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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141654/early-career-researchers-want-open-science
#1
Andrea Farnham, Christoph Kurz, Mehmet Ali Öztürk, Monica Solbiati, Oona Myllyntaus, Jordy Meekes, Tra My Pham, Clara Paz, Magda Langiewicz, Sophie Andrews, Liisa Kanninen, Chantal Agbemabiese, Arzu Tugce Guler, Jeffrey Durieux, Sarah Jasim, Olivia Viessmann, Stefano Frattini, Danagul Yembergenova, Carla Marin Benito, Marion Porte, Anaïs Grangeray-Vilmint, Rafael Prieto Curiel, Carin Rehncrona, Tareq Malas, Flavia Esposito, Kristina Hettne
Open Science is encouraged by the European Union and many other political and scientific institutions. However, scientific practice is proving slow to change. We propose, as early career researchers, that it is our task to change scientific research into open scientific research and commit to Open Science principles.
November 15, 2017: Genome Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137812/crowdsourcing-conservation-the-role-of-citizen-science-in-securing-a-future-for-seagrass
#2
Benjamin L Jones, Richard K F Unsworth, Len J McKenzie, Rudi L Yoshida, Leanne C Cullen-Unsworth
Seagrass meadows are complex social-ecological systems. Understanding seagrass meadows demands a fresh approach integrating "the human dimension". Citizen science is widely acknowledged for providing significant contributions to science, education, society and policy. Although the take up of citizen science in the marine environment has been slow, the need for such methods to fill vast information gaps is arguably great. Seagrass meadows are easy to access and provide an example of where citizen science is expanding...
November 11, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119384/tributyltin-advancing-the-science-on-assessing-endocrine-disruption-with-an-unconventional-endocrine-disrupting-compound
#3
Laurent Lagadic, Ioanna Katsiadaki, Ron Biever, Patrick D Guiney, Natalie Karouna-Renier, Tamar Schwarz, James P Meador
Tributyltin (TBT) has been recognized as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) for several decades. However, only in the last decade, was its primary endocrine mechanism of action (MeOA) elucidated-interactions with the nuclear retinoid-X receptor (RXR), peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), and their heterodimers. This molecular initiating event (MIE) alters a range of reproductive, developmental, and metabolic pathways at the organism level. It is noteworthy that a variety of MeOAs have been proposed over the years for the observed endocrine-type effects of TBT; however, convincing data for the MIE was provided only recently and now several researchers have confirmed and refined the information on this MeOA...
November 9, 2017: Reviews of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29109315/assessment-of-alteration-in-capnometry-monitoring-during-intravenous-sedation-with-midazolam-for-oral-surgical-procedures
#4
Kavitha G, Pallavi K Kakade, Madhavi Singh, Mahesh Ahire, Melvin Augustine, Kinjal D Jain
INTRODUCTION: Capnography is routinely used for monitoring of patients subjected to sedation for different surgical procedures. There is still paucity of data highlighting the capnographic assessment of patients on midazolam sedation undergoing oral surgical procedures. Hence, we planned the present study to assess the alterations occurring in the end-tidal carbon dioxide (ETCO2) values monitored during intravenous (IV) sedation with midazolam during various oral surgical procedures. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The present study included assessment of alteration in ETCO2 values occurring during oral surgical procedure...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102073/qualification-of-oil-spill-treatment-products-adopting-the-baffled-flask-test-for-testing-of-dispersant-efficacy-in-the-uk
#5
Roxana Sühring, Andy Smith, Heather Emerson, Denise Doran, Phil Mellor, Mark F Kirby, Bernard Christie
The UK Marine Management Organisation (MMO) tasked the Centre for Environment, Fisheries & Aquaculture Science (Cefas) with reviewing the current UK dispersant efficacy testing procedures. The aim was to identify possibilities to increase standardisation, improve health and safety performance and explore harmonisation possibilities with international dispersant efficacy testing procedures. The US EPA 'Baffled Flask Test' (BFT) was adopted, implemented and validated as a new standard method in the UK. The outputs from this study suggest that dispersant efficacy results from the adopted BFT test and the currently used protocol are in a similar range and results presented by the US EPA...
October 25, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082456/endoscopic-treatment-of-weight-regain-following-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#6
REVIEW
Vitor Ottoboni Brunaldi, Pichamol Jirapinyo, Diogo Turiani H de Moura, Ossamu Okazaki, Wanderley M Bernardo, Manoel Galvão Neto, Josemberg Marins Campos, Marco Aurélio Santo, Eduardo G H de Moura
Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the most commonly performed bariatric procedure. Despite its high efficacy, some patients regain part of their lost weight. Several endoscopic therapies have been introduced as alternatives to treat weight regain, but most of the articles are relatively small with unclear long-term data. To systematically assess the efficacy of endoscopic therapies for weight regain after RYGB. We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Web of Science, Cochrane, OVID, CINAHL/EBSCo, LILACS/Bireme, and gray literature...
October 29, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075477/undaria-pinnatifida-a-case-study-to-highlight-challenges-in-marine-invasion-ecology-and-management
#7
REVIEW
Graham Epstein, Dan A Smale
Marine invasion ecology and management have progressed significantly over the last 30 years although many knowledge gaps and challenges remain. The kelp Undaria pinnatifida, or "Wakame," has a global non-native range and is considered one of the world's "worst" invasive species. Since its first recorded introduction in 1971, numerous studies have been conducted on its ecology, invasive characteristics, and impacts, yet a general consensus on the best approach to its management has not yet been reached. Here, we synthesize current understanding of this highly invasive species and adopt Undaria as a case study to highlight challenges in wider marine invasion ecology and management...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065330/experimental-conditions-affecting-the-kinetics-of-aqueous-hcn-polymerization-as-revealed-by-uv-vis-spectroscopy
#8
Margarita R Marín-Yaseli, Miguel Moreno, José L de la Fuente, Carlos Briones, Marta Ruiz-Bermejo
HCN polymerization is one of the most important and fascinating reactions in prebiotic chemistry, and interest in HCN polymers in the field of materials science is growing. However, little is known about the kinetics of the HCN polymerization process. In the present study, a first approach to the kinetics of two sets of aqueous HCN polymerizations, from NH4CN and NaCN, at middle temperatures between 4 and 38°C, has been carried out. For each series, the presence of air and salts in the reaction medium has been systematically explored...
October 12, 2017: Spectrochimica Acta. Part A, Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056141/the-economy-of-shark-conservation-in-the-northeast-pacific-the-role-of-ecotourism-and-citizen-science
#9
Peter A Mieras, Chris Harvey-Clark, Michael Bear, Gina Hodgin, Boone Hodgin
Historically sharks have been seen either as a source of income through harvesting, or as a nuisance and danger. The economic value of sharks has traditionally been measured as the total value of sharks caught for liver oil, fins, or meat for consumption. Sharks have also been killed to near extinction in cases where they were seen as a threat to fisheries on other species. This is illustrated by the mass extermination of Basking Sharks (Cetorhinus maximus) in British Columbia. They were seen as a nuisance to fishermen as they got entangled in gill nets during the salmon fishing season...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056140/introduction-to-northeast-pacific-shark-biology-research-and-conservation-part-b
#10
Shawn E Larson, Dayv Lowry
Sharks are iconic, sometimes apex, predators found in every ocean. Because of their ecological role as predators and concern over the stability of their populations, there has been an increasing amount of work focused on shark conservation around the world in recent decades. The populations of sharks that reside in the Northeast Pacific (NEP) Ocean bordering the west coast of the United States reside in one of the most economically and ecologically important oceanic regions in the world. Volume 78 of Advances in Marine Biology (AMB) is a companion to Volume 77, which focused primarily on NEP shark biodiversity, organismal biology, and ecology...
2017: Advances in Marine Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046414/early-career-researchers-an-interview-with-jodie-rummer
#11
(no author information available yet)
Jodie Rummer is an Associate Professor at James Cook University, Australia, where she specialises in conservation physiology. She received her Bachelor's degree in Marine Biology and her Master's degree from the University of West Florida, USA. Rummer then moved to the University of British Columbia, Canada, for her PhD in Zoology with Colin Brauner, after which she completed a short postdoc with Dave Randall at the City University of Hong Kong. She has been recognised with a L'Oréal-UNESCO For Women in Science Fellowship and was one of the Australia Broadcasting Corporation's Top Five Scientists under 40 in 2016...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029576/marine-aerosols-and-clouds
#12
Sarah D Brooks, Daniel C O Thornton
The role of marine bioaerosols in cloud formation and climate is currently so uncertain that even the sign of the climate forcing is unclear. Marine aerosols form through direct emissions and through the conversion of gasphase emissions to aerosols in the atmosphere. The composition and size of aerosols determine how effective they are in catalyzing the formation of water droplets and ice crystals in clouds by acting as cloud condensation nuclei and ice nucleating particles, respectively. Marine organic aerosols may be sourced both from recent regional phytoplankton blooms that add labile organic matter to the surface ocean and from long-term global processes, such as the upwelling of old refractory dissolved organic matter from the deep ocean...
October 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023468/the-effect-of-allometric-scaling-in-coral-thermal-microenvironments
#13
Robert H Ong, Andrew J C King, Jaap A Kaandorp, Benjamin J Mullins, M Julian Caley
A long-standing interest in marine science is in the degree to which environmental conditions of flow and irradiance, combined with optical, thermal and morphological characteristics of individual coral colonies, affects their sensitivity of thermal microenvironments and susceptibility to stress-induced bleaching within and/or among colonies. The physiological processes in Scleractinian corals tend to scale allometrically as a result of physical and geometric constraints on body size and shape. There is a direct relationship between scaling to thermal stress, thus, the relationship between allometric scaling and rates of heating and cooling in coral microenvironments is a subject of great interest...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021551/the-utility-of-bioenergetics-modelling-in-quantifying-predation-rates-of-marine-apex-predators-ecological-and-fisheries-implications
#14
A Barnett, M Braccini, C L Dudgeon, N L Payne, K G Abrantes, M Sheaves, E P Snelling
Predators play a crucial role in the structure and function of ecosystems. However, the magnitude of this role is often unclear, particularly for large marine predators, as predation rates are difficult to measure directly. If relevant biotic and abiotic parameters can be obtained, then bioenergetics modelling offers an alternative approach to estimating predation rates, and can provide new insights into ecological processes. We integrate demographic and ecological data for a marine apex predator, the broadnose sevengill shark Notorynchus cepedianus, with energetics data from the literature, to construct a bioenergetics model to quantify predation rates on key fisheries species in Norfolk Bay, Australia...
October 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977760/sediment-trapping-in-estuaries
#15
Hans Burchard, Henk M Schuttelaars, David K Ralston
Estuarine turbidity maxima (ETMs) are generated by a large suite of hydrodynamic and sediment dynamic processes, leading to longitudinal convergence of cross-sectionally integrated and tidally averaged transport of cohesive and noncohesive suspended particulate matter (SPM). The relative importance of these processes for SPM trapping varies substantially among estuaries depending on topography, fluvial and tidal forcing, and SPM composition. The high-frequency dynamics of ETMs are constrained by interactions with the low-frequency dynamics of the bottom pool of easily erodible sediments...
October 4, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976748/proton-transfer-reaction-mass-spectrometry-applications-in-atmospheric-sciences
#16
Bin Yuan, Abigail R Koss, Carsten Warneke, Matthew Coggon, Kanako Sekimoto, Joost A de Gouw
Proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) has been widely used to study the emissions, distributions, and chemical evolution of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere. The applications of PTR-MS have greatly promoted understanding of VOC sources and their roles in air-quality issues. In the past two decades, many new mass spectrometric techniques have been applied in PTR-MS instruments, and the performance of PTR-MS has improved significantly. This Review summarizes these developments and recent applications of PTR-MS in the atmospheric sciences...
November 8, 2017: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969543/medicinal-purposes-bioactive-metabolites-from-marine-derived-organisms
#17
Tingting Li, Ting Ding, Jianrong Li
The environment of marine occupies about 95% biosphere of the world and can be a critical source of bioactive compounds for human to be explored. Special environment such as high salt, high pressure, low temperature, low nutrition and no light, etc. has created the particularity of marine organisms, to make them produce bioactive substances different from terrestrial organisms. Natural ingredients secreted by marine-derived bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, cyanobacteria and other organisms have been separated as actively pharmacophores...
September 26, 2017: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961073/manifestation-drivers-and-emergence-of-open-ocean-deoxygenation
#18
Lisa A Levin
Oxygen loss in the ocean, termed deoxygenation, is a major consequence of climate change and is exacerbated by other aspects of global change. An average global loss of 2% or more has been recorded in the open ocean over the past 50-100 years, but with greater oxygen declines in intermediate waters (100-600 m) of the North Pacific, the East Pacific, tropical waters, and the Southern Ocean. Although ocean warming contributions to oxygen declines through a reduction in oxygen solubility and stratification effects on ventilation are reasonably well understood, it has been a major challenge to identify drivers and modifying factors that explain different regional patterns, especially in the tropical oceans...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961072/a-satellite-based-lagrangian-view-on-phytoplankton-dynamics
#19
Yoav Lehahn, Francesco d'Ovidio, Ilan Koren
The well-lit upper layer of the open ocean is a dynamical environment that hosts approximately half of global primary production. In the remote parts of this environment, distant from the coast and from the seabed, there is no obvious spatially fixed reference frame for describing the dynamics of the microscopic drifting organisms responsible for this immense production of organic matter-the phytoplankton. Thus, a natural perspective for studying phytoplankton dynamics is to follow the trajectories of water parcels in which the organisms are embedded...
September 29, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961071/spaceborne-lidar-in-the-study-of-marine-systems
#20
Chris A Hostetler, Michael J Behrenfeld, Yongxiang Hu, Johnathan W Hair, Jennifer A Schulien
Satellite passive ocean color instruments have provided an unbroken ∼20-year record of global ocean plankton properties, but this measurement approach has inherent limitations in terms of spatial-temporal sampling and ability to resolve vertical structure within the water column. These limitations can be addressed by coupling ocean color data with measurements from a spaceborne lidar. Airborne lidars have been used for decades to study ocean subsurface properties, but recent breakthroughs have now demonstrated that plankton properties can be measured with a satellite lidar...
September 27, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
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