition Battery is comprised of seven cognitive tests, including two tests measuring crystallized cognitive ability (i.e., vocabulary and reading) and five tests measuring fluid cognitive functioning (i.e., working memory, memory, speed of processing, and executive functioning). This study presents comprehensive base rate tables for the frequency of low scores in adults and older adults from the normative sample...
April 17, 2017: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401273/suicide-mortality-among-male-veterans-discharged-from-veterans-health-administration-acute-psychiatric-units-from-2005-to-2010
#19
Peter C Britton, Kipling M Bohnert, Mark A Ilgen, Cathleen Kane, Brady Stephens, Wilfred R Pigeon
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to calculate suicide rates and identify correlates of risk in the year following discharge from acute Veterans Health Administration psychiatric inpatient units among male veterans discharged from 2005 to 2010 (fiscal years). METHODS: Suicide rates and standardized mortality ratios were calculated. Descriptive analyses were used to describe suicides and non-suicides and provide base rates for interpretation, and unadjusted and adjusted proportional hazard models were used to identify correlates of suicide...
April 11, 2017: Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400064/sexually-violent-predator-risk-assessments-with-the-violence-risk-appraisal-guide-revised-a-shaky-practice
#20
REVIEW
Brian R Abbott
Twenty-two jurisdictions in the United States permit the involuntary civil confinement of sexual offenders upon expiration of their criminal sentence and, if committed, these individuals face possible lifetime commitment. One of the legal requirements that psychologists must address in sexually violent predator evaluations is the likelihood that an individual will engage in dangerous sexual behavior and consideration of the probabilities for sexual recidivism contained in actuarial experience tables best address this inquiry...
April 8, 2017: International Journal of Law and Psychiatry
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