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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089676/multimodal-evaluation-of-the-amygdala-s-functional-connectivity
#1
Rebecca Kerestes, Henry W Chase, Mary L Phillips, Cecile D Ladouceur, Simon B Eickhoff
The amygdala is one of the most extensively studied human brain regions and undisputedly plays a central role in many psychiatric disorders. However, an outstanding question is whether connectivity of amygdala subregions, specifically the centromedial (CM), laterobasal (LB) and superficial (SF) nuclei, are modulated by brain state (i.e., task vs. rest). Here, using a multimodal approach, we directly compared meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and specific co-activation likelihood estimation (SCALE)-derived estimates of CM, LB and SF task-based co-activation to the functional connectivity of these nuclei as assessed by resting state fmri (rs-fmri)...
January 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080264/convergent-and-criterion-validity-of-the-cogstate-computerized-brief-battery-cognitive-assessment-in-women-with-and-without-breast-cancer
#2
Sunita K Patel, Adrienne M Meier, Nathaniel Fernandez, Tracy T Y Lo, Colleen Moore, Nicole Delgado
OBJECTIVE: Computerized tests have increasingly garnered interest for assessing cognitive functioning due to their potential logistical and financial advantages over traditional 'pencil and-paper' neuropsychological tests. However, psychometric information is necessary to guide decisions about their clinical and research utility with varied populations. We explored the convergent construct validity and criterion validity of the CogState computerized tests in breast cancer survivors, a group known to present with mostly mild, subtle cognitive dysfunction...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079775/association-of-hospital-volume-with-racial-and-ethnic-disparities-in-locally-advanced-cervical-cancer-treatment
#3
Shitanshu Uppal, Christina Chapman, Ryan J Spencer, Shruti Jolly, Kate Maturen, J Alejandro Rauh-Hain, Marcela G delCarmen, Laurel W Rice
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate racial-ethnic disparities in guideline-based care in locally advanced cervical cancer and their relationship to hospital case volume. METHODS: Using the National Cancer Database, we performed a retrospective cohort study of women diagnosed between 2004 and 2012 with locally advanced squamous or adenocarcinoma of the cervix undergoing definitive primary radiation therapy. The primary outcome was the race-ethnicity-based rates of adherence to the National Comprehensive Cancer Network guideline-based care...
January 9, 2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076970/future-directions-for-work-on-refinement-of-adhd-assessment-in-young-adults
#4
Michelle M Martel, Ulrich Schimmack, Joel T Nigg
Sibley, Coxe, and Molina provide a thoughtful discussion of the implications of our study and highlight important future directions in this line of work. They helpfully amplify several themes that space did not allow discussion of in our article. In particular, they correctly emphasize the importance of theoretical as well as statistical considerations in model selection. We also agree that clinical tests of sensitivity and specificity, taking into account different base rates and types of samples, are essential before a final algorithm would be ready for dissemination...
January 1, 2017: Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069853/sharp-decline-in-prostate-cancer-treatment-among-men-in-the-general-population-but-not-among-diagnosed-men
#5
Tudor Borza, Samuel R Kaufman, Vahakn B Shahinian, Phyllis Yan, David C Miller, Ted A Skolarus, Brent K Hollenbeck
The indolent nature of many prostate cancers has heightened concerns that harms from treatment may outweigh those from the disease and has resulted in a growing consensus in favor of less aggressive screening and treatment. We sought to understand the population-level impact of this consensus on the treatment of prostate cancer. Using national Medicare data for the period 2007-12, we assessed treatment rates among men with newly diagnosed prostate cancer. We identified both population-based rates (which are sensitive to changes in diagnosis and treatment patterns) and rates among diagnosed men (which are sensitive only to changes in treatment patterns)...
January 1, 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28068864/reliability-and-sources-of-variation-of-the-abilhand-kids-questionnaire-in-children-with-cerebral-palsy
#6
Lex D de Jong, Annemiek van Meeteren, Cornelis H Emmelot, Nanne E Land, Pieter U Dijkstra
PURPOSE: To determine reliability of the ABILHAND-Kids, explore sources of variation associated with these measurement results, and generate repeatability coefficients. METHOD: A reliability study with a repeated measures design was performed in an ambulatory rehabilitation care department from a rehabilitation center, and a center for special education. A physician, an occupational therapist, and parents of 27 children with spastic cerebral palsy independently rated the children's manual capacity when performing 21 standardized tasks of the ABILHAND-Kids from video recordings twice with a three week time interval (27 first-, and 25 second video recordings available)...
January 9, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057683/orcan-a-web-based-meta-server-for-real-time-detection-and-functional-annotation-of-orthologs
#7
Andrzej Zielezinski, Michal Dziubek, Jan Sliski, Wojciech M Karlowski
: ORCAN (ORtholog sCANner) is a web-based meta-server for one-click evolutionary and functional annotation of protein sequences. The server combines information from the most popular orthology-prediction resources, including 4 tools and 4 online databases. Functional annotation utilizes 5 additional comparisons between the query and identified homologs, including: sequence similarity, protein domain architectures, functional motifs, Gene Ontology term assignments, and a list of associated articles...
January 5, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991774/abatement-of-polychoro-1-3-butadienes-in-aqueous-solution-by-ozone-uv-photolysis-and-advanced-oxidation-processes-o3-h2o2-and-uv-h2o2
#8
Minju Lee, Tony Merle, Daniel Rentsch, Silvio Canonica, Urs von Gunten
The abatement of 9 polychloro-1,3-butadienes (CBDs) in aqueous solution by ozone, UV-C(254 nm) photolysis, and the corresponding advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) (i.e., O3/H2O2 and UV/H2O2) was investigated. The following parameters were determined for 9 CBDs: second-order rate constants for the reactions of CBDs with ozone (kO3) (<0.1-7.9 × 10(3) M(-1) s(-1)) or with hydroxyl radicals (k(•)OH) (0.9 × 10(9) - 6.5 × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1)), photon fluence-based rate constants (k') (210-2730 m(2) einstein(-1)), and quantum yields (Φ) (0...
January 3, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981788/plasticity-in-seedling-morphology-biomass-allocation-and-physiology-among-ten-temperate-tree-species-in-response-to-shade-is-related-to-shade-tolerance-and-not-leaf-habit
#9
Daniel J Chmura, Jerzy Modrzyński, Paweł Chmielarz, Mark G Tjoelker
Mechanisms of shade tolerance in tree seedlings, and thus growth in shade, may differ by leaf habit and vary with ontogeny following seed germination. To examine early responses of seedlings to shade in relation to morphological, physiological and biomass allocation traits, we compared seedlings of ten temperate species, varying in their leaf habit (broadleaved vs. needleleaved) and observed tolerance to shade, growing in two contrasting light treatments - open (about 20% of full sunlight), and shade (about 5% of full sunlight)...
December 16, 2016: Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27968864/hiv-testing-campaigns-and-treatment-interventions-for-control-of-epidemic-hiv-growth-among-heterosexuals-a-mathematical-modelling-study
#10
Ngai Sze Wong, Ka Hing Wong, Owen T Y Tsang, Man Po Lee, Shui Shan Lee
BACKGROUND: In 2015, WHO recommended universal antiretroviral treatment for HIV irrespective of CD4 cell count. The impact of this recommendation on heterosexual HIV transmission, especially in low prevalence countries, has not been well-characterised. In Hong Kong, 38% of reported HIV cases are heterosexually acquired. We aimed to model the impacts of enhanced HIV testing and immediate treatment to provide a reference to other provinces in China. METHODS: We developed deterministic compartmental models (sexually active heterosexual males and females) for simulation of HIV epidemiology for 1983-2011 in Hong Kong, with data projected to 2012-20...
October 2016: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27955991/antibiotic-prescription-patterns-for-upper-respiratory-tract-infections-in-the-outpatient-qatari-population-in-the-private-sector
#11
Adeel Ajwad Butt, Cristina S Navasero, Bright Thomas, Salih Al Marri, Huda Al Katheeri, Asmaa Al Thani, Abdullatif Al Khal, Tasnim Khan, Abdul-Badi Abou-Samra
BACKGROUND: Antibiotics are often inappropriately prescribed for upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) in developed countries. Data on the proportion of inappropriate prescriptions are lacking from the Middle East and other developing countries. METHODS: Health insurance claims for all antibiotics prescribed for URTIs in the private sector in the State of Qatar between May 2014 and December 2015 were retrieved. During the study period, health insurance was limited to Qatari nationals...
December 9, 2016: International Journal of Infectious Diseases: IJID
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941006/constructing-diagnostic-likelihood-clinical-decisions-using-subjective-versus-statistical-probability
#12
John Kinnear, Ruth Jackson
BACKGROUND: Although physicians are highly trained in the application of evidence-based medicine, and are assumed to make rational decisions, there is evidence that their decision making is prone to biases. One of the biases that has been shown to affect accuracy of judgements is that of representativeness and base-rate neglect, where the saliency of a person's features leads to overestimation of their likelihood of belonging to a group. This results in the substitution of 'subjective' probability for statistical probability...
December 9, 2016: Postgraduate Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940024/influence-of-category-coherence-and-type-of-base-rate-acquisition-on-property-generalization
#13
ShinWoo Kim, Guk-Hee Lee
Category coherence involves identifying similarities between social categories, such as jobs and hobbies, and is primarily used for generalizing or drawing inferences about their properties. Category coherence is also used for drawing inferences from explicit information, such as base rates. For example, people generalize the properties of groups or brands from multiple sources (e.g., survey results and the share market in periodicals). However, generalizing the properties of categories using explicit base-rate information may not always involve category coherence; rather, it may involve directly analyzing base-rate information...
January 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936367/alcohol-warning-label-perceptions-do-warning-sizes-and-plain-packaging-matter
#14
Mohammed Al-Hamdani, Steven M Smith
OBJECTIVE: There is a dearth of research on the effectiveness of stringent alcohol warning labels. Our experiment tested whether increasing the size of an alcohol health warning lowers product-based ratings. We examined whether plain packaging lowers ratings of alcohol products and the consumers who use them, increases ratings of bottle "boringness," and enhances warning recognition compared with branded packaging. METHOD: A total of 440 adults (51.7% female) viewed one of three warning sizes (50%, 75%, or 90% of label surface) on either a plain or branded bottle of distilled spirits, wine, and beer...
January 2017: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923089/correlations-between-ratings-on-the-resident-annual-evaluation-summary-and-the-internal-medicine-milestones-and-association-with-abim-certification-examination-scores-among-us-internal-medicine-residents-2013-2014
#15
Karen E Hauer, Jonathan Vandergrift, Brian Hess, Rebecca S Lipner, Eric S Holmboe, Sarah Hood, William Iobst, Stanley J Hamstra, Furman S McDonald
Importance: US internal medicine residency programs are now required to rate residents using milestones. Evidence of validity of milestone ratings is needed. Objective: To compare ratings of internal medicine residents using the pre-2015 resident annual evaluation summary (RAES), a nondevelopmental rating scale, with developmental milestone ratings. Design, Setting, and Participants: Cross-sectional study of US internal medicine residency programs in the 2013-2014 academic year, including 21 284 internal medicine residents (7048 postgraduate-year 1 [PGY-1], 7233 PGY-2, and 7003 PGY-3)...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919585/the-patient-s-perspective-the-effect-of-levodopa-on-parkinson-symptoms
#16
Heidemarie Zach, Michiel Dirkx, Jaco W Pasman, Bastiaan R Bloem, Rick C Helmich
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic medication adjustments in Parkinson's disease are often solely based on patient reports. However, it is unclear how well patient-based ratings of the levodopa response correlate with clinician-based ratings, and whether this correlation differs between motor symptoms. Here we compare patient-clinician agreement for the effect of levodopa on resting tremor and bradykinesia/rigidity. Furthermore, given patients' reports that tremor is most troublesome during stress, we test for differences in patient-clinician agreement between tremor at rest and stress-induced tremor...
November 27, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913387/using-multivariate-base-rates-to-interpret-low-scores-on-an-abbreviated-battery-of-the-delis-kaplan-executive-function-system
#17
Justin E Karr, Mauricio A Garcia-Barrera, James A Holdnack, Grant L Iverson
OBJECTIVE: Executive function consists of multiple cognitive processes that operate as an interactive system to produce volitional goal-oriented behavior, governed in large part by frontal microstructural and physiological networks. Identification of deficits in executive function in those with neurological or psychiatric conditions can be difficult because the normal variation in executive function test scores, in healthy adults when multiple tests are used, is largely unknown. This study addresses that gap in the literature by examining the prevalence of low scores on a brief battery of executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903495/testosterone-treatment-and-risk-of-venous-thromboembolism-population-based-case-control-study
#18
Carlos Martinez, Samy Suissa, Stephan Rietbrock, Anja Katholing, Ben Freedman, Alexander T Cohen, David J Handelsman
OBJECTIVE:  To determine the risk of venous thromboembolism associated with use of testosterone treatment in men, focusing particularly on the timing of the risk. DESIGN:  Population based case-control study SETTING:  370 general practices in UK primary care with linked hospital discharge diagnoses and in-hospital procedures and information on all cause mortality. PARTICIPANTS:  19 215 patients with confirmed venous thromboembolism (comprising deep venous thrombosis and pulmonary embolism) and 909 530 age matched controls from source population including more than 2...
November 30, 2016: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891115/methanotrophy-under-versatile-conditions-in-the-water-column-of-the-ferruginous-meromictic-lake-la-cruz-spain
#19
Kirsten Oswald, Corinne Jegge, Jana Tischer, Jasmine Berg, Andreas Brand, María R Miracle, Xavier Soria, Eduardo Vicente, Moritz F Lehmann, Jakob Zopfi, Carsten J Schubert
Lakes represent a considerable natural source of methane to the atmosphere compared to their small global surface area. Methanotrophs in sediments and in the water column largely control methane fluxes from these systems, yet the diversity, electron accepting capacity, and nutrient requirements of these microorganisms have only been partially identified. Here, we investigated the role of electron acceptors alternative to oxygen and sulfate in microbial methane oxidation at the oxycline and in anoxic waters of the ferruginous meromictic Lake La Cruz, Spain...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875180/surprise-bayesian-weighting-for-de-biasing-thematic-maps
#20
Michael Correll, Jeffrey Heer
Thematic maps are commonly used for visualizing the density of events in spatial data. However, these maps can mislead by giving visual prominence to known base rates (such as population densities) or to artifacts of sample size and normalization (such as outliers arising from smaller, and thus more variable, samples). In this work, we adapt Bayesian surprise to generate maps that counter these biases. Bayesian surprise, which has shown promise for modeling human visual attention, weights information with respect to how it updates beliefs over a space of models...
January 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
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