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Marine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536570/the-importance-of-h-in-particulate-organic-matter-stoichiometry-export-and-energy-flow
#1
REVIEW
David M Karl, Eric Grabowski
The discipline of marine ecological stoichiometry has progressed rapidly over the past two decades, and continues to be at the forefront of microbial oceanography. Most of this effort has been focused on the elements carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), and to a lesser extent phosphorus (P), with little consideration of hydrogen (H), or the redox state of the organic matter pools despite the fact that H is the most abundant, and possibly the most important, element in biogeochemistry. Obtaining accurate estimates of the H content of organic matter, either in suspended or sinking particles, is a major analytical challenge...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528426/building-a-bio-based-industry-in-the-middle-east-through-harnessing-the-potential-of-the-red-sea-biodiversity
#2
REVIEW
Jens Nielsen, John Archer, Magbubah Essack, Vladimir B Bajic, Takashi Gojobori, Ivan Mijakovic
The incentive for developing microbial cell factories for production of fuels and chemicals comes from the ability of microbes to deliver these valuable compounds at a reduced cost and with a smaller environmental impact compared to the analogous chemical synthesis. Another crucial advantage of microbes is their great biological diversity, which offers a much larger "catalog" of molecules than the one obtainable by chemical synthesis. Adaptation to different environments is one of the important drives behind microbial diversity...
May 20, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512146/science-signaling-podcast-for-16-may-2017-vibrio-rewires-host-cells
#3
Nicole J De Nisco, Kim Orth, Annalisa M VanHook
This Podcast features a conversation with Kim Orth and Nicole De Nisco, authors of a Research Resource that appears in the 16 May 2017 issue of Science Signaling, about how the marine bacterium Vibrio parahaemolyticus rewires host cell signaling networks. V. parahaemolyticus thrives in warm brackish waters and infects both shellfish and finfish. This bacterium causes gastroenteritis when humans consume contaminated seafood that is raw or undercooked. V. parahaemolyticus delivers virulence factors into host cells through two different type 3 secretion systems (T3SSes)...
May 16, 2017: Science Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28467508/aligning-marine-species-range-data-to-better-serve-science-and-conservation
#4
Casey C O'Hara, Jamie C Afflerbach, Courtney Scarborough, Kristin Kaschner, Benjamin S Halpern
Species distribution data provide the foundation for a wide range of ecological research studies and conservation management decisions. Two major efforts to provide marine species distributions at a global scale are the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), which provides expert-generated range maps that outline the complete extent of a species' distribution; and AquaMaps, which provides model-generated species distribution maps that predict areas occupied by the species. Together these databases represent 24,586 species (93...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460325/towards-quantitative-condition-assessment-of-biodiversity-outcomes-insights-from-australian-marine-protected-areas
#5
Prue F E Addison, Louisa B Flander, Carly N Cook
Protected area management effectiveness (PAME) evaluation is increasingly undertaken to evaluate governance, assess conservation outcomes and inform evidence-based management of protected areas (PAs). Within PAME, quantitative approaches to assess biodiversity outcomes are now emerging, where biological monitoring data are directly assessed against quantitative (numerically defined) condition categories (termed quantitative condition assessments). However, more commonly qualitative condition assessments are employed in PAME, which use descriptive condition categories and are evaluated largely with expert judgement that can be subject to a range of biases, such as linguistic uncertainty and overconfidence...
April 28, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441600/microplastics-in-the-antarctic-marine-system-an-emerging-area-of-research
#6
REVIEW
Catherine L Waller, Huw J Griffiths, Claire M Waluda, Sally E Thorpe, Iván Loaiza, Bernabé Moreno, Cesar O Pacherres, Kevin A Hughes
It was thought that the Southern Ocean was relatively free of microplastic contamination; however, recent studies and citizen science projects in the Southern Ocean have reported microplastics in deep-sea sediments and surface waters. Here we reviewed available information on microplastics (including macroplastics as a source of microplastics) in the Southern Ocean. We estimated primary microplastic concentrations from personal care products and laundry, and identified potential sources and routes of transmission into the region...
April 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440934/determining-global-distribution-of-microplastics-by-combining-citizen-science-and-in-depth-case-studies
#7
Thijs Bosker, Paul Behrens, Martina G Vijver
Microplastics (<5 mm) are contaminants of emerging global concern. They have received considerable attention in scientific research, resulting in an increased awareness of the issue among politicians and the general public. However, there has been significant variation in sampling and extraction procedures used to quantify microplastics levels. The difference in extraction procedures can especially impact study outcomes, making it difficult, and sometimes impossible, to directly compare results among studies...
May 2017: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417511/algal-supplementation-of-vegetarian-eating-patterns-improves-plasma-and-serum-docosahexaenoic-acid-concentrations-and-omega-3-indices-a-systematic-literature-review
#8
REVIEW
J C Craddock, E P Neale, Y C Probst, G E Peoples
BACKGROUND: Vegetarians are likely to have lower intakes of preformed docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) than omnivorous populations who consume fish and animal products. As such, vegetarian populations have omega-3 indices up to 60% lower than those who consume marine products. Algae, the primary producer of DHA in the marine food chain, offer an alternative source of DHA for those who do not consume marine or animal products. This systematic review aims to examine the evidence for the relationship between supplementation with algal forms of DHA and increased DHA concentrations in vegetarian populations...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382585/when-pasteurian-science-went-to-sea-the-birth-of-marine-microbiology
#9
Antony Adler, Erik Dücker
In the late nineteenth century, French naturalists were global leaders in microbial research. Louis Pasteur advanced sterilization techniques and demonstrated that dust particles in the air could contaminate a putrefiable liquid. Pasteur's discoveries prompted a new research program for the naturalists of the Talisman and Travailleur expeditions: to recover uncontaminated water and mud samples from the deep sea. French naturalists Adrien Certes and Paul Regnard both independently conducted experiments to address the question of whether microorganisms inhabited the oceans and whether organic material in the deep sea was subject to decomposition...
April 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28382446/quantification-and-characterization-of-microplastics-in-blue-mussels-mytilus-edulis-protocol-setup-and-preliminary-data-on-the-contamination-of-the-french-atlantic-coast
#10
Nam Ngoc Phuong, Aurore Zalouk-Vergnoux, Abderrahmane Kamari, Catherine Mouneyrac, Frederic Amiard, Laurence Poirier, Fabienne Lagarde
Microplastics (MPs) constitute a main environmental issue due to their threat to marine organisms and so far to humans. The lack of a fast standard protocol in MP isolation and identification from living organisms bring to challenge for the science. In this paper, an optimized protocol using potassium hydroxide 10% (KOH 10%; m/v) for digestion of mussel soft tissues (Mytilus edulis) and multi-steps of sedimentation has been developed. Efficiency higher than 99.9% of organic and mineral matter elimination was shown by application on mussels sampled on the French Atlantic coast...
April 5, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348238/evolving-polycentric-governance-of-the-great-barrier-reef
#11
Tiffany H Morrison
A growing field of sustainability science examines how environments are transformed through polycentric governance. However, many studies are only snapshot analyses of the initial design or the emergent structure of polycentric regimes. There is less systematic analysis of the longitudinal robustness of polycentric regimes. The problem of robustness is approached by focusing not only on the structure of a regime but also on its context and effectiveness. These dimensions are examined through a longitudinal analysis of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) governance regime, drawing on in-depth interviews and demographic, economic, and employment data, as well as organizational records and participant observation...
April 11, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343769/response-to-collating-science-based-evidence-to-inform-public-opinion-on-the-environmental-effects-of-marine-drilling-platforms-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#12
Neal R Haddaway
In their recent review article, Mangano and Será (Journal of Environmental Management, 188:195-202) collate and describe the evidence base relating to the impacts of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean. The authors claim to have undertaken a systematic map using the Guidelines for Systematic Review in Environmental Management produced by the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE) as a basis for their methods. Here, I highlight major problems with their methods and the reporting of their activities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342997/the-author-s-reply-to-n-r-haddaway
#13
M Cristina Mangano, G Sarà
In this reply we respond to the commentary of Dr. Haddaway addressed in searching for pitfalls in our systematic mapping exercise "Collating science-based evidence to inform public opinion on the environmental effects of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean Sea" recently published in Journal of Environmental Management (Mangano, M.C. and Sarà, G. 2017. Journal of Environmental Management 188: 195-202). We discussed each so called "pitfalls" and, in our opinion, the main cornerstones of systematic map - SM (repeatability, comprehensiveness, transparency, traceability, quality, generalizability) are safe guaranteeing the "gold standard" required by this technique...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342419/incorporating-denitrification-decomposition-method-to-estimate-field-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment
#14
Yelin Deng, Dimos Paraskevas, Shi-Jie Cao
This study focuses on a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for flax cultivation in Northern France. Nitrogen related field emissions are derived both from a process-oriented DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) method and the generic Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method. Since the IPCC method is synthesised from field measurements at sites with various soil types, climate conditions, and crops, it contains significant uncertainties. In contrast, the outputs from the DNDC method are considered as more site specific as it is built according to complex models of soil science...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331392/marine-biodiversity-baseline-for-%C3%A3-rea-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-costa-rica-published-records
#15
REVIEW
Jorge Cortés
The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930's by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990's, except for the marine turtles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329020/how-a-collaborative-integrated-taxonomic-effort-has-trained-new-spongiologists-and-improved-knowledge-of-martinique-island-french-antilles-eastern-caribbean-sea-marine-biodiversity
#16
Thierry Pérez, Maria-Cristina Díaz, César Ruiz, Baslavi Cóndor-Luján, Michelle Klautau, Eduardo Hajdu, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Sven Zea, Shirley A Pomponi, Robert W Thacker, Sophie Carteron, Guillaume Tollu, Adeline Pouget-Cuvelier, Philippe Thélamon, Jean-Philippe Marechal, Olivier P Thomas, Alexander V Ereskovsky, Jean Vacelet, Nicole Boury-Esnault
Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261323/a-brief-review-of-recent-developments-in-the-designs-that-prevent-bio-fouling-on-silicon-and-silicon-based-materials
#17
REVIEW
Xiaoning Zhang, DaShan Brodus, Valerie Hollimon, Hongmei Hu
Silicon and silicon-based materials are essential to our daily life. They are widely used in healthcare and manufacturing. However, silicon and silicon-based materials are susceptible to bio-fouling, which is of great concern in numerous applications. To date, interdisciplinary research in surface science, polymer science, biology, and engineering has led to the implementation of antifouling strategies for silicon-based materials. However, a review to discuss those antifouling strategies for silicon-based materials is lacking...
2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252155/double-rare-earth-nanothermometer-in-aqueous-media-opening-the-third-optical-transparency-window-to-temperature-sensing
#18
A Skripka, A Benayas, R Marin, P Canton, E Hemmer, F Vetrone
Owing to the alluring possibility of contactless temperature probing with microscopic spatial resolution, photoluminescence nanothermometry at the nanoscale is rapidly advancing towards its successful application in biomedical sciences. The emergence of near-infrared nanothermometers has paved the way for temperature sensing at the deep tissue level. However, water dispersibility, adequate size at the nanoscale, and the capability to efficiently operate in the second and third biological optical transparency windows are the requirements that still have to be fulfilled in a single nanoprobe...
March 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228080/marine-drugs-a-hidden-wealth-and-a-new-epoch-for-cancer-management
#19
Eram Shakeel, Deepika Arora, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Salman Akhtar, Mohd Kalim Ahmad Khan, Mohammad A Kamal, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Mohtashim Lohani, Jamal M Arif
Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in humans. Due to tedious efforts and investigation made in the field of marine drug discovery, there is now a scientific bridge between marine and pharmaceutical sciences. However, at present only few marine drugs have been paved towards anticancer management, yet many more to be established. Marine organisms are profuse manufacturer of structurally inimitable bioactive metabolites that have unusual mechanisms of action and diverse biosynthetic pathways. Some of the compounds derived from marine organisms have antioxidant property and anticancer activities, but they are largely unexplored...
February 20, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#20
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
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