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likelihood ratios test

Yimin Ge, Paul Christensen, Eric Luna, Donna Armylagos, Jiaqiong Xu, Mary R Schwartz, Dina R Mody
OBJECTIVE: Human papillomavirus (HPV) tests and genotyping (GT) have been used in clinical risk assessment. The purpose of this study was to analyze the performance of 2 common HPV testing platforms in risk evaluation for high-grade cervical lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 1, 2015, and December 31, 2016, a total of 4,562 Pap tests with follow-up biopsies in our laboratory database were analyzed along with HPV tests performed on Cobas (CHPV, n = 3,959) or Aptima (AHPV, n = 603) platforms...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
Marc A Furrer, Antoni Vilaseca, Renato B Corradi, Silvan Boxler, George N Thalmann, Daniel P Nguyen
BACKGROUND: A growing number of men undergo repeat biopsies prior to radical prostatectomy for prostate cancer. However, the long-term impact of repeat biopsies on functional outcomes in this patient population remains unelucidated. Thus, we compared functional outcomes between patients who underwent single biopsy versus repeat biopsies before radical prostatectomy. METHODS: From 1996 to 2015, 1015 consecutive patients underwent radical prostatectomy, and subsequently had urinary continence and erectile function assessed for >2 years follow-up...
March 14, 2018: Prostate
Jin-Mei Chen, Qing-Wei Li, Guo-Xin Jiang, Shu-Jun Zeng, Jun Shen, Ji Sun, Dan-Hong Wu, Qi Cheng
Objectives: To investigate the association between neck circumference (NC) and cognitive impairment and interactions between relevant variables to the risk of cognitive impairment. Methods: A population-based survey was conducted among elderly inhabitants aged 60 years and over from a community in Shanghai suburb. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to evaluate associations and log likelihood ratio tests to examine interactions. Results: Cognitive impairment was identified in 269 (10...
March 2018: Brain and Behavior
Qing Liu, Yan-Xia Yu, Xiao-Juan Wang, Zheng Wang, Zhen Wang
BACKGROUND: The concentration assay of pleural effusion interleukin-27 (IL-27) has raised concern for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy. Compared with malignant pleural effusion (MPE), the concentration of IL-27 in tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE) increased significantly. Accurate differentiating diagnosis is essential for choosing treatment for pleural effusion. OBJECTIVE: The present meta-analysis is aimed at determining the accuracy of IL-27 in the differential diagnosis between TPE and MPE...
March 14, 2018: Respiration; International Review of Thoracic Diseases
Kevin M Johnson
In the context of diagnostic testing, concepts such as sensitivity, specificity, predictive values, likelihood ratios and more are all interconnected, but precisely how can be confusing to the nonstatistician. This paper presents a graphical explanation. Bayes' rule, or theorem, ties several of these concepts together and should have a role in careful diagnostic thinking. It too can be understood in terms of the "two-by-two diagram" presented here.
September 26, 2017: Diagnosis
Jasper H A van Miert, Sarah Bos, Nic J G M Veeger, Karina Meijer
BACKGROUND: Vitamin K antagonist (VKA) therapy is safer and more effective when patients have a high time within the therapeutic range and low international normalised ratio variability. The SAMe-TT2R2 score aims to identify those at risk for poor VKA control. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the predictive value and clinical usefulness of the SAMe-TT2R2 score to identify those at risk for poor VKA control. METHODS: We performed a systematic review in MEDLINE and Embase for original research papers assessing the SAMe-TT2R2's relation to poor TTR...
2018: PloS One
Saima Rathore, Hamed Akbari, Jimit Doshi, Gaurav Shukla, Martin Rozycki, Michel Bilello, Robert Lustig, Christos Davatzikos
Standard surgical resection of glioblastoma, mainly guided by the enhancement on postcontrast T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), disregards infiltrating tumor within the peritumoral edema region (ED). Subsequent radiotherapy typically delivers uniform radiation to peritumoral FLAIR-hyperintense regions, without attempting to target areas likely to be infiltrated more heavily. Noninvasive in vivo delineation of the areas of tumor infiltration and prediction of early recurrence in peritumoral ED could assist in targeted intensification of local therapies, thereby potentially delaying recurrence and prolonging survival...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Lidija Poposka, Vladimir Boskov, Dejan Risteski, Jane Taleski, Filip Janusevski, Elizabeta Srbinovska, Ljubica Georgievska-Ismail
INTRODUCTION: Although strict selection criteria are used to select patients for cardiac resynchronisation therapy, up to 30% of patients do not have a positive clinical response. PATIENTS: A total of 102 consecutive patients who had biventricular pacemaker/defibrillator (CRT-P or CRT-D) implanted were enrolled in this prospective observational study. RESULTS: During the average follow-up period of 24.3 months 5 patients died and 17 (16.7%) patients were hospitalised with the symptoms of heart failure; 75 (73...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Nova Zairina Lubis, Kamaliah Muis, Lukmanul Hakim Nasution
BACKGROUND: Onychomycosis is a fungal infection of one or more units of the nail caused by dermatophytes, or mould and nondermatophytes yeast. Investigations are needed to establish the diagnosis of onychomycosis before starting treatment. Several investigations methods for diagnosing onychomycosis are microscopic examination with 20% KOH, fungal culture, histopathology examination with PAS staining (Periodic acid Schiff) and PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction). Polymerase Chain Reaction-Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) is a method after PCR amplification allowing more specific results...
February 15, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Lauren Bell, Ann Louise Hunter, Angelos Kyriacou, Annice Mukherjee, Akheel A Syed
BACKGROUND: TSH receptor antibody (TRAb) is considered the gold standard diagnostic test for the autoimmunity of Graves' disease (GD), which is commonly diagnosed clinically. AIM: To evaluate the true positive (sensitivity) and true negative (specificity) rates of clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism compared to the TRAb test. SETTING: University teaching hospital in North West England Participants: Patients in the Endocrinology service who had a TRAb measurement between December 2009 and October 2015 Methods: Electronic patient records were studied retrospectively for a pre-TRAb clinical diagnosis of GD or non-GD hyperthyroidism...
March 12, 2018: Endocrine Connections
Ángel Herráiz-Adillo, Iván Cavero-Redondo, Celia Álvarez-Bueno, Johana Bidner, Vicente Martínez-Vizcaíno, Blanca Notario-Pacheco
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The diagnostic performance of the oscillometric ankle brachial index (ABI) to detect peripheral arterial disease (PAD) varies among populations, suggesting a spectrum effect. When this heterogeneity modifies post-test probabilities, a spectrum bias arises. This study evaluates the presence and influence of spectrum effect and spectrum bias on test performance and clinical decisions. METHODS: Oscillometric and Doppler ABI were compared in two settings: Primary-Care (333 legs) and Vascular-Service (41 legs)...
March 2, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Claes Ohlsson, Maria Nethander, Magnus K Karlsson, Björn E Rosengren, Eva Ribom, Dan Mellström, Liesbeth Vandenput
The adrenal-derived hormones dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate (DHEAS) are the most abundant circulating hormones and their levels decline substantially with age. Many of the actions of DHEAS are considered to be mediated through metabolism into androgens and estrogens in peripheral target tissues. The predictive value of serum DHEA and DHEAS for the likelihood of falling is unknown. The aim of this study was, therefore, to assess the associations between baseline DHEA and DHEAS levels and incident fall risk in a large cohort of older men...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Mutlu Kasar, Mahmut Yeral, Soner Solmaz, Nurhilal Büyükkurt, Suheyl Asma, Çiğdem Gereklioğlu, Can Boğa, Hakan Özdoğu, Bilkay Baştürk
OBJECTIVES: Allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant is a curative treatment option for many hematologic diseases. The existence of a fully compatible donor for recipients is the first condition for minimized transplant-related mortality and morbidity. The best donor for hematopoietic stem cell transplant is an HLA-matched sibling donor. The possibility of finding an HLA-matched sibling is less than 30% worldwide. Hematopoietic stem cell transplant is needed for an increasing number of patients every year, but the ability to find a fully compatible donor has limited its use...
March 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
Michael A Mahr, David O Hodge, Jay C Erie
PURPOSE: To determine racial/ethnic differences in rates of complex cataract surgery among United States Medicare beneficiaries. SETTING: Departments of Ophthalmology and Health Science Research, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota, USA. DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: The U.S. Medicare 5% Limited Data Set, representing a 5% sample of over 28 million fee-for-service Medicare beneficiaries predominantly aged 65 years and older, were analyzed for rates of complex cataract surgery (Current Procedural Terminology [CPT] code 66982) among all beneficiaries who had cataract surgery (CPT codes 66982, 66984), stratified by race/ethnicity between January 1, 2014, and December 31, 2014...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Cataract and Refractive Surgery
Nicole M Acquisto, Ryan P Bodkin, Jack E Brown, Paul S Graman, Courtney Marie Cora Jones, Timmy Li, Dwight J Hardy, Elizabeth Dodds Ashley
OBJECTIVES: Skin and soft tissue infections (SSTI) caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are prevalent in the emergency department (ED). We determined whether MRSA nasal carriage better identifies patients with MRSA wound infection than clinical risk factors or emergency medicine (EM) provider's choice of discharge prescriptions. METHODS: Adult patients presenting to a large academic medical centre ED in the USA with SSTI between May 2010 and November 2011 were screened...
March 9, 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
Oscar V Hernández Mondragón, Juan M Velez Resendiz, Rodolfo R Ruiz
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pancreatic solid masses (PSM) are difficult to assess; endoscopic ultrasound with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) enables tissue acquisition, but has high false-negative rates. Quantitative elastography (QE) predicts diagnosis on the basis of the strain ratio (SR). We aimed to compare both methods to evaluate PSM. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective study, carried out between January and December 2016, included suspected PSM cases; those with advanced disease and cystic components were excluded...
March 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
John K Marshall, Louis Bessette, Carter Thorne, Neil H Shear, Gerald Lebovic, Sebastien K Gerega, Brad Millson, Driss Oraichi, Tania Gaetano, Sandra Gazel, Martin G Latour, Marie-Claude Laliberté
PURPOSE: Adalimumab (ADA) is a tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitor indicated for use in various immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Patients receiving ADA in Canada are eligible to enroll in the AbbVie Care's Patient Support Program (PSP), which provides personalized services, including tailored interventions in the form of nurse-provided care coach calls (CCCs), with the goal of improving patients' experiences and outcomes. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of PSP services, including CCCs and patient characteristics, on persistence with and adherence to ADA for those patients enrolled in the PSP...
March 5, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Ana Colas, Luis Vigil, Carmen Rodríguez de Castro, Borja Vargas, Manuel Varela
AIM: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is preceded by a period of impaired glucoregulation. We investigated if continuous glucose monitoring system (CGMS): 1- Could improve our capacity to predict the development of T2DM in patients at risk. 2- Find out if impaired fasting glucose (IFG) /impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) differentiation through CGMS would also elucidate differences in clinical phenotypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: observational study of 209 hypertensive patients, aged 18-85 years who wore at entry a GCMS...
March 8, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Sathej Gopalakrishnan, Sven Mensing, Rajeev M Menon, Jiuhong Zha
BACKGROUND: The clinical development program of the direct-acting antiviral (DAA) combination therapy of paritaprevir (coadministered with ritonavir) and ombitasvir, with and without dasabuvir (3-DAA [3D] and 2-DAA [2D] regimens, respectively) used in the treatment of chronic hepatitis C infection has generated a robust dataset across various dosing regimens and patient populations. OBJECTIVE: The current analysis aimed to characterize the population pharmacokinetics in patients without cirrhosis ('non-cirrhotic') and with compensated cirrhosis ('cirrhotic'), while accounting for differences across hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotypes (GT) 1, 2, and 4, multiple regimens (3D regimen ± ribavirin for GT1 in global studies, 2D regimen for subgenotype 1b in Japan, 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT2 in Japan, and 2D regimen + ribavirin for GT4), and ethnicities...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
Tengteng Wang, Humberto Parada, Kathleen M McClain, Patrick T Bradshaw, Mary Beth Terry, Susan L Teitelbaum, Alfred I Neugut, Marilie D Gammon
BACKGROUND: Whether aspirin or other nonsteroidal anti-inflammation drug (NSAID) use is associated with mortality following breast cancer remains unclear. Consideration of use patterns and interaction with obesity may help to clarify the inconsistent results. METHODS: Pre-diagnosis NSAID use, weight, and height were assessed ~ 3 months after diagnosis through in-person interviews with a population-based cohort of 1,442 women with first primary breast cancer...
March 7, 2018: Cancer Causes & Control: CCC
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