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central otolith projections

Catherine A McCormick, Shannon Gallagher, Evan Cantu-Hertzler, Scarlet Woodrick
The nucleus medialis is the main first-order target of the mechanosensory lateral line (LL) system. This report definitively demonstrates that mechanosensory LL inputs also terminate in the ipsilateral dorsal portion of the descending octaval nucleus (dDO) in the goldfish. The dDO, which is the main first-order auditory nucleus in bony fishes, includes neurons that receive direct input from the otolithic end organs of the inner ear and project to the auditory midbrain. There are two groups of such auditory projection neurons: medial and lateral...
2016: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Thomas Chartrand, Gin McCollum, Douglas A Hanes, Richard D Boyle
Sensory contribution to perception and action depends on both sensory receptors and the organization of pathways (or projections) reaching the central nervous system. Unlike the semicircular canals that are divided into three discrete sensitivity directions, the utricle has a relatively complicated anatomical structure, including sensitivity directions over essentially 360° of a curved, two-dimensional disk. The utricle is not flat, and we do not assume it to be. Directional sensitivity of individual utricular afferents decreases in a cosine-like fashion from peak excitation for movement in one direction to a null or near null response for a movement in an orthogonal direction...
February 2016: Journal of Mathematical Biology
Hans Straka, Robert Baker
Central vestibular neurons form identifiable subgroups within the boundaries of classically outlined octavolateral nuclei in primitive vertebrates that are distinct from those processing lateral line, electrosensory, and auditory signals. Each vestibular subgroup exhibits a particular morpho-physiological property that receives origin-specific sensory inputs from semicircular canal and otolith organs. Behaviorally characterized phenotypes send discrete axonal projections to extraocular, spinal, and cerebellar targets including other ipsi- and contralateral vestibular nuclei...
2013: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
A A Tarnutzer, A G Lasker, D S Zee
Sensory input from the semicircular canals (SCC) and otolith organs is centrally combined with signals from other sensory modalities to continuously update the internal estimate of self-motion. Constant velocity vertical on-axis rotation leads to decay of the nystagmus response from the horizontal SCC and of perceived angular velocity (PAV), and when the rotation stops, a similar oppositely directed post-rotatory response occurs. Case reports and electrical stimulation studies suggest an involvement of the temporo-peri-Sylvian vestibular cortex in generating the PAV...
October 2013: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Maya Inoue, Masashi Tanimoto, Yoichi Oda
Hearing and bodily balance are different sensations initiated by a common mechanism. Both sound- and head movement-dependent mechanical displacement are converted into electrical signals by the sensory hair cells. The saccule and utricle inner ear organs, in combination with their central projections to the hindbrain, are considered essential in fish for separating auditory and vestibular stimuli. Here, we established an in vivo method in larval zebrafish to manipulate otolith growth. We found that the saccule containing a large otolith is necessary to detect sound, whereas the utricle containing a small otolith is not sufficient...
2013: Scientific Reports
Amany Mahmoud, Caitlyn Reed, Adel Maklad
Perception of linear acceleration and head position is the function of the utricle and saccule in mammals. Nonmammalian vertebrates possess a third otolith endorgan, the macula lagena. Different functions have been ascribed to the lagena in arboreal birds, including hearing, equilibrium, homing behavior, and magnetoreception. However, no conclusive evidence on the function of the lagena in birds is currently available. The present study is aimed at providing a neuroanatomical substrate for the function of the lagena in the chicken as an example of terrestrial birds...
October 15, 2013: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Sun-Young Oh, Ji Soo Kim, Jong-Min Lee, Byoung-Soo Shin, Seung-Bae Hwang, Ki-Chang Kwak, Chanmi Kim, Seul-Ki Jeong, Tae-Woo Kim
OBJECTIVE: The ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), a recently documented otolith-ocular reflex, is considered to reflect the central projections of the primary otolithic afferent fibers to the oculomotor nuclei. The aim of our study is to define air-conducted sound oVEMP abnormality in patients with acute brainstem lesions and to determine the brainstem structures involved in the generation of oVEMPs. METHODS: In response to air-conducted tone burst sounds (ACS), oVEMP was measured in 52 patients with acute brainstem lesions...
April 2013: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Isaac H Bianco, Leung-Hang Ma, David Schoppik, Drew N Robson, Michael B Orger, James C Beck, Jennifer M Li, Alexander F Schier, Florian Engert, Robert Baker
BACKGROUND: Although adult vertebrates sense changes in head position by using two classes of accelerometer, at larval stages zebrafish lack functional semicircular canals and rely exclusively on their otolithic organs to transduce vestibular information. RESULTS: Despite this limitation, we find that larval zebrafish perform an effective vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) that serves to stabilize gaze in response to pitch and roll tilts. By using single-cell electroporations and targeted laser ablations, we identified a specific class of central vestibular neurons, located in the tangential nucleus, that are essential for the utricle-dependent VOR...
July 24, 2012: Current Biology: CB
James A Sharpe, Sunil Kumar, Arun N Sundaram
PURPOSE: This article considers vertical misalignment and torsion of the eyes that arise from disorders of vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) pathways. RECENT FINDINGS: Infarction of the nodulus is one of the causes of skew deviation, a vertical strabismus accompanied by torsion of the eyes and tilt of the subjective visual vertical. Vertical components of childhood strabismus may arise from dysgenesis of vestibular projections in the brainstem. If vertical misalignment decreases greatly in the supine position compared to the erect poison one may conclude that skew deviation rather than a fourth nerve palsy is responsible for the strabismus...
February 2011: Current Opinion in Neurology
Julia N Eron, Bernard Cohen, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Otolith-only neurons were recorded extracellularly in the vestibular nuclei before and after cynomolgus monkeys were held on-side for up to 3 hr. The aim was to determine whether the polarization vectors of these neurons reorient toward the spatial vertical as do canal-otolith convergent neurons. Otolith input was characterized by tilting the animal 30 degrees from the upright position while positioning the head in different directions in yaw. This determined the response vector orientation (RVO), that is, the projection of the otolith polarization vector onto the head horizontal plane...
May 2009: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Karen P Maruska, Timothy C Tricas
Sounds and hydrodynamic stimuli are important cues detected by the octavolateralis system in fishes. The central organization of auditory, mechanosensory, and vestibular projections is known for only a few phylogenetically diverse fishes, and less is known about projections in derived perciforms that use sounds for acoustic communication. We used neuronal labeling to provide a detailed analysis of octavolateralis endorgan projections in a soniferous perciform that does not have accessory morphological structures to enhance hearing...
February 10, 2009: Journal of Comparative Neurology
A Zwergal, C Cnyrim, V Arbusow, M Glaser, G Fesl, T Brandt, M Strupp
OBJECTIVE: Correlation of internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) with components of the ocular tilt reaction (OTR) in order to localize graviceptive (specifically otolithic) pathways in the brainstem. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed data of 120 patients with INO (87 unilateral [9 of whom had one-and-a-half syndrome], 33 bilateral) for OTR (subjective visual vertical [SVV], ocular torsion, skew deviation) to localize causative brainstem lesions in MRI. RESULTS: Unilateral INO was accompanied by at least one component of OTR: SVV tilt in 96%, ocular torsion in 79%, and skew deviation in 50%...
August 19, 2008: Neurology
Julia N Eron, Bernard Cohen, Theodore Raphan, Sergei B Yakushin
Behavioral experiments indicate that central pathways that process otolith-ocular and perceptual information have adaptive capabilities. Because polarization vectors of otolith afferents are directly related to the electro-mechanical properties of the hair cell bundle, it is unlikely that they change their direction of excitation. This indicates that the adaptation must take place in central pathways. Here we demonstrate for the first time that otolith polarization vectors of canal-otolith convergent neurons in the vestibular nuclei have adaptive capability...
September 2008: Journal of Neurophysiology
Neil P McAngus Todd, Sally M Rosengren, James G Colebatch
OBJECTIVE: To map short-latency vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs) using air- (AC) and bone-conducted (BC) sound and to perform source analysis to determine their origin. METHODS: Ten normal volunteers, chosen to have low-normal thresholds for acoustic vestibular activation, participated. In the first part, the subjects' individual thresholds for vestibular activation (V(T)) were established using vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles...
August 2008: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
April E Ronca, Bernd Fritzsch, Laura L Bruce, Jeffrey R Alberts
Pregnant rats were flown on the NASA Space Shuttle during the early developmental period of their fetuses' vestibular apparatus and onset of vestibular function. The authors report that prenatal spaceflight exposure shapes vestibular-mediated behavior and central morphology. Postflight testing revealed (a) delayed onset of body righting responses, (b) cardiac deceleration (bradycardia) to 70 degrees head-up roll, (c) decreased branching of gravistatic afferent axons, but (d) no change in branching of angular acceleration receptor projections with comparable synaptogenesis of the medial vestibular nucleus in flight relative to control fetuses...
February 2008: Behavioral Neuroscience
Janice H Imai, Ian A Meinertzhagen
The tadpole larva of ascidians, basal living relatives of vertebrates, has a chordate body plan. The CNS has many homologies with that of vertebrates yet only about 100 neurons. These few, possibly fixed in number and composition, nevertheless govern a diverse repertoire of behaviors. To elucidate the circuits of the CNS first requires that we recognize each neuron type, for which we used electroporation to transfect precleavage embryos with a plasmid containing green fluorescent protein (GFP) driven by the promoter of the synaptotagmin gene...
March 20, 2007: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Joseph M Furman, Patrick J Sparto, Michael Soso, Dawn Marcus
Migraine-related dizziness (MRD) refers to a disorder in which vestibular symptoms are an integral part of migraine symptomatology. The purpose of this study was to better define the pathophysiology of MRD, which is incompletely understood and to generate hypotheses regarding MRD by assessing the semicircular canal-ocular reflex, the otolith-ocular reflex, visual-vestibular interaction, vestibulo-spinal function, and visually induced postural sway. Subjects included five subjects with MRD, five subjects with migraine without dizziness, and five headache-free controls...
2005: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Seth M Tomchik, Zhongmin Lu
This study is the first to employ simultaneous labeling with different colored fluorescent dyes and confocal microscopy to investigate the central projections of the octavolateral nerves in any fish. Three-dimensional reconstructions of the hindbrain octavolateral nuclei were made and overlap of octavolateral projections was assessed in a teleost, the sleeper goby (Dormitator latifrons). The octavolateral nerves, which innervate the otolithic organs, semicircular canals, and lateral lines, project to seven hindbrain nuclei in diverse, complex patterns...
January 3, 2005: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Neal H Barmack
The vestibular nuclei and posterior cerebellum are the destination of vestibular primary afferents and the subject of this review. The vestibular nuclei include four major nuclei (medial, descending, superior and lateral). In addition, smaller vestibular nuclei include: Y-group, parasolitary nucleus, and nucleus intercalatus. Each of the major nuclei can be subdivided further based primarily on cytological and immunohistochemical histological criteria or differences in afferent and/or efferent projections. The primary afferent projections of vestibular end organs are distributed to several ipsilateral vestibular nuclei...
June 15, 2003: Brain Research Bulletin
X Zhang, M Sasaki, H Sato, H Meng, R S Bai, M Imagawa, Y Uchino
The convergence between the anterior semicircular canal (AC) and utricular (UT) inputs, as well as the convergence between the AC and saccular (SAC) inputs in single vestibular neurons of decerebrated cats were investigated. Postsynaptic potentials were recorded intracellularly after selective stimulation of each pair of vestibular nerves AC/UT or AC/SAC. Neurons were recorded from the central parts of the vestibular nuclei, where the otolith afferents mainly terminate. Of a total of 105 neurons that were activated after stimulation of the AC and UT nerves, 42 received convergent inputs...
December 2002: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
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