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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040168/failure-of-isoflurane-cardiac-preconditioning-in-obese-type-2-diabetic-mice-involves-aberrant-regulation-of-microrna-21-endothelial-nitric-oxide-synthase-and-mitochondrial-complex-i
#1
Zhi-Dong Ge, Yingchuan Li, Shigang Qiao, Xiaowen Bai, David C Warltier, Judy R Kersten, Zeljko J Bosnjak, Mingyu Liang
BACKGROUND: Diabetes impairs the cardioprotective effect of volatile anesthetics, yet the mechanisms are still murky. We examined the regulatory effect of isoflurane on microRNA-21, endothelial nitric-oxide synthase, and mitochondrial respiratory complex I in type II diabetic mice. METHODS: Myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury was produced in obese type 2 diabetic (db/db) and C57BL/6 control mice ex vivo in the presence or absence of isoflurane administered before ischemia...
October 17, 2017: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036071/numerical-stability-of-the-c-method-and-a-perturbative-preconditioning-technique-to-improve-convergence
#2
Xihong Xu, Lifeng Li
The translational coordinate transformation method (the C method) in grating theory is studied numerically and analytically. We first study the convergence characteristics of the C method by numerical computations in high floating-point data precisions. Guided by insights gained from this numerical study we analytically studied condition numbers of the most important eigenvalues of the eigenvalue problem of the C method. Asymptotic estimates of condition numbers of these eigenvalues and estimates of convergence rate of the error in satisfying the Helmholtz equation by the eigenvectors are derived...
June 1, 2017: Journal of the Optical Society of America. A, Optics, Image Science, and Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29034840/non-anaesthetic-effects-of-volatile-anaesthetics-a-short-trip-on-the-sea-of-translational-medicine
#3
Lukasz J Krzych, Anna J Szczepanska
BACKGROUND: Volatile anaesthetics (VA) are commonly used worldwide for induction and/or maintenance of general anaesthesia. They act in the central nervous system to reduce sensation and motor response during surgical and invasive diagnostic procedures. VAs also have some non-anaesthetic properties in the brain when administrated to patients at the extremes of age. Their biological impact on other organs should be taken into account during administration of anaesthesia. OBJECTIVE: In this review we summarize the recent knowledge on the non-anaesthetic effects of inhaled halogenic ethers on cells and tissues...
October 13, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032754/pharmacological-neuroprotection-in-cardiac-surgery-effectiveness-of-pharmacologic-preconditioning-with-erythromycin
#4
Charilaos-Panagiotis C Koutsogiannidis, Elizabeth O Johnson
Regardless of the degree of advances in neuroprotective strategies, and despite the technological progress in neuromonitoring, brain injury still remains the "Achilles' heel" in cardiac surgery. A large number of pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapeutic interventions have been investigated during the last two decades. Recently, both theoretical and experimental findings suggest benefits of pharmacological cerebral protection, although, there is no conclusive evidence of clinical superiority of specific agents that have been applied as neuroprotectants, in human randomized controlled trials...
October 10, 2017: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030540/hypoxia-induced-activation-of-jak-stat3-signaling-pathway-promotes-trophoblast-cell-viability-and-angiogenesis-in-preeclampsia
#5
Chengfang Xu, Xuejiao Li, Peiling Guo, Jia Wang
BACKGROUND To explore the effect of hypoxic preconditioning on the JAK/STAT3 signaling pathway and its effect on trophoblast cell viability and angiogenesis in preeclampsia (PE). MATERIAL AND METHODS Placental tissues from normal pregnant women and PE patients were collected to detect the expression levels of JAK and STAT3. Trophoblast cells separated from the PE patients were assigned to 4 groups. The expression levels of phosphorylated p-JAK and p-STAT3 were measured by Western blot. Cell viability, colony-forming ability, and cell apoptosis were assessed...
October 14, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028441/physiological-and-pharmacological-inductors-of-hsp70-enhance-the-anti-oxidative-defense-mechanisms-of-the-liver-and-pancreas-in-diabetic-rats
#6
Maja Dimitrovska, Mirsada Dervisevik, Natasa Cipanovska, Katerina Gerazova, Suzana Dinevska-Kjovkarovska, Biljana Miova
Heat preconditioning (HP) is a powerful adaptive and protective phenomenon and the heat stress proteins (HSPs) it produces are an important determinant for the development of diabetic complications. Aspirin has been reported to modulate heat shock response in different organisms through increased induction of HSPs and is also known to exert anti-oxidative and radical scavenging effects in diabetes. We estimated the effect of physiological [heat stress (HS), 45min / 41±0.5ºC)] and pharmacological (aspirin treatment) induction of HSP70 on several parameters of oxidative state in the pancreas and liver of diabetic rats...
October 13, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027964/microglia-and-monocytes-macrophages-polarization-reveal-novel-therapeutic-mechanism-against-stroke
#7
REVIEW
Masato Kanazawa, Itaru Ninomiya, Masahiro Hatakeyama, Tetsuya Takahashi, Takayoshi Shimohata
Stroke is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, and consists of two types, ischemic and hemorrhagic. Currently, there is no effective treatment to increase the survival rate or improve the quality of life after ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke in the subacute to chronic phases. Therefore, it is necessary to establish therapeutic strategies to facilitate functional recovery in patients with stroke during both phases. Cell-based therapies, using microglia and monocytes/macrophages preconditioned by optimal stimuli and/or any therapies targeting these cells, might be an ideal therapeutic strategy for managing stroke...
October 13, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025213/the-future-of-fat-grafting
#8
Farooq Shahzad, Babak J Mehrara
Fat grafting has emerged as an important tool in the armamentarium of plastic surgeons. Its applications in aesthetic and reconstructive surgery continue to expand. However, its limitations (such as inconsistent survival) remain problematic. Recent research efforts have focused on tacking these issues with the use of platelet rich plasma, hypoxic preconditioning, hyperbaric oxygen, and the tissue engineering of scaffolds. In the future, as these laboratory discoveries are translated to clinical application, the beneficial uses of fat grafting will continue to increase...
July 1, 2017: Aesthetic Surgery Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025011/significance-of-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-signaling-for-acquisition-of-meiotic-and-developmental-competence-in-mammalian-oocytes
#9
Radek Prochazka, Milan Blaha, Lucie Nemcová
The surge in luteinizing hormone (LH) in preovulatory ovarian follicles triggers the resumption of oocyte meiosis accompanied by expansion of surrounding cumulus cells and ovulation of cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) into the oviduct. Over the last 15 years, substantial progress has been made in elucidating the key pathways by which the LH signal spreads within the preovulatory follicle and in identifying the molecules responsible for maintaining oocyte arrest and meiosis resumption. It is now clear that the adenylcyclase-mediated rise in intracellular cAMP leads to activation of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) network in granulosa and cumulus cells...
August 31, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022562/ketogenic-diet-in-endocrine-disorders-current-perspectives
#10
REVIEW
L Gupta, D Khandelwal, S Kalra, P Gupta, D Dutta, S Aggarwal
Ketogenic diet (KD) is a high-fat, adequate-protein, and low-carbohydrate diet that leads to nutritional ketosis, long known for antiepileptic effects and has been used therapeutically to treat refractory epilepsy. This review attempts to summarize the evidence and clinical application of KD in diabetes, obesity, and other endocrine disorders. KD is usually animal protein based. An empiric vegetarian Indian variant of KD has been provided keeping in mind the Indian food habits. KD has beneficial effects on cardiac ischemic preconditioning, improves oxygenation in patients with respiratory failure, improves glycemic control in diabetics, is associated with significant weight loss, and has a beneficial impact on polycystic ovarian syndrome...
October 2017: Journal of Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29022263/cardiac-ischemia-reperfusion-injury-the-beneficial-effects-of-exercise
#11
Juliana Pereira Borges, Karine da Silva Verdoorn
Cardiac ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI) occurs when the myocardium is revascularized after an episode of limited or absent blood supply. Many changes, including free radical production, calcium overload, protease activation, altered membrane lipids and leukocyte activation, contribute to IRI-induced myocardium damage. Aerobic exercise is the only countermeasure against IRI that can be sustained on a regular basis in clinical practice. Interestingly, both short-term (3-5 days) and long-term (several weeks) exercise increase myocardial tolerance, reduce infarct size area and arrhythmias induced by IRI...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021191/enhancement-of-phrenic-long-term-facilitation-following-repetitive-acute-intermittent-hypoxia-is-blocked-by-the-glycolytic-inhibitor-2-deoxyglucose
#12
Peter M MacFarlane, Stephane Vinit, Gordon S Mitchell
Moderate acute intermittent hypoxia (mAIH) elicits a form of respiratory motor plasticity known as phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF). Preconditioning with modest protocols of chronic intermittent hypoxia enhances pLTF, demonstrating pLTF metaplasticity. Since "low dose" protocols of repetitive acute intermittent hypoxia show promise as a therapeutic modality to restore respiratory (and non-respiratory) motor function in clinical disorders with compromised breathing, we tested the hypothesis that preconditioning with a mild repetitive AIH (rAIH) protocol enhances pLTF and hypoglossal (XII) LTF, and whether the enhancement is regulated by glycolytic flux...
October 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018188/cardioprotection-induced-in-a-mouse-model-of-neuropathic-pain-via-anterior-nucleus-of-paraventricular-thalamus
#13
Yi-Fen Cheng, Ya-Ting Chang, Wei-Hsin Chen, Hsi-Chien Shih, Yen-Hui Chen, Bai-Chuang Shyu, Chien-Chang Chen
Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death worldwide. Restoration of blood flow rescues myocardium but also causes ischemia-reperfusion injury. Here, we show that in a mouse model of chronic neuropathic pain, ischemia-reperfusion injury following myocardial infarction is reduced, and this cardioprotection is induced via an anterior nucleus of paraventricular thalamus (PVA)-dependent parasympathetic pathway. Pharmacological inhibition of extracellular signal-regulated kinase activation in the PVA abolishes neuropathic pain-induced cardioprotection, whereas activation of PVA neurons pharmacologically, or optogenetic stimulation, is sufficient to induce cardioprotection...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018138/endotoxin-preconditioning-reprograms-s1-tubules-and-macrophages-to-protect-the-kidney
#14
Takashi Hato, Amy Zollman, Zoya Plotkin, Tarek M El-Achkar, Bernhard F Maier, S Louise Pay, Shataakshi Dube, Pablo Cabral, Momoko Yoshimoto, Jeanette McClintick, Pierre C Dagher
Preconditioning with a low dose of endotoxin confers unparalleled protection against otherwise lethal models of sepsis. The mechanisms of preconditioning have been investigated extensively in isolated immune cells such as macrophages. However, the role of tissue in mediating the protective response generated by preconditioning remains unknown. Here, using the kidney as a model organ, we investigated cell type-specific responses to preconditioning. Compared with preadministration of vehicle, endotoxin preconditioning in the cecal ligation and puncture mouse model of sepsis led to significantly enhanced survival and reduced bacterial load in several organs...
October 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017857/administration-of-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic-acid-that-potentially-targets-mitochondrial-dihydrolipoamide-dehydrogenase-confers-cerebral-preconditioning-against-ischemic-stroke-injury
#15
Jinzi Wu, Rongrong Li, Wenjun Li, Ming Ren, Nopporn Thangthaeng, Nathalie Sumien, Ran Liu, Shaohua Yang, James W Simpkins, Michael J Forster, Liang-Jun Yan
The objective of this study was to investigate a possible role of mitochondrial dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DLDH) as a chemical preconditioning target for neuroprotection against ischemic injury. We used 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA), a reportedly reversible DLDH inhibitor, as the preconditioning agent and administered MICA to rats mainly via dietary intake. Upon completion of 4 week's MICA treatment, rats underwent 1h transient ischemia and 24h reperfusion followed by tissue collection. Our results show that MICA protected the brain against ischemic stroke injury as the infarction volume of the brain from the MICA-treated group was significantly smaller than that from the control group...
October 7, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017592/omentin-1-effects-on-mesenchymal-stem-cells-proliferation-apoptosis-and-angiogenesis-in-vitro
#16
Li Yin, Dan Huang, Xinxin Liu, Yongshun Wang, Jingjin Liu, Fang Liu, Bo Yu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are emerging as an extremely promising therapeutic agent for tissue repair. However, limitations exist such as the low numbers of MSCs obtained from donors, and the poor survival and function of donor cells. Omentin-1, a new fat depot-specific secretory adipokine, exerts proproliferation, prosurvival, and proangiogenic functions in certain cells via an Akt-dependent mechanism; however, little is known about the influence of omentin-1 on MSCs. METHODS: MSCs were isolated from 60-80 g donor rats...
October 10, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994666/primal-dual-convex-optimization-in-large-deformation-diffeomorphic-metric-mapping-lddmm-meets-robust-regularizers
#17
Monica Hernandez
This paper proposes a method for primal-dual convex optimization in variational Large Deformation Diffeomorphic Metric Mapping problems formulated with robust regularizers and robust image similarity metrics. The method is based on Chambolle and Pock primal-dual algorithm for solving general convex optimization problems. Diagonal preconditioning is used to ensure the convergence of the algorithm to the global minimum. We consider three robust regularizers liable to provide acceptable results in diffeomorphic registration: Huber, V-Huber and Total Generalized Variation...
October 10, 2017: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993797/the-linkage-between-breast-cancer-hypoxia-and-adipose-tissue
#18
REVIEW
Linda K Rausch, Nikolaus C Netzer, Josef Hoegel, Stephan Pramsohler
OBJECTIVE: The development of breast cancer cells is linked to hypoxia. The hypoxia-induced factor HIF-1α influences metastasis through neovascularization. Hypoxia seems to decrease the responsiveness to hormonal treatment due to loss of estrogen receptors (ERs). Obesity is discussed to increase hypoxia in adipocytes, which promotes a favorable environment for tumor cells in mammary fat tissue, whereas, tumor cells profit from good oxygen supply and are influenced by its deprivation as target regions within tumors show...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992285/remote-ischaemic-preconditioning-for-renal-and-cardiac-protection-in-adult-patients-undergoing-cardiac-surgery-with-cardiopulmonary-bypass-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Giacomo Deferrari, Alice Bonanni, Maurizio Bruschi, Cristiano Alicino, Alessio Signori
Background: The main aim of this systematic review was to assess whether remote ischaemic preconditioning (RIPC) protects kidneys and the heart in cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) and to investigate a possible role of anaesthetic agents. Methods: Randomized clinical trials (RCTs) on the effects of RIPC through limb ischaemia in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery with CPB were searched (1965-October 2016) in PubMed, Cochrane Library and article reference lists...
July 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992224/modulation-of-leucocytic-angiotensin-converting-enzymes-expression-in-patients-maintained-on-high-permeable-haemodialysis
#20
Bogusz Trojanowicz, Christof Ulrich, Roman Fiedler, Peter Martus, Markus Storr, Torsten Boehler, Kristin Werner, Michael Hulko, Daniel Zickler, Kevin Willy, Ralf Schindler, Matthias Girndt
Background: High mortality of haemodialysis patients is associated with systemic chronic inflammation and overactivation of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). Insufficient elimination of pro-inflammatory immune mediators, especially in the molecular weight range of 15-45 kDa, may be one of the reasons for this. Employment of haemodialysis membranes with increased permeability was shown to ameliorate the inflammatory response and might modulate the effects of local RAS. In this study, we tested the impact of high cut-off (HCO), medium cut-off (MCO) and high-flux (HF) dialysis on leucocytic transcripts of angiotensin-converting enzymes (ACE and ACE2)...
July 19, 2017: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
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