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Marine Science

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343769/response-to-collating-science-based-evidence-to-inform-public-opinion-on-the-environmental-effects-of-marine-drilling-platforms-in-the-mediterranean-sea
#1
Neal R Haddaway
In their recent review article, Mangano and Será (Journal of Environmental Management, 188:195-202) collate and describe the evidence base relating to the impacts of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean. The authors claim to have undertaken a systematic map using the Guidelines for Systematic Review in Environmental Management produced by the Collaboration for Environmental Evidence (CEE) as a basis for their methods. Here, I highlight major problems with their methods and the reporting of their activities...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342997/the-author-s-reply-to-n-r-haddaway
#2
M Cristina Mangano, G Sarà
In this reply we respond to the commentary of Dr. Haddaway addressed in searching for pitfalls in our systematic mapping exercise "Collating science-based evidence to inform public opinion on the environmental effects of marine drilling platforms in the Mediterranean Sea" recently published in Journal of Environmental Management (Mangano, M.C. and Sarà, G. 2017. Journal of Environmental Management 188: 195-202). We discussed each so called "pitfalls" and, in our opinion, the main cornerstones of systematic map - SM (repeatability, comprehensiveness, transparency, traceability, quality, generalizability) are safe guaranteeing the "gold standard" required by this technique...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342419/incorporating-denitrification-decomposition-method-to-estimate-field-emissions-for-life-cycle-assessment
#3
Yelin Deng, Dimos Paraskevas, Shi-Jie Cao
This study focuses on a detailed Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) for flax cultivation in Northern France. Nitrogen related field emissions are derived both from a process-oriented DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) method and the generic Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) method. Since the IPCC method is synthesised from field measurements at sites with various soil types, climate conditions, and crops, it contains significant uncertainties. In contrast, the outputs from the DNDC method are considered as more site specific as it is built according to complex models of soil science...
March 22, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331392/marine-biodiversity-baseline-for-%C3%A3-rea-de-conservaci%C3%A3-n-guanacaste-costa-rica-published-records
#4
REVIEW
Jorge Cortés
The diversity of tropical marine organisms has not been studied as intensively as the terrestrial biota worldwide. Additionally, marine biodiversity research in the tropics lags behind other regions. The 43,000 ha Sector Marino of Área de Conservación Guanacaste (ACG, Marine Sector of Guanacaste Conservation Area), on the North Pacific coast of Costa Rica is no exception. For more than four decades, the terrestrial flora and fauna has been studied continuously. The ACG marine biodiversity was studied in the 1930's by expeditions that passed through the area, but not much until the 1990's, except for the marine turtles...
2017: ZooKeys
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329020/how-a-collaborative-integrated-taxonomic-effort-has-trained-new-spongiologists-and-improved-knowledge-of-martinique-island-french-antilles-eastern-caribbean-sea-marine-biodiversity
#5
Thierry Pérez, Maria-Cristina Díaz, César Ruiz, Baslavi Cóndor-Luján, Michelle Klautau, Eduardo Hajdu, Gisele Lobo-Hajdu, Sven Zea, Shirley A Pomponi, Robert W Thacker, Sophie Carteron, Guillaume Tollu, Adeline Pouget-Cuvelier, Philippe Thélamon, Jean-Philippe Marechal, Olivier P Thomas, Alexander V Ereskovsky, Jean Vacelet, Nicole Boury-Esnault
Although sponges are important components of benthic ecosystems of the Caribbean Sea, their diversity remained poorly investigated in the Lesser Antilles. By organizing a training course in Martinique, we wanted both to promote taxonomy and to provide a first inventory of the sponge diversity on this island. The course was like a naturalist expedition, with a field laboratory and a classroom nearby. Early-career scientists and environmental managers were trained in sponge taxonomy. We gathered unpublished data and conducted an inventory at 13 coastal sites...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261323/a-brief-review-of-recent-developments-in-the-designs-that-prevent-bio-fouling-on-silicon-and-silicon-based-materials
#6
REVIEW
Xiaoning Zhang, DaShan Brodus, Valerie Hollimon, Hongmei Hu
Silicon and silicon-based materials are essential to our daily life. They are widely used in healthcare and manufacturing. However, silicon and silicon-based materials are susceptible to bio-fouling, which is of great concern in numerous applications. To date, interdisciplinary research in surface science, polymer science, biology, and engineering has led to the implementation of antifouling strategies for silicon-based materials. However, a review to discuss those antifouling strategies for silicon-based materials is lacking...
2017: Chemistry Central Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252155/double-rare-earth-nanothermometer-in-aqueous-media-opening-the-third-optical-transparency-window-to-temperature-sensing
#7
A Skripka, A Benayas, R Marin, P Canton, E Hemmer, F Vetrone
Owing to the alluring possibility of contactless temperature probing with microscopic spatial resolution, photoluminescence nanothermometry at the nanoscale is rapidly advancing towards its successful application in biomedical sciences. The emergence of near-infrared nanothermometers has paved the way for temperature sensing at the deep tissue level. However, water dispersibility, adequate size at the nanoscale, and the capability to efficiently operate in the second and third biological optical transparency windows are the requirements that still have to be fulfilled in a single nanoprobe...
March 2, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228080/marine-drugs-a-hidden-wealth-and-a-new-epoch-for-cancer-management
#8
Eram Shakeel, Deepika Arora, Qazi Mohammad Sajid Jamal, Salman Akhtar, Mohd Kalim Ahmad Khan, Mohammad A Kamal, Mohd Haris Siddiqui, Mohtashim Lohani, Jamal M Arif
Malignant tumors are the leading cause of death in humans. Due to tedious efforts and investigation made in the field of marine drug discovery, there is now a scientific bridge between marine and pharmaceutical sciences. However, at present only few marine drugs have been paved towards anticancer management, yet many more to be established. Marine organisms are profuse manufacturer of structurally inimitable bioactive metabolites that have unusual mechanisms of action and diverse biosynthetic pathways. Some of the compounds derived from marine organisms have antioxidant property and anticancer activities, but they are largely unexplored...
February 20, 2017: Current Drug Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175954/multiple-resistance-to-carcinogens-and-xenobiotics-p-glycoproteins-as-universal-detoxifiers
#9
REVIEW
Thomas Efferth, Manfred Volm
The detoxification of toxic substances is of general relevance in all biological systems. The plethora of exogenous xenobiotic compounds and endogenous toxic metabolic products explains the evolutionary pressure of all organisms to develop molecular mechanisms to detoxify and excrete harmful substances from the body. P-glycoprotein and other members of the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter family extrude innumerous chemical compounds out of cells. Their specific expression in diverse biological contexts cause different phenotypes: (1) multidrug resistance (MDR) and thus failure of cancer chemotherapy, (2) avoidance of accumulation of carcinogens and prevention of carcinogenesis in healthy tissues, (3) absorption, distribution, metabolization and excretion (ADME) of pharmacological drugs in human patients, (4) protection from environmental toxins in aquatic organisms (multi-xenobiotic resistance, MXR)...
February 7, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28173801/cryptococcus-gattii-molecular-type-vgii-infection-associated-with-lung-disease-in-a-goat
#10
Evelin Catarine da Silva, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Luciana Neves Torres, Alessandra Maria Dias Lacerda, Raquel Gonçalves Gomes, Danilo Marin Rodrigues, Rodrigo Albergaria Réssio, Priscilla Anne Melville, Camila Cecilia Martin, Fernando José Benesi, Lílian Rose Marques de Sá, Bruno Cogliati
BACKGROUND: Cryptococcus gattii-induced cryptococcosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals with worldwide distribution and public health importance due to its significant morbidity and mortality rate. The present study aimed to report a case of pulmonary infection by C. gattii molecular type VGII in State of São Paulo, Brazil. CASE PRESENTATION: A 5-year-old goat showing intermittent dry cough, ruminal tympany, anorexia, fever, tachycardia and tachypnea was presented for necropsy at the Veterinary Hospital of the School of Veterinary Medicine and Animal Sciences, São Paulo University, São Paulo, Brazil...
February 7, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127390/weird-genotypes-don-t-discard-them-transmissible-cancer-could-be-an-explanation
#11
Florentine Riquet, Alexis Simon, Nicolas Bierne
Genetic chimerism is rarely considered in the analysis of population genetics data, because assumed to be an exceptionally rare, mostly benign, developmental accident. An unappreciated source of chimerism is transmissible cancer, when malignant cells have become independent parasites and can infect other individuals. Parasitic cancers were thought to be rare exceptions, only reported in dogs (Murgia et al., Cell, 2006, 126, 477; Rebbeck et al., Evolution, 2009, 63, 2340), Tasmanian devils (Pearse and Swift, Nature, 2006, 439, 549; Pye et al...
February 2017: Evolutionary Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127380/anticancer-effects-of-the-marine-sponge-lipastrotethya-sp-extract-on-wild-type-and-p53-knockout-hct116-cells
#12
Kiheon Choi, Hyun Kyung Lim, Sung Ryong Oh, Woo-Hyun Chung, Joohee Jung
Interest in marine bioresources is increasing in the drug development sector. In particular, marine sponges produce a wide range of unique metabolites that enable them to survive in challenging environments, which makes them attractive sources of candidate pharmaceuticals. In previous study, we investigated over 40 marine specimens collected in Micronesia and provided by the Korean Institute of Ocean Science and Technology, for their antiproliferative effects on various cancer cell lines, and Lipastrotethya sp...
2017: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28111529/an-innovative-piston-corer-for-large-volume-sediment-samples
#13
Ivo Gallmetzer, Alexandra Haselmair, Michael Stachowitsch, Martin Zuschin
Coring is one of several standard procedures to extract sediments and their faunas from open marine, estuarine, and limnic environments. Achieving sufficiently deep penetration, obtaining large sediment volumes in single deployments, and avoiding sediment loss upon retrieval remain problematic. We developed a piston corer with a diameter of 16 cm that enables penetration down to 1.5 m in a broad range of soft bottom types, yields sufficient material for multiple analyses, and prevents sediment loss due to a specially designed hydraulic core catcher...
November 2016: Limnology and Oceanography, Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101288/correction-notice-perspectives-in-marine-citizen-science
#14
(no author information available yet)
[This corrects the article on p. 56 in vol. 17, PMID: 27047591.].
December 2016: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096504/opportunity-for-marine-fisheries-reform-in-china
#15
Ling Cao, Yong Chen, Shuanglin Dong, Arthur Hanson, Bo Huang, Duncan Leadbitter, David C Little, Ellen K Pikitch, Yongsong Qiu, Yvonne Sadovy de Mitcheson, Ussif Rashid Sumaila, Meryl Williams, Guifang Xue, Yimin Ye, Wenbo Zhang, Yingqi Zhou, Ping Zhuang, Rosamond L Naylor
China's 13th Five-Year Plan, launched in March 2016, provides a sound policy platform for the protection of marine ecosystems and the restoration of capture fisheries within China's exclusive economic zone. What distinguishes China among many other countries striving for marine fisheries reform is its size-accounting for almost one-fifth of global catch volume-and the unique cultural context of its economic and resource management. In this paper, we trace the history of Chinese government priorities, policies, and outcomes related to marine fisheries since the 1978 Economic Reform, and examine how the current leadership's agenda for "ecological civilization" could successfully transform marine resource management in the coming years...
January 17, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089553/plastic-debris-straps-on-threatened-blue-shark-prionace-glauca
#16
Ana I Colmenero, Claudio Barría, Elisabetta Broglio, Salvador García-Barcelona
Juveniles of blue shark Prionace glauca caught in pelagic longlines targeting tuna and swordfish in the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea were found entangled with plastic straps around their gill region. The plastic debris were identified as strapping bands and caused several degrees of injuries on the dorsal musculature and pectoral fins. They were also obstructing the gill slits probably causing breathing issues. These records were uploaded in the web site seawatchers.org, and highlight the potential of citizen science in revealing the occurrence of such problems which could help to measure the effects of plastic debris on marine life...
February 15, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058657/a-two-ocean-bouillabaisse-science-politics-and-the-central-american-sea-level-canal-controversy
#17
Christine Keiner
As the Panama Canal approached its fiftieth anniversary in the mid-1960s, U.S. officials concerned about the costs of modernization welcomed the technology of peaceful nuclear excavation to create a new waterway at sea level. Biologists seeking a share of the funds slated for radiological-safety studies called attention to another potential effect which they deemed of far greater ecological and evolutionary magnitude - marine species exchange, an obscure environmental issue that required the expertise of underresourced life scientists...
January 5, 2017: Journal of the History of Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28055205/interfacial-solvation-and-surface-ph-of-phenol-and-dihydroxybenzene-aqueous-nanoaerosols-unveiled-by-aerosol-vuv-photoelectron-spectroscopy
#18
Ping-Cheng Lin, Zhong-Hang Wu, Meng-Sin Chen, Yu-Lin Li, Wei-Ren Chen, Tzu-Ping Huang, Yin-Yu Lee, Chia C Wang
Although the significance of aqueous interfaces has been recognized in numerous important fields, it can be even more prominent for nanoscaled aqueous aerosols because of their large surface-to-volume ratios and prevalent existence in nature. Also, considering that organic species are often mixed with aqueous aerosols in nature, a fundamental understanding of the electronic and structural properties of organic species in aqueous nanoaerosols is essential to learn the interplay between water and organic solutes under the nanoscaled size regime...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045972/performance-optimization-of-marine-science-and-numerical-modeling-on-hpc-cluster
#19
Dongdong Yang, Hailong Yang, Luming Wang, Yucong Zhou, Zhiyuan Zhang, Rui Wang, Yi Liu
Marine science and numerical modeling (MASNUM) is widely used in forecasting ocean wave movement, through simulating the variation tendency of the ocean wave. Although efforts have been devoted to improve the performance of MASNUM from various aspects by existing work, there is still large space unexplored for further performance improvement. In this paper, we aim at improving the performance of propagation solver and data access during the simulation, in addition to the efficiency of output I/O and load balance...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28017847/associations-and-the-role-of-affiliative-agonistic-and-socio-sexual-behaviors-among-common-bottlenose-dolphins-tursiops-truncatus
#20
Briana Seay Harvey, Kathleen Maria Dudzinski, Stan Abraham Kuczaj
Little is known about the specific behavioral exchanges that occur on a day-to-day basis between dyads of common bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus). This study assesses the proportion of time dyads spend in proximity (within ∼2m) and the proportion of time spent in affiliative, agonistic, or socio-sexual contexts within and between age/sex dolphin pairings to better understand their social relationships. Observations of bottlenose dolphins housed at the Roatan Institute of Marine Sciences provided 10...
February 2017: Behavioural Processes
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