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Kaj Sand-Jensen, Hans Henrik Bruun, Tora Finderup Nielsen, Ditte M Christiansen, Per Hartvig, Jens C Schou, Lars Baastrup-Spohr
European freshwater habitats have experienced a severe loss of plant diversity, regionally and locally, over the last century or more. One important and well-established driver of change is eutrophication, which has increased with rising population density and agricultural intensification. However, reduced disturbance of lake margins may have played an additional key role. The geographical variation in water chemistry, which has set the scene for - and interacted with - anthropogenic impact, is much less well understood...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Lakshman Arcot Jayagopal, Kaeli K Samson, Olga Taraschenko
BACKGROUND: Driving restrictions in epilepsy are intended to safeguard public and personal safety; however, these limitations inhibit socialization, restrict employment, and reduce self-esteem in patients with seizures. A large proportion of patients with seizures continue to drive, and factors leading to noncompliance with driving regulations are poorly understood. Thus, the patients' perspective on driving safety is not incorporated into the existing counseling tools on driving safety in epilepsy...
February 12, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Zsolt Varga, Adrian Nicholl, Jozsef Zsigrai, Maria Wallenius, Klaus Mayer
The present work describes a method for the preparation and validation of plutonium age dating reference materials. The test samples prepared in this context could be used to validate experimental protocols for determining the production date of plutonium via the 234 U/ 238 Pu, 235 U/ 239 Pu, 236 U/ 240 Pu and 241 Am/ 241 Pu chronometers. The starting material was prepared using reactor-grade plutonium, which was purified using a dedicated method to guarantee high Pu recovery, while maximizing U and Am separation efficiencies...
February 15, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Briana L Snyder
Women with dissociative identity disorder (DID) are significantly more likely than other women to experience intimate partner violence (IPV). The purpose of this qualitative investigation was to explicate the experiences of women with DID who experience IPV and describe how they cope. Grounded theory was used to conduct this investigation. Purposive sampling was used to recruit participants (N = 5) for face-to-face, semi-structured interviews. Verbatim transcripts were coded and categorized, and reflective memos were developed to explicate substantive categories...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services
F Signore, S Napoletano, V Bruti, N M di Luca
The article's main focus is documenting what the best options are in order to make sure that minors are allowed to play a key role in the management of issues arising from the use of emergency contraception. In that regard, there is a lack of clean-cut legislative measures and, although there are several legal and ethical norms designed to get parents or legal guardians involved in such decisions, there seems to be an increasingly widespread tendency to give weight to the minor's will, thus acknowledging her decision-making capacity...
January 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
L Waters, M Cameron, M P Padula, D C Marks, L Johnson
Conventional storage of platelet concentrates limits their shelf life to between 5 and 7 days due to the risk of bacterial proliferation and the development of the platelet storage lesion. Cold storage and cryopreservation of platelets may facilitate extension of the shelf life to weeks and years, and may also provide the benefit of being more haemostatically effective than conventionally stored platelets. Further, treatment of platelet concentrates with pathogen inactivation systems reduces bacterial contamination and provides a safeguard against the risk of emerging and re-emerging pathogens...
February 14, 2018: Vox Sanguinis
Angelique F Ralph, Phyllis Butow, Jonathan C Craig, Jeremy R Chapman, John S Gill, John Kanellis, Allison Tong
AIM: Careful assessment of the potential donor-recipient relationship is recommended by guidelines to prevent undue coercion, and ensure realistic expectations and genuine motivations. However, relationships are complex, nuanced and value-laden, and can be challenging to evaluate in living kidney donation. We aimed to describe the attitudes and approaches of transplant clinicians towards assessing the relationship between potential living kidney donors and their recipients. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 54 transplant clinicians (nephrologists, surgeons, coordinators, social workers, psychiatrists and psychologists) from 32 transplant centres across nine countries including Australia, United States, Canada and New Zealand...
February 13, 2018: Nephrology
Miklós Bálint, Orsolya Márton, Marlene Schatz, Rolf-Alexander Düring, Hans-Peter Grossart
Properly designed (randomized and/or balanced) experiments are standard in ecological research. Molecular methods are increasingly used in ecology, but studies generally do not report the detailed design of sample processing in the laboratory. This may strongly influence the interpretability of results if the laboratory procedures do not account for the confounding effects of unexpected laboratory events. We demonstrate this with a simple experiment where unexpected differences in laboratory processing of samples would have biased results if randomization in DNA extraction and PCR steps do not provide safeguards...
February 2018: Ecology and Evolution
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Yi-Jung Tung, Kenneth K H Lo, Roger C M Ho, Wai San Wilson Tam
OBJECTIVES: To examine the global prevalence of depression among nursing students and the variation in depression rates influenced by demographic and educational factors. BACKGROUND: Depression affects approximately 350 million people worldwide and is the world's leading cause of disability. Nursing students struggle to cope with not only stressors common in higher education institutions but also anxiety towards clinical placements. Evidence has suggested high prevalence of depression among them, but no reviews have been conducted to report a consolidated prevalence...
February 9, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Richard Wayne Leggett, Robert Meck
A method is described for deriving two levels of action, an investigation level (IL) and an immediate action level (IAL), for different forms and mixtures of the natural uranium (U) isotopes 234U, 235U, and 238U in air in the workplace. An IL indicates the need to confirm the validity of moderately elevated measurements of airborne U and adequacy of confinement controls and determine whether work limitations are appropriate. An IAL indicates that safeguards should be put into place immediately, including removal of workers from further exposure until conditions are acceptable...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Radiological Protection: Official Journal of the Society for Radiological Protection
Wilton Mbinda, Omwoyo Ombori, Christina Dixelius, Richard Oduor
Sweetpotato is a significant crop which is widely cultivated particularly in the developing countries with high and stable yield. However, drought stress is a major limiting factor that antagonistically influences the crop's productivity. Dehydration stress caused by drought causes aggregation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants, and aldose reductases are first-line safeguards against ROS caused by oxidative stress. In the present study, we generated transgenic sweetpotato plants expressing aldose reductase, XvAld1 isolated from Xerophyta viscosa under the control of a stress-inducible promoter via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation...
February 9, 2018: Molecular Biotechnology
Si Wang, Boqiang Hu, Zhichao Ding, Yujiao Dang, Jun Wu, Di Li, Xiaoling Liu, Bailong Xiao, Weiqi Zhang, Ruotong Ren, Jinghui Lei, Huifang Hu, Chang Chen, Piu Chan, Dong Li, Jing Qu, Fuchou Tang, Guang-Hui Liu
Loss of organelle homeostasis is a hallmark of aging. However, it remains elusive how this occurs at gene expression level. Here, we report that human mesenchymal stem cell (hMSC) aging is associated with dysfunction of double-membrane organelles and downregulation of transcription factor ATF6. CRISPR/Cas9-mediated inactivation of ATF6 in hMSCs, not in human embryonic stem cells and human adipocytes, results in premature cellular aging, characteristic of loss of endomembrane homeostasis. Transcriptomic analyses uncover cell type-specific constitutive and stress-induced ATF6-regulated genes implicated in various layers of organelles' homeostasis regulation...
2018: Cell Discovery
Donglei Zhang, Shikui Tu, Michael Stubna, Wei-Sheng Wu, Wei-Che Huang, Zhiping Weng, Heng-Chi Lee
Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) silence transposons to safeguard genome integrity in animals. However, the functions of the many piRNAs that do not map to transposons remain unknown. Here, we show that piRNA targeting in Caenorhabditis elegans can tolerate a few mismatches but prefer perfect pairing at the seed region. The broad targeting capacity of piRNAs underlies the germline silencing of transgenes in C. elegans Transgenes engineered to avoid piRNA recognition are stably expressed. Many endogenous germline-expressed genes also contain predicted piRNA targeting sites, and periodic An/Tn clusters (PATCs) are an intrinsic signal that provides resistance to piRNA silencing...
February 2, 2018: Science
Maria Antonietta Blasi, Monica Maria Pagliara, Angela Lanza, Maria Grazia Sammarco, Carmela Grazia Caputo, Gabriela Grimaldi, Andrea Scupola
Although introduced for the treatment of maculopathies, photodynamic therapy (PDT) is now largely used in some eye cancers treatment. The selective tissue damage with PDT is achieved by sequestration of the photosensitizer in the target tissue and focal activation of the photosensitizer by low energy directed light. In this way, it is possible to achieve the destruction of the tumor tissue by safeguarding the surrounding healthy structures. Our study describes the clinical uses and efficacy of photodynamic therapy in ocular oncology...
February 7, 2018: Biomedicines
Mónica E Riojas-López, Eric Mellink, Jaime Luévano
Many studies have addressed the potential of low-input agroecosystems for biological conservation. However, most have been carried out on annual agroecosystems in temperate, developed countries. As agricultural surface will increase and natural protected areas alone will not warrant the conservation of biodiversity, it is crucial to include different types of agroecosystems in research and conservation efforts. In Mexico, perennial, low-input, fruit-oriented nopal orchards (Opuntia spp.), one of the few crops suitable for semiarid areas, are the 10th out of 61 most important fruit crops grown in the country...
February 7, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Chia-Fen Chi, Syuan-Zih Lin
The current study analyzed 312 caught-in-between fatalities caused by machinery and vehicles. A comprehensive and mutually exclusive coding scheme was developed to analyze and code each caught-in-between fatality in terms of age, gender, experience of the victim, type of industry, source of injury, and causes for these accidents. Boolean algebra analysis was applied on these 312 caught-in-between fatalities to derive minimal cut set (MCS) causes associated with each source of injury. Eventually, contributing factors and common accident patterns associated with (1) special process machinery including textile, printing, packaging machinery, (2) metal, woodworking, and special material machinery, (3) conveyor, (4) vehicle, (5) crane, (6) construction machinery, and (7) elevator can be divided into three major groups through Boolean algebra and MCS analysis...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
Jane-Francis Tatah Kihla Akoachere, Bertrand Fossi Tatsinkou, Joseph Mbapngong Nkengfack
OBJECTIVE: Increase in awareness of the health benefits of vegetables has resulted in an increase in consumption. Many vegetables are consumed raw to retain the natural taste and heat labile nutrients. The safety of raw vegetables is a great concern. We investigated the bacteriological and parasitological quality of salad vegetables sold in three major markets in Fako Division Cameroon, the hygiene and preservation practices of vendors and determined the antimicrobial sensitivity of bacterial isolates, to provide data that could be used to improve food safety and safeguard public health...
February 6, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Simon Haas, Andreas Trumpp
Specific protection mechanisms are required to safeguard stem cell integrity. In a recent issue of Cell, Wu et al. (2018) show that stem cells are equipped with high intrinsic expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) but remain refractory to acute interferon signaling. This protects stem cells from viral infection.
February 5, 2018: Developmental Cell
Jia Li, Xinwei Wu, Yubin Zhou, Minjung Lee, Lei Guo, Wei Han, William Mo, Wen-Ming Cao, Deqiang Sun, Ruiyu Xie, Yun Huang
Dynamic changes in DNA methylation and demethylation reprogram transcriptional outputs to instruct lineage specification during development. Here, we applied an integrative epigenomic approach to unveil DNA (hydroxy)methylation dynamics representing major endodermal lineage intermediates during pancreatic differentiation of human embryonic stem cells (hESCs). We found that 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) marks genomic regions to be demethylated in the descendent lineage, thus reshaping the DNA methylation landscapes during pancreatic lineage progression...
January 31, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
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