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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642229/evolutionary-dynamics-of-the-kinetochore-network-in-eukaryotes-as-revealed-by-comparative-genomics
#1
Jolien Je van Hooff, Eelco Tromer, Leny M van Wijk, Berend Snel, Geert Jpl Kops
During eukaryotic cell division, the sister chromatids of duplicated chromosomes are pulled apart by microtubules, which connect via kinetochores. The kinetochore is a multiprotein structure that links centromeres to microtubules, and that emits molecular signals in order to safeguard the equal distribution of duplicated chromosomes over daughter cells. Although microtubule-mediated chromosome segregation is evolutionary conserved, kinetochore compositions seem to have diverged. To systematically inventory kinetochore diversity and to reconstruct its evolution, we determined orthologs of 70 kinetochore proteins in 90 phylogenetically diverse eukaryotes...
June 22, 2017: EMBO Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641940/dormant-origins-as-a-built-in-safeguard-in-eukaryotic-dna-replication-against-genome-instability-and-disease-development
#2
REVIEW
Naoko Shima, Kayla D Pederson
DNA replication is a prerequisite for cell proliferation, yet it can be increasingly challenging for a eukaryotic cell to faithfully duplicate its genome as its size and complexity expands. Dormant origins now emerge as a key component for cells to successfully accomplish such a demanding but essential task. In this perspective, we will first provide an overview of the fundamental processes eukaryotic cells have developed to regulate origin licensing and firing. With a special focus on mammalian systems, we will then highlight the role of dormant origins in preventing replication-associated genome instability and their functional interplay with proteins involved in the DNA damage repair response for tumor suppression...
June 9, 2017: DNA Repair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641868/quality-of-articles-published-in-predatory-nursing-journals
#3
Marilyn H Oermann, Leslie H Nicoll, Peggy L Chinn, Kathleen S Ashton, Jamie L Conklin, Alison H Edie, Sathya Amarasekara, Brittany L Williams
BACKGROUND: Predatory journals exist in nursing and lack the safeguards of traditional publishing practices. PURPOSE: To examine the quality of articles published in predatory nursing journals. METHOD: Randomly selected articles (n = 358) were reviewed for structural content and eight quality indicators. DISCUSSION: Two-thirds (67.4%) of the articles were published between 2014 and 2016, demonstrating the acceleration of publications in predatory nursing journals...
May 25, 2017: Nursing Outlook
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640200/animal-assisted-interventions-in-the-classroom-a-systematic-review
#4
REVIEW
Victoria L Brelsford, Kerstin Meints, Nancy R Gee, Karen Pfeffer
The inclusion of animals in educational practice is becoming increasingly popular, but it is unclear how solid the evidence for this type of intervention is. The aim of this systematic review is to scrutinise the empirical research literature relating to animal-assisted interventions conducted in educational settings. The review included 25 papers; 21 from peer-reviewed journals and 4 obtained using grey literature databases. Most studies reported significant benefits of animal-assisted interventions in the school setting...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637748/impaired-spliceosomal-usnrnp-assembly-leads-to-sm-mrna-down-regulation-and-sm-protein-degradation
#5
Archana Bairavasundaram Prusty, Rajyalakshmi Meduri, Bhupesh Kumar Prusty, Jens Vanselow, Andreas Schlosser, Utz Fischer
Specialized assembly factors facilitate the formation of many macromolecular complexes in vivo. The formation of Sm core structures of spliceosomal U-rich small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particles (UsnRNPs) requires assembly factors united in protein arginine methyltransferase 5 (PRMT5) and survival motor neuron (SMN) complexes. We demonstrate that perturbations of this assembly machinery trigger complex cellular responses that prevent aggregation of unassembled Sm proteins. Inactivation of the SMN complex results in the initial tailback of Sm proteins on the PRMT5 complex, followed by down-regulation of their encoding mRNAs...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637690/p53-master-of-life-death-and-the-epigenome
#6
REVIEW
Oleg Laptenko, Carol Prives
Long understood as a bona fide tumor suppressor that safeguards the integrity of the genome via regulating numerous cellular outcomes, p53 may also exert its decisive and versatile functions by controlling DNA methylation. In this issue of Genes & Development, Tovy and colleagues (pp. 959-972) report that, in naïve mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs), p53 controls DNA methylation homeostasis by regulating the expression of key counteracting components of the DNA methylation machinery. Their findings indicate that p53 may exert its "guardian of genome" duties at least in part via safeguarding the epigenome of ESCs...
May 15, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637311/whole-woman-s-health-v-hellerstedt-the-empirical-case-against-trap-laws
#7
Michele Goodwin
This commentary examines the US Supreme Court case Whole Woman's Health v Hellerstedt.1 This comment synthesizes the case, focusing primarily on its legislative and appellate history as well as the Supreme Court's analysis. The comment finds that while Whole Woman's Health represented a judicial victory for those who seek to safeguard and preserve abortion rights, it nevertheless further rooted the primacy of the Supreme Court's flawed framework in Planned Parenthood v Casey2, which rests on perpetuating the notion of abortion as a threat against women's physical and mental health...
June 13, 2017: Medical Law Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636171/pulsed-food-resources-but-not-forest-cover-determines-lifetime-reproductive-success-in-a-forest-dwelling-rodent
#8
Katrine S Hoset, Alexandre Villers, Ralf Wistbacka, Vesa Selonen
1.The relative contributions of habitat and food availability on fitness may provide evidence for key habitat features needed to safeguard population persistence. However, defining habitat quality for a species can be a complex task, especially if knowledge on the relationship between individual performance and habitat quality is lacking. 2.Here, we determined the relative importance of availability of suitable forest habitat, body mass, and food from masting tree species on female lifetime reproductive success (LRS) of Siberian flying squirrels (Pteromys volans)...
June 21, 2017: Journal of Animal Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630923/ribosome-rearrangements-at-the-onset-of-translational-bypassing
#9
Xabier Agirrezabala, Ekaterina Samatova, Mariia Klimova, Miguel Zamora, David Gil-Carton, Marina V Rodnina, Mikel Valle
Bypassing is a recoding event that leads to the translation of two distal open reading frames into a single polypeptide chain. We present the structure of a translating ribosome stalled at the bypassing take-off site of gene 60 of bacteriophage T4. The nascent peptide in the exit tunnel anchors the P-site peptidyl-tRNA(Gly) to the ribosome and locks an inactive conformation of the peptidyl transferase center (PTC). The mRNA forms a short dynamic hairpin in the decoding site. The ribosomal subunits adopt a rolling conformation in which the rotation of the small subunit around its long axis causes the opening of the A-site region...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629387/an-updated-assessment-of-microglia-depletion-current-concepts-and-future-directions
#10
REVIEW
Jinming Han, Robert A Harris, Xing-Mei Zhang
Microglia are the principal resident immune cells in the central nervous system and are believed to be versatile players in both inflammatory and physiological contexts. On the one hand, in order to safeguard the microenvironment microglia can be rapidly activated by contact with microbial products or cell debris, thereby exerting the functions of innate immunity via phagocytosis and secretion of cytokines and chemokines. Conversely, microglia can also assist in brain development, synaptic plasticity and neural repair through the production of neurotrophic factors and clearance of myelin debris...
June 19, 2017: Molecular Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28627522/dot1l-safeguards-cartilage-homeostasis-and-protects-against-osteoarthritis
#11
Silvia Monteagudo, Frederique M F Cornelis, Carolina Aznar-Lopez, Ploi Yibmantasiri, Laura-An Guns, Peter Carmeliet, Frédéric Cailotto, Rik J Lories
Osteoarthritis is the most prevalent and crippling joint disease, and lacks curative treatment, as the underlying molecular basis is unclear. Here, we show that DOT1L, an enzyme involved in histone methylation, is a master protector of cartilage health. Loss of DOT1L disrupts the molecular signature of healthy chondrocytes in vitro and causes osteoarthritis in mice. Mechanistically, the protective function of DOT1L is attributable to inhibition of Wnt signalling, a pathway that when hyper-activated can lead to joint disease...
June 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626500/mitophagy-transcriptome-mechanistic-insights-into-polyphenol-mediated-mitophagy
#12
REVIEW
Sijie Tan, Esther Wong
Mitochondria are important bioenergetic and signalling hubs critical for myriad cellular functions and homeostasis. Dysfunction in mitochondria is a central theme in aging and diseases. Mitophagy, a process whereby damaged mitochondria are selectively removed by autophagy, plays a key homeostatic role in mitochondrial quality control. Upregulation of mitophagy has shown to mitigate superfluous mitochondrial accumulation and toxicity to safeguard mitochondrial fitness. Hence, mitophagy is a viable target to promote longevity and prevent age-related pathologies...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626281/measurement-of-uranium-236-in-particles-by-secondary-ion-mass-spectrometry
#13
David S Simons, John D Fassett
The determination of the relative isotopic abundance by secondary ion mass spectrometry of (236)U in uranium-containing material is complicated by the presence of (235)U(1)H(+) ions at the same nominal mass as the uranium isotopic peak. The net intensity of the (236)U signal is usually determined by a peak-stripping procedure, whereby the (235)U(1)H(+) contribution is obtained by applying the (238)U(1)H(+)/(238)U(+) ratio to the (235)U(+) signal. The subtraction of one signal from another has consequences for the uncertainty of the final (236)U abundance determination that may be especially significant when the amount of sample is limited, as is the case with small uranium particles that are of great interest for nuclear safeguards...
February 2017: Journal of Analytical Atomic Spectrometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624976/are-concerns-about-irremediableness-vulnerability-or-competence-sufficient-to-justify-excluding-all-psychiatric-patients-from-medical-aid-in-dying
#14
William Rooney, Udo Schuklenk, Suzanne van de Vathorst
Some jurisdictions that have decriminalized assisted dying (like Canada) exclude psychiatric patients on the grounds that their condition cannot be determined to be irremediable, that they are vulnerable and in need of protection, or that they cannot be determined to be competent. We review each of these claims and find that none have been sufficiently well-supported to justify the differential treatment psychiatric patients experience with respect to assisted dying. We find bans on psychiatric patients' access to this service amount to arbitrary discrimination...
June 17, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28619416/mass-gatherings-and-public-health-case-studies-from-the-hajj-to-mecca
#15
Juma Rahman, Min Thu, Neelam Arshad, Marc Van der Putten
BACKGROUND: Many new and challenging risks can be introduced during mass gatherings. The Hajj, as one of the largest mass gatherings, provides an excellent annual opportunity to reflect on the public health risk posed by international and multicultural crowds and the value of mitigation strategies. OBJECTIVES: To identify the gap between preparation and training taken before being exposed to the mass gathering and postexposure experiences, and the breach between the expectations and reality of the holy place...
March 2017: Annals of Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28614629/land-use-strategies-to-balance-livestock-production-biodiversity-conservation-and-carbon-storage-in-yucat%C3%A3-n-mexico
#16
David R Williams, Fredy Alvarado, Rhys E Green, Andrea Manica, Ben Phalan, Andrew Balmford
Balancing the production of food, particularly meat, with preserving biodiversity and maintaining ecosystem services is a major societal challenge. Research into the contrasting strategies of land sparing and land sharing has suggested that land sparing - combining high-yield agriculture with protection or restoration of natural habitats on non-farmed land - will have lower environmental impacts than other strategies. Ecosystems with long histories of habitat disturbance, however, could be resilient to low-yield agriculture and thus fare better under land sharing...
June 14, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613066/balance-billing-by-health-care-providers-assessing-consumer-protections-across-states
#17
Kevin Lucia, Jack Hoadley, Ashley Williams
ISSUE: Privately insured consumers expect that if they pay premiums and use in-network providers, their insurer will cover the cost of medically necessary care beyond their cost-sharing. However, when obtaining care at emergency departments and in-network hospitals, patients treated by an out-of-network provider may receive an unexpected "balance bill" for an amount beyond what the insurer paid. With no explicit federal protections against balance billing, some states have stepped in to protect consumers from this costly and confusing practice...
June 2017: Issue Brief of the Commonwealth Fund
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611700/brain-knowledge-and-the-prevalence-of-neuromyths-among-prospective-teachers-in-greece
#18
Marietta Papadatou-Pastou, Eleni Haliou, Filippos Vlachos
Although very often teachers show a great interest in introducing findings from the field of neuroscience in their classrooms, there is growing concern about the lack of academic instruction on neuroscience on teachers' curricula because this has led to a proliferation of neuromyths. We surveyed 479 undergraduate (mean age = 19.60 years, SD = 2.29) and 94 postgraduate students (mean age = 28.52 years, SD = 7.16) enrolled in Departments of Education at the University of Thessaly and the National and Kapodistrian University of Athens...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610647/health-crises-due-to-infectious-and-communicable-diseases-european-preparedness-and-response-tools-in-an-international-context
#19
Patrick Mahy, Jean-Marc Collard, Jean-Luc Gala, Philippe Herman, Dirk De Groof, Sophie Quoilin, Myriam Sneyers
The combination of changes in eating habits, ways of living, globalisation, extensive travelling and the migration of millions of people around the world may be contributing to increased health risks. Certainly, health crises today are proving highly complex. More and more people are travelling and may carry with them unexpected virus vectors such as mosquitoes. Preparedness is challenging and there is a need for action plans to safeguard the growing at-risk population. Health crises can potentially affect a large proportion of the population and may lead to a significant increase in mortality or to an abnormally high death rate...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Business Continuity & Emergency Planning
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28609276/social-oocyte-cryopreservation-a-portrayal-of-brazilian-women
#20
Elisangela V Espirito Santo, Felipe Dieamant, Claudia G Petersen, Ana L Mauri, Laura D Vagnini, Adriana Renzi, Camila Zamara, João Batista A Oliveira, Ricardo L R Baruffi, José G Franco
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine what Brazilian childless women of reproductive age think about oocyte cryopreservation to postpone pregnancy and their reasons for performing or not performing this procedure. METHODS: Women of reproductive age were randomly selected from the general population using different e-mail lists and were invited to participate in the study by completing an online web survey regarding social oocyte cryopreservation. The survey was also distributed through social media to women of reproductive age...
June 1, 2017: JBRA Assisted Reproduction
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