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Job Demands

Erla Kolbrun Svavarsdottir, Anna Olafia Sigurdardottir, Elisabet Konradsdottir, Gudny Bergthora Tryggvadottir
BACKGROUND: Implementing family system nursing in clinical settings is on the rise. However, little is known about the impact of graduate school education as well as continuing education in family systems nursing (FSN) on nurses' perceptions of their family nursing practice. AIMS: To evaluate the level of nursing education, having taken a continuing hospital educational course in family system nursing (FN-ETI programme), and the impact of job characteristics on nurses' perceptions of their family nursing practice skills...
April 25, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences
Bonnie Janzen, Laurie-Ann M Hellsten
PURPOSE: The contribution of unpaid family work quality to understanding social inequalities in women's mental health has been understudied and further limited by a scarcity of psychometrically sound instruments available to measure family work. Therefore, using a multi-item scale of family work quality with evidence of validity and reliability, the overall aim of the present study was to determine whether psychosocial qualities of unpaid family work contribute to educational inequities in women's mental health...
April 24, 2018: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Julia K Åhlin, Kristiina Rajaleid, Markus Jansson-Fröjmark, Hugo Westerlund, Linda L Magnusson Hanson
BACKGROUND: Job demands, job control and social support have been associated with depressive symptoms. However, it is unknown how these work characteristics are associated with different trajectories of depressive symptoms, which this study aimed to examine. METHODS: We included 6679 subjects in the Swedish Longitudinal Occupational Survey of Health (SLOSH), who completed biennial questionnaires in 2006-2016. Group-based trajectory models identified groups with similar development of depressive symptoms...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Martha J Sanders
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to understand the age-related changes, adaptations, and contexts that support older workers in the manufacturing sector. METHOD: In a multiple-case study, 10 older workers from two manufacturing companies completed the Job Content Questionnaire, Health and Productivity Questionnaire, and semistructured interviews and underwent task observations for 8 hr over 4 mo. RESULTS: Age-related changes affecting job tasks included near vision, upper extremity strength, grip strength, joint stiffness, and endurance...
May 2018: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
Ercan Avci
Kidney transplantation is a lifesaving medical treatment. However, very high demand for kidneys with low kidney donation causes a black market that exploits patients' desperation and donors' vulnerability. The current kidney donation programs fail to produce promising results to avoid illegal and unethical kidney trafficking and commercialism. Even though the primary goal of kidney donation is to increase the number of deceased organ donations, in some countries, like Turkey, due to religious or cultural concerns, it is impossible to supply adequate deceased kidney donations...
April 23, 2018: Developing World Bioethics
Nicole Jenkins, Jenny Adams, Tim Bilbrey, Stephanie McCray, Jeffrey M Schussler
A 30-year-old male roughneck worker on an oil rig underwent aortic valve replacement and subsequently enrolled in the Baylor Heart and Vascular Hospital exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) program. He expressed a strong desire to return to his physically demanding job. Based on his unique job requirements, CR staff designed and implemented comprehensive tests and a 5-week specific physical training program that included 6 exercises simulating his job functions. The selected exercises are not typically prescribed in traditional CR programs but mimicked the muscular strength/endurance required to perform his job...
January 2018: Proceedings of the Baylor University Medical Center
Rebecca Elvey, Jennifer Voorhees, Simon Bailey, Taylor Burns, Damian Hodgson
BACKGROUND: Shifts in health policy since 2010 have brought major structural changes to the English NHS, with government stating intentions to increase GPs' autonomy and improve access to care. Meanwhile, GPs' levels of job satisfaction are low, while stress levels are high. PulseToday is a popular UK general practice online magazine that provides a key discussion forum on news relevant to general practice. AIM: To analyse readers' reactions to news stories about health policy changes published in an online general practice magazine...
April 23, 2018: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
Matias Reus-Pons, Clara H Mulder, Eva U B Kibele, Fanny Janssen
BACKGROUND: Most previous research on migrant health in Europe has taken a cross-sectional perspective, without a specific focus on the older population. Having knowledge about inequalities in health transitions over the life course between migrants and non-migrants, including at older ages, is crucial for the tailoring of policies to the demands of an ageing and culturally diverse society. We analyse differences in health transitions between migrants and non-migrants, specifically focusing on the older population in Europe...
April 23, 2018: BMC Medicine
K A Østby, A Mykletun, W Nilsen
Background: In many western countries, women have a much higher rate of sickness absence than men. To what degree the gender differences in sickness absence are caused by gender differences in health is largely unknown. Aims: To assess to what degree the gender gap in sickness absence can be explained by health factors and work- and family-related stressors. Methods: Norwegian parents participating in the Tracking Opportunities and Problems (TOPP) study were asked about sickness absence and a range of factors possibly contributing to gender differences in sickness absence, including somatic and mental health, sleep problems, job control/demands, work-home conflicts, parent-child conflicts and stressful life events...
April 17, 2018: Occupational Medicine
Donatella Di Marco, Alicia Arenas, Gabriele Giorgi, Giulio Arcangeli, Nicola Mucci
Many studies have focused on the negative effects of discrimination on workers' well-being. However, discrimination does not affect just victims but also those people who witness discriminatory acts or who perceived they are working in a discriminatory work environment. Although perceiving a discriminatory work environment might be a stressor, the presence of job resources might counteract its negative effects, as suggested by the Job Demand-Resources model. The goal of this study is to test the effect of perceiving a discriminatory work environment on workers' psychological well-being when job autonomy and co-workers and supervisor support act as mediator and moderators respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Uwe Rose, Grit Müller, Gabriele Freude, Norbert Kersten
AIM: Do the amount of workload, strain and the association between both differ between employed physician and other employees subject to social security contributions? This is investigated in this present study by comparing two representative samples. METHODS: Psycho-social working conditions were by assessed computer-assisted personal interviews and supplemented by questions about burnout and depressive symptoms. The associations were investigated by linear regression analysis including moderating effects due to differences between occupations...
April 17, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Evangelia Demerouti, Wouter Veldhuis, Claire Coombes, Rob Hunter
In this study among airline pilots, we aim to uncover the work characteristics (job demands and resources) and the outcomes (job crafting, happiness and simulator training performance) that are related to burnout for this occupational group. Using a large sample of airline pilots, we showed that 40% of the participating pilots experience high burnout. In line with Job Demands-Resources theory, job demands were detrimental for simulator training performance because they made pilots more exhausted and less able to craft their job, whereas job resources had a favourable effect because they reduced feelings of disengagement and increased job crafting...
April 12, 2018: Ergonomics
Alice Mannocci, Laura Marchini, Alfredo Scognamiglio, Alessandra Sinopoli, Simone De Sio, Sabina Sernia, Giuseppe La Torre
Background : The epidemiology of stress on bank workers in Europe is only at the introductory stages. This study investigated for the first time the association between occupational stress level in bank-employees using the BEST8, Karasek-Model and socio-demographic and working factors in Italy. Methods : The observational pilot study involved 384 employees. Three questionnaires were adopted to collect data: Karasek-Model, BEST8 ( p < 0.001) and Positivity-Scale. Results : 25% of the sample belonged to high stress group...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Robert J Gumieniak, Norman Gledhill, Veronica K Jamnik
Developing the Canadian initial attack (IA) wildland fire fighter (WFF) physical employment standard (WFX-FIT) began in a previous investigation (Gumieniak et al. 2018) with a physical demands analysis in which hand and back carrying a 28.5 kg pump, back carrying a 25 kg hose pack and advancing charged hose were identified as the critical IA emergency tasks. In the present study, a circuit was created incorporating simulations of the critical tasks with faster completion times required for provinces with more arduous terrains...
April 9, 2018: Ergonomics
Rawaih Falatah, Olfat A Salem
AIM: To appraise and synthesise existing literature on nurse turnover in the Saudi Arabian context. BACKGROUND: Saudi Arabia is notably one of the nations with a health care system that is bombarded by high rates of turnover and turnover intention. Moreover, rapid population growth and the expansion of the health care system increase the demand on registered nurses in the kingdom. EVALUATION: Eleven primary sources were reviewed using Whittemore and Knafl's (Journal of Advanced Nursing, 2005; 52, 546-553) integrative review method...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Nursing Management
Stephen A Stansfeld, Ewan Carr, Melanie Smuk, Charlotte Clark, Emily Murray, Nicola Shelton, Jenny Head
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether psychosocial work characteristics at age 45 years predict exit from the labour market by the age of 50 years in data from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. METHODS: Psychosocial work characteristics (decision latitude, job demands, job strain and work social support at 45 years and job insecurity at 42 years) measured by questionnaire were linked to employment outcomes (unemployment, retirement, permanent sickness, homemaking) at 50 years in 6510 male and female participants...
2018: PloS One
Alexandra Halvarsson, Ingela Hagman, Matthias Tegern, Lisbet Broman, Helena Larsson
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal complaints and injuries (MSCI) are common in military populations. However, only a limited number of studies have followed soldiers during international deployments and investigated the prevalence of MSCI during and at the end of their deployment. The aim was to describe the prevalence of MSCI in different military occupational specialties and categorise their most common tasks in terms of exposures to physical workloads during a six-month long international deployment in Afghanistan...
2018: PloS One
Helena Pernilla Eriksson, Eva Andersson, Linus Schiöler, Mia Söderberg, Mattias Sjöström, Annika Rosengren, Kjell Torén
OBJECTIVES: The aims were to investigate whether occupational noise increased the risk for coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke and to elucidate interactions with stressful working conditions in a cohort of Swedish men. DESIGN: This is a prospective cohort study on CHD and stroke in Swedish men followed until death, hospital discharge or until 75 years of age, using Swedish national registers on cause of death and hospital discharges. Baseline data on occupation from 1974 to 1977 were used for classification of levels of occupational noise and job demand-control...
April 3, 2018: BMJ Open
Orawan Kaewboonchoo, Grace Sembajwe, Jian Li
As an intermediate endpoint to cardiovascular disease, arterial stiffness has received much attention recently. So far, the research on work stress and arterial stiffness is still sparse and inconsistent, and no investigations on work stress and cardiovascular health among the Thai working population have been reported. Therefore, we conducted an epidemiological study among 2141 Thai enterprise employees (858 men and 1283 women) who were free from any diagnosed cardiovascular disease. Work stress was measured using Karasek's Job Demand-Control model for job strain (a combination of high demand and low control)...
April 2, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Kath Ryan, Nilesh Patel, Wing Man Lau, Hamza Abu-Elmagd, Graham Stretch, Helen Pinney
BACKGROUND: Increased patient demand for healthcare services coupled with a shortage of general practitioners necessitates changes in professional roles and service delivery. In 2016, NHS England began a 3-year- pilot study of pharmacists in general practice, however, this is not an entirely new initiative. There is limited, current, evidence-based, UK research to inform the pilot so studies of pre-existing services must suffice until findings from a formal national evaluation are available...
April 2, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
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