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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934598/mixing-efficiency-in-the-ocean
#1
M C Gregg, E A D'Asaro, J J Riley, E Kunze
Mixing efficiency is the ratio of the net change in potential energy to the energy expended in producing the mixing. Parameterizations of efficiency and of related mixing coefficients are needed to estimate diapycnal diffusivity from measurements of the turbulent dissipation rate. Comparing diffusivities from microstructure profilingwith those inferred from the thickening rate of four simultaneous tracer releases has verified, within observational accuracy, 0.2 as the mixing coefficient over a 30-fold range of diapycnal diffusivities...
September 13, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934597/the-recent-atlantic-cold-anomaly-causes-consequences-and-related-phenomena
#2
Simon A Josey, Joel J-M Hirschi, Bablu Sinha, Aurélie Duchez, Jeremy P Grist, Robert Marsh
Cold ocean temperature anomalies have been observed in the mid- to high-latitude North Atlantic on interannual to centennial timescales. Most notably, a large region of persistently low surface temperatures accompanied by a sharp reduction in ocean heat content was evident in the subpolar gyre from the winter of 2013-2014 to 2016, and the presence of this feature at a time of pervasive warming elsewhere has stimulated considerable debate. Here, we review the role of air-sea interaction and ocean processes in generating this cold anomaly and place it in a longer-term context...
September 15, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931487/nursing-students-perception-of-academic-support-in-the-practicum-development-of-a-reliable-and-valid-measurement-instrument
#3
Juan Arribas-Marín, Vicente Hernández-Franco, Calixto Plumed-Moreno
BACKGROUND: The importance of practicum training in health sciences disciplines places prominence on the academic support received by students in this learning environment, both due to its leverage over their perceived level of satisfaction of academic proficiency as well as its impact on their academic performance. AIM: The aim of this study was to develop and validate a scale which facilitates the evaluation of academic support perceived by nursing students during their practicum...
September 2017: Journal of Professional Nursing: Official Journal of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28921802/environmental-dna-metabarcoding-transforming-how-we-survey-animal-and-plant-communities
#4
Kristy Deiner, Holly M Bik, Elvira Mächler, Mathew Seymour, Anaïs Lacoursière-Roussel, Florian Altermatt, Simon Creer, Iliana Bista, David M Lodge, Natasha de Vere, Michael E Pfrender, Louis Bernatchez
The genomic revolution has fundamentally changed how we survey biodiversity on earth. High-throughput sequencing ('HTS') platforms now enable the rapid sequencing of DNA from diverse kinds of environmental samples (termed 'environmental DNA' or 'eDNA'). Coupling HTS with our ability to associate sequences from eDNA with a taxonomic name is called 'eDNA metabarcoding' and offers a powerful molecular tool capable of non-invasively surveying species richness from many ecosystems. Here, we review the use of eDNA metabarcoding for surveying animal and plant richness, and the challenges in using eDNA approaches to estimate relative abundance...
September 16, 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898078/review-of-oceanography-and-marine-biology-oceanography-and-marine-biology-an-annual-review-volume-54-edited-by-roger-n-hughes-bangor-university-uk-david-j-hughes-scottish-association-for-marine-science-uk-i-peter-smith-university-of-aberdeen-uk-and-andrew-c
#5
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893400/-the-dissemination-diamond-and-paradoxes-of-science-to-science-and-science-to-policy-communication-lessons-from-large-marine-research-programmes
#6
EDITORIAL
Michael Elliott, Pauline Snoeijs-Leijonmalm, Steve Barnard
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 8, 2017: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892857/a-risk-based-approach-to-cumulative-effect-assessments-for-marine-management
#7
REVIEW
Vanessa Stelzenmüller, Marta Coll, Antonios D Mazaris, Sylvaine Giakoumi, Stelios Katsanevakis, Michelle E Portman, Renate Degen, Peter Mackelworth, Antje Gimpel, Paolo G Albano, Vasiliki Almpanidou, Joachim Claudet, Franz Essl, Thanasis Evagelopoulos, Johanna J Heymans, Tilen Genov, Salit Kark, Fiorenza Micheli, Maria Grazia Pennino, Gil Rilov, Bob Rumes, Jeroen Steenbeek, Henn Ojaveer
Marine ecosystems are increasingly threatened by the cumulative effects of multiple human pressures. Cumulative effect assessments (CEAs) are needed to inform environmental policy and guide ecosystem-based management. Yet, CEAs are inherently complex and seldom linked to real-world management processes. Therefore we propose entrenching CEAs in a risk management process, comprising the steps of risk identification, risk analysis and risk evaluation. We provide guidance to operationalize a risk-based approach to CEAs by describing for each step guiding principles and desired outcomes, scientific challenges and practical solutions...
September 7, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28877009/a-synoptic-view-of-the-ventilation-and-circulation-of-antarctic-bottom-water-from-chlorofluorocarbons-and-natural-tracers
#8
Sarah G Purkey, William M Smethie, Geoffrey Gebbie, Arnold L Gordon, Rolf E Sonnerup, Mark J Warner, John L Bullister
Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) is the coldest, densest, most prolific water mass in the global ocean. AABW forms at several distinct regions along the Antarctic coast and feeds into the bottom limb of the meridional overturning circulation, filling most of the global deep ocean. AABW has warmed, freshened, and declined in volume around the globe in recent decades, which has implications for the global heat and sea level rise budgets. Over the past three decades, the use of tracers, especially time-varying tracers such as chlorofluorocarbons, has been essential to our understanding of the formation, circulation, and variability of AABW...
September 6, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28863567/mixed-modeling-for-irregularly-sampled-and-correlated-functional-data-speech-science-applications
#9
Marianne Pouplier, Jona Cederbaum, Philip Hoole, Stefania Marin, Sonja Greven
The speech sciences often employ complex experimental designs requiring models with multiple covariates and crossed random effects. For curve-like data such as time-varying signals, single-time-point feature extraction is commonly used as data reduction technique to make the data amenable to statistical hypothesis testing, thereby discarding a wealth of information. The present paper discusses the application of functional linear mixed models, a functional analogue to linear mixed models. This type of model allows for the holistic evaluation of curve dynamics for data with complex correlation structures due to repeated measures on subjects and stimulus items...
August 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860356/island-biogeography-taking-the-long-view-of-nature-s-laboratories
#10
REVIEW
Robert J Whittaker, José María Fernández-Palacios, Thomas J Matthews, Michael K Borregaard, Kostas A Triantis
Islands provide classic model biological systems. We review how growing appreciation of geoenvironmental dynamics of marine islands has led to advances in island biogeographic theory accommodating both evolutionary and ecological phenomena. Recognition of distinct island geodynamics permits general models to be developed and modified to account for patterns of diversity, diversification, lineage development, and trait evolution within and across island archipelagos. Emergent patterns of diversity include predictable variation in island species-area relationships, progression rule colonization from older to younger land masses, and syndromes including loss of dispersability and secondary woodiness in herbaceous plant lineages...
September 1, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854932/a-healthy-approach-to-dietary-fats-understanding-the-science-and-taking-action-to-reduce-consumer-confusion
#11
REVIEW
Ann G Liu, Nikki A Ford, Frank B Hu, Kathleen M Zelman, Dariush Mozaffarian, Penny M Kris-Etherton
Consumers are often confused about nutrition research findings and recommendations. As content experts, it is essential that nutrition scientists communicate effectively. A case-study of the history of dietary fat science and recommendations is presented, summarizing presentations from an Experimental Biology Symposium that addressed techniques for effective scientific communication and used the scientific discourse of public understanding of dietary fats and health as an example of challenges in scientific communication...
August 30, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853998/ecological-stoichiometry-of-ocean-plankton
#12
Allison R Moreno, Adam C Martiny
Marine plankton elemental stoichiometric ratios can deviate from the Redfield ratio (106C:16N:1P); here, we examine physiological and biogeochemical mechanisms that lead to the observed variation across lineages, regions, and seasons. Many models of ecological stoichiometry blend together acclimative and adaptive responses to environmental conditions. These two pathways can have unique molecular mechanisms and stoichiometric outcomes, and we attempt to disentangle the two processes. We find that interactions between environmental conditions and cellular growth are key to understanding stoichiometric regulation, but the growth rates of most marine plankton populations are poorly constrained...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28853997/progress-in-deciphering-the-controls-on-the-geochemistry-of-fluids-in-seafloor-hydrothermal-systems
#13
Susan E Humphris, Frieder Klein
Over the last four decades, more than 500 sites of seafloor hydrothermal venting have been identified in a range of tectonic environments. These vents represent the seafloor manifestation of hydrothermal convection of seawater through the permeable oceanic basement that is driven by a subsurface heat source. Hydrothermal circulation has fundamental effects on the transfer of heat and mass from the lithosphere to the hydrosphere, the composition of seawater, the physical and chemical properties of the oceanic basement, and vent ecosystems at and below the seafloor...
August 30, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28846492/planktonic-subsidies-to-surf-zone-and-intertidal-communities
#14
Steven G Morgan, Alan L Shanks, Jamie H MacMahan, Ad J H M Reniers, Falk Feddersen
Plankton are transported onshore, providing subsidies of food and new recruits to surf-zone and intertidal communities. The transport of plankton to the surf zone is influenced by wind, wave, and tidal forcing, and whether they enter the surf zone depends on alongshore variation in surf-zone hydrodynamics caused by the interaction of breaking waves with coastal morphology. Areas with gently sloping shores and wide surf zones typically have orders-of-magnitude-higher concentrations of plankton in the surf zone and dense larval settlement in intertidal communities because of the presence of bathymetric rip currents, which are absent in areas with steep shores and narrow surf zones...
August 28, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813201/applying-movement-ecology-to-marine-animals-with-complex-life-cycles
#15
Richard M Allen, Anna Metaxas, Paul V R Snelgrove
Marine animals with complex life cycles may move passively or actively for fertilization, dispersal, predator avoidance, resource acquisition, and migration, and over scales from micrometers to thousands of kilometers. This diversity has catalyzed idiosyncratic and unfocused research, creating unsound paradigms regarding the role of movement in ecology and evolution. The emerging movement ecology paradigm offers a framework to consolidate movement research independent of taxon, life-history stage, scale, or discipline...
August 16, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28812686/interactions-of-microplastic-debris-throughout-the-marine-ecosystem
#16
REVIEW
Tamara S Galloway, Matthew Cole, Ceri Lewis
Marine microscopic plastic (microplastic) debris is a modern societal issue, illustrating the challenge of balancing the convenience of plastic in daily life with the prospect of causing ecological harm by careless disposal. Here we develop the concept of microplastic as a complex, dynamic mixture of polymers and additives, to which organic material and contaminants can successively bind to form an 'ecocorona', increasing the density and surface charge of particles and changing their bioavailability and toxicity...
April 20, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800512/metabotropic-glutamate-receptors-as-emerging-research-targets-in-bipolar-disorder
#17
REVIEW
Caren J Blacker, Charles P Lewis, Mark A Frye, Marin Veldic
Glutamatergic dysregulation is implicated in the neuropathology of bipolar disorder (BD). There is increasing interest in investigating the role of metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) in BD and as a target for treatment intervention. Bipolar mGluR studies (published January 1992-April 2016) were identified via PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and Scopus. Full-text screening, data extraction, and quality appraisal were conducted in duplicate, with strict inclusion and exclusion criteria. The initial literature search for mGluRs in BD, including non-bipolar mood disorders and primary psychotic disorders, identified 1544 articles...
July 31, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796571/the-fate-and-impact-of-internal-waves-in-nearshore-ecosystems
#18
C B Woodson
Internal waves are widespread features of global oceans that play critical roles in mixing and thermohaline circulation. Similarly to surface waves, internal waves can travel long distances, ultimately breaking along continental margins. These breaking waves can transport deep ocean water and associated constituents (nutrients, larvae, and acidic low-oxygen waters) onto the shelf and locally enhance turbulence and mixing, with important effects on nearshore ecosystems. We are only beginning to understand the role internal waves play in shaping nearshore ecosystems...
August 10, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793810/remote-sensing-tropical-coral-reefs-the-view-from-above
#19
Sam J Purkis
Carbonate precipitation has been a common life strategy for marine organisms for 3.7 billion years, as, therefore, has their construction of reefs. As favored by modern corals, reef-forming organisms have typically adopted a niche in warm, shallow, well-lit, tropical marine waters, where they are capable of building vast carbonate edifices. Because fossil reefs form water aquifers and hydrocarbon reservoirs, considerable effort has been dedicated to understanding their anatomy and morphology. Remote sensing has a particular role to play here...
August 9, 2017: Annual Review of Marine Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28793127/development-and-validation-of-the-hospitality-axiological-scale-for-humanization-of-nursing-care
#20
José María Galán González-Serna, Soledad Ferreras-Mencia, Juan Manuel Arribas-Marín
Objective: to develop and validate a scale to evaluate nursing attitudes in relation to hospitality for the humanization of nursing care. Participants: the sample consisted of 499 nursing professionals and undergraduate students of the final two years of the Bachelor of Science in Nursing program. Method: the instrument has been developed and validated to evaluate the ethical values related to hospitality using a methodological approach. Subsequently, a model was developed to measure the dimensions forming the construct hospitality...
August 3, 2017: Revista Latino-americana de Enfermagem
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