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paediatric nafld

Antonella Mosca, Claudia Della Corte, Maria Rita Sartorelli, Francesca Ferretti, Francesco Nicita, Andrea Vania, Valerio Nobili
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adolescents, due to the increased worldwide incidence of obesity among children. It is now clear enough that of diet high in carbohydrates and simple sugars are associated with hepatic steatosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Several studies have shown that an increased consumption of simple sugars is also positively associated with overweight and obesity, and related co-morbidities, such as type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome and NAFLD...
August 26, 2016: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Judith Aron-Wisnewsky, Karine Clement, Jean-Louis Pépin
Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and more importantly its hallmark, chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH), are established factors in the pathogenesis and exacerbation of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This has been clearly demonstrated in rodent models exposed to intermittent hypoxia, and strong evidence now also exists in both paediatric and adult human populations. OSA and CIH induce insulin-resistance and dyslipidemia which are involved in NAFLD physiopathogenesis. CIH increases the expression of the hypoxia inducible transcription factor HIF1α and that of downstream genes involved in lipogenesis, thereby increasing β-oxidation and consequently exacerbating liver oxidative stress...
August 2016: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Jonathan L Temple, Paul Cordero, Jiawei Li, Vi Nguyen, Jude A Oben
Non-Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) is now the most prevalent form of chronic liver disease, affecting 10%-20% of the general paediatric population. Within the next 10 years it is expected to become the leading cause of liver pathology, liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in childhood and adolescence in the Western world. While our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms underlying this disease remains limited, it is thought to be the hepatic manifestation of more widespread metabolic dysfunction and is strongly associated with a number of metabolic risk factors, including insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, cardiovascular disease and, most significantly, obesity...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Federica Del Chierico, Valerio Nobili, Pamela Vernocchi, Alessandra Russo, Cristiano De Stefanis, Daniela Gnani, Cesare Furlanello, Alessandro Zandonà, Paola Paci, Giorgio Capuani, Bruno Dallapiccola, Alfredo Miccheli, Anna Alisi, Lorenza Putignani
: There is evidence that non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is affected by gut microbiota. Therefore, we investigated its modifications in paediatric NAFLD patients using targeted-metagenomics (MG) and metabolomics (MB). Stools were collected from 61 consecutive patients diagnosed with NAFL, NASH, or obesity and 54 healthy subjects (CTRLs), matched in a case-control fashion. Operational taxonomic units were pyrosequenced targeting 16S ribosomal RNA and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) determined by solid-phase micro-extraction GC-MS...
March 29, 2016: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Philippa S Gibson, Sarah Lang, Marianne Gilbert, Deepa Kamat, Sanjay Bansal, Martha E Ford-Adams, Ashish P Desai, Anil Dhawan, Emer Fitzpatrick, J Bernadette Moore, Kathryn H Hart
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in children, with prevalence rising alongside childhood obesity rates. This study aimed to characterise the habitual diet and activity behaviours of children with NAFLD compared to obese children without liver disease in the United Kingdom (UK). Twenty-four biopsy-proven paediatric NAFLD cases and eight obese controls without biochemical or radiological evidence of NAFLD completed a 24-h dietary recall, a Physical Activity Questionnaire (PAQ), a Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire (DEBQ) and a 7-day food and activity diary (FAD), in conjunction with wearing a pedometer...
December 2015: Nutrients
Sara Ceccarelli, Nadia Panera, Marco Mina, Daniela Gnani, Cristiano De Stefanis, Annalisa Crudele, Chiara Rychlicki, Stefania Petrini, Giovannella Bruscalupi, Laura Agostinelli, Laura Stronati, Salvatore Cucchiara, Giovanni Musso, Cesare Furlanello, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni, Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi
Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is currently considered one of the major players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathogenesis and progression. Here, we aim to investigate the possible role of LPS-induced TNF-α factor (LITAF) in inducing a pro-inflammatory and pro-fibrogenic phenotype of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).We found that children with NAFLD displayed, in different liver-resident cells, an increased expression of LITAF which correlated with histological traits of hepatic inflammation and fibrosis...
December 8, 2015: Oncotarget
Emma L Anderson, Laura D Howe, Hayley E Jones, Julian P T Higgins, Debbie A Lawlor, Abigail Fraser
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Narrative reviews of paediatric NAFLD quote prevalences in the general population that range from 9% to 37%; however, no systematic review of the prevalence of NAFLD in children/adolescents has been conducted. We aimed to estimate prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in young people and to determine whether this varies by BMI category, gender, age, diagnostic method, geographical region and study sample size. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of all studies reporting a prevalence of NAFLD based on any diagnostic method in participants 1-19 years old, regardless of whether assessing NAFLD prevalence was the main aim of the study...
2015: PloS One
Stergios A Polyzos, Konstantinos N Aronis, Jannis Kountouras, Dimitrios D Raptis, Maria F Vasiloglou, Christos S Mantzoros
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Clinical data regarding circulating leptin levels in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare leptin levels between the following groups: patients with biopsy-proven NAFLD vs controls; simple steatosis (SS) patients vs controls; non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) patients vs controls and NASH patients vs SS patients. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in PubMed, Scopus and the Cochrane Library...
January 2016: Diabetologia
Ali A Mencin, Rohit Loomba, Joel E Lavine
NAFLD is the most common chronic liver disease in children and adults, with its prevalence closely associated with obesity and other features of the metabolic syndrome. As young adults with NAFLD transition from the paediatric care environment to adult services, establishing a coordinated model of transition to ensure ongoing and appropriate care is critical. Enabling a smooth transfer begins with an understanding of the key differences between paediatric and adult NAFLD as well as the psychosocial factors that affect older adolescents...
November 2015: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Imeke Goldschmidt, André Di Nanni, Carolin Streckenbach, Kerstin Schnell, Thomas Danne, Ulrich Baumann
BACKGROUND: Noninvasive tools to diagnose nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), including transient elastography (TE) and enhanced liver fibrosis panel (ELF), have only been evaluated in children with biopsy-proven NAFLD. We evaluated the prevalence of ELF and TE abnormalities in obese children without clinical liver disease and examined the effects of BMI stabilization on ELF and TE in a longitudinal approach. METHODS: 39 obese children (17 m, age 12.3 (7.6-17...
2015: BioMed Research International
C Della Corte, A Mosca, F Majo, V Lucidi, N Panera, E Giglioni, L Monti, L Stronati, A Alisi, V Nobili
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the metabolic effects of fatty pancreas (nonalcoholic fatty pancreas disease - NAFPD) in a group of obese paediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). METHODS: We included 121 consecutive children with echographic evidence of hepatic steatosis. All patients underwent to abdominal ultrasound to evaluate pancreatic echogenic pattern. We divided the patients into two groups on the basis of the presence of fatty pancreas...
November 2015: Clinical Endocrinology
Valerio Nobili, Anna Alisi, Renato Cutrera, Guido Carpino, Cristiano De Stefanis, Valentina D'Oria, Rita De Vito, Salvatore Cucchiara, Eugenio Gaudio, Giovanni Musso
BACKGROUND: Mechanism(s) connecting obstructive sleep apnoea syndrome (OSAS) to liver injury in paediatric non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) are unknown. We hypothesised alterations in gut-liver axis and in the pool and phenotype of hepatic progenitor cells (HPCs) may be involved in OSAS-associated liver injury in NAFLD. METHODS: Eighty biopsy-proven NAFLD children (age, mean±SD, 11.4±2.0 years, 56% males, body mass index z-score 1.95±0.57) underwent a clinical-biochemical assessment, with measurement of insulin sensitivity, plasma cytokines, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), an intestinal permeability test and a standard polysomnography...
August 2015: Thorax
Qin Feng, Susan S Baker, Wensheng Liu, Ricardo A Arbizu, Ghanim Aljomah, Maan Khatib, Colleen A Nugent, Robert D Baker, Trudy M Forte, Yiyang Hu, Lixin Zhu
Apolipoprotein A5 (apoA5) is a potent regulator of triglyceride (TG) metabolism and therefore may contribute to the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a disease characterised by excessive TG-rich lipid droplets in hepatocytes. To test this hypothesis, we examined the mRNA expression of apoA5 in paediatric NAFLD livers in comparison to healthy controls. According to microarray and quantitative real-time PCR, human NAFLD livers exhibited elevated apoA5 expression compared to healthy controls...
June 2015: Pathology
Stavra A Xanthakos, Jeffrey B Schwimmer
A new position statement from Europe endorses expert-based recommendations to consider bariatric surgery as a treatment for severe NAFLD in severely obese adolescents. This article discusses the problem of severe paediatric obesity, its relationship with NAFLD, and the knowledge and needs regarding bariatric surgery in adolescents
June 2015: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
S A AlKhater
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a progressive disease that encompasses a spectrum of liver diseases, ranging from simple steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). Data related to survival in children are scarce, but these data firmly associate NAFLD with higher risks of hepatic and non-hepatic morbidities and mortalities compared with the general population. More recently, the association between NAFLD and cardiovascular disease among children has increasingly been recognized. Given that obesity is a major risk factor for the disease, paediatric NAFLD is becoming a global issue, paralleling the dramatic rise in obesity worldwide...
May 2015: Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Jake P Mann, Rajiv Goonetilleke, Pat McKiernan
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common paediatric liver disease with a prevalence of almost 10%; therefore, the majority of affected patients are under the care of general practitioners and non-specialists. The condition is caused by central obesity with insulin resistance with additional factors influencing inflammatory activity (steatohepatitis). Ongoing inflammation leads to fibrosis and end-stage liver disease, though this will usually occur after children have transitioned into adult care...
July 2015: Archives of Disease in Childhood
E B Mitchel, J E Lavine
BACKGROUND: Paediatric nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a major public health concern given the recent increase in its prevalence and link to obesity and other metabolic comorbidities. Current treatment strategies involve lifestyle changes. Other surgical and pharmacologic interventions have been proposed; however, limited randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in the paediatric population restrict their use. AIM: To review the current management of paediatric NAFLD, including lifestyle and pharmacologic interventions, and to formulate recommendations for study design for future studies...
November 2014: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Yasmine M Alkassabany, Azza G Farghaly, Engy M El-Ghitany
BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIMS: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging problem in children and adolescents worldwide. This study was done to investigate the prevalence of NAFLD in children and adolescents as well as to determine the associated risk factors of fatty liver and to explore the ability of some obesity indices to predict and consequently be used as a screening method of fatty liver disease at certain cutoff points in schoolchildren. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional, nested case-control study was carried out...
June 2014: Arab Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology
Gábor Firneisz
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a chronic liver disease that might affect up to one-third of the adult population in industrialised countries. NAFLD incorporates histologically and clinically different non-alcoholic entities; fatty liver (NAFL, steatosis hepatis) and steatohepatitis (NASH-characterised by hepatocyte ballooning and lobular inflammation ± fibrosis) might progress to cirrhosis and rarely to hepatocellular cancer. NAFL increasingly affects children (paediatric prevalence is 4.2%-9...
July 21, 2014: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
K Kazankov, H J Møller, A Lange, N H Birkebaek, P Holland-Fischer, J Solvig, A Hørlyck, K Kristensen, S Rittig, A Handberg, H Vilstrup, H Grønbaek
BACKGROUND: Obesity is associated with metabolic derangement and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Macrophages are involved in liver inflammation and fibrosis, and soluble (s)CD163 is a macrophage activation marker. OBJECTIVES: To associate sCD163 with parameters of paediatric obesity and NAFLD, as well as changes in these parameters during lifestyle intervention. METHODS: We studied 117 obese children during a 10-week lifestyle intervention; 71 completed the 12-month follow-up...
June 2015: Pediatric Obesity
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