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Sport nutrition, metabolic

L Maïmoun, F Paris, O Coste, C Sultan
Participation in recreational physical activity is widely acknowledged to provide significant health benefits. Conversely, intense training imposes several constraints, such as intermittent or chronic metabolic and psychogenic training stressors and maintenance of very low body fat to maximize performance. Adolescent and adult athletic women are therefore at risk of overtraining and/or poor dietary intake, which may have several consequences for endocrine function particularly on hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis...
October 14, 2016: Gynécologie, Obstétrique & Fertilité
Christopher C Waller, Malcolm D McLeod
In recent years the potential for anabolic steroid abuse in equine sports has increased due to the growing availability of "designer steroids". These compounds are readily accessible online in "dietary" or "nutritional" supplements and contain steroidal compounds which have never been tested or approved as veterinary agents. They typically have unusual structures or substitution and as a result may pass undetected through current anti-doping screening protocols, making them a significant concern for the integrity of the industry...
October 12, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
E Mertens, P Clarys, P Mullie, J Lefevre, R Charlier, S Knaeps, I Huybrechts, B Deforche
BACKGROUND: Regular physical activity (PA), a high level of fitness and a high diet quality are positively associated with health. However, information about stability of fitness components and diet quality indices is limited. This study aimed to evaluate stability of those parameters. METHODS: This study includes 652 adults (men=57.56 (10.28) years; women=55.90 (8.34) years at follow-up) who participated in 2002-2004 and returned for follow-up at the Policy Research Centre Leuven in 2012-2014...
September 14, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Markus Strauß, Peter Foshag, Bianca Przybylek, Marc Horlitz, Alejandro Lucia, Fabian Sanchis-Gomar, Roman Leischik
BACKGROUND: The treatment and prevention of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) is currently one of the major challenges in medicine. The impact of working conditions on metabolic risk has not been adequately studied. Our objective was to compare the prevalence of MetS and metabolic risk in two extremely different occupational groups: firefighters and office workers. METHODS: A total of 143 male subjects (97 firefighters and 46 office workers) from Germany participated in the study...
2016: Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
Susan Boegman, Christine E Dziedzic
Competitive rowing events are raced over 2,000 m requiring athletes to have highly developed aerobic and anaerobic systems. Elite rowers therefore undertake training sessions focused on lactate tolerance, strength and power as well as aerobic and anaerobic capacity development, that can amount to a 24-h training week. The training stimuli and consequent metabolic demands of each session in a rowing training program differ depending on type, length, and intensity. Nutrition guidelines for endurance- and power-based sports should be drawn upon; however, individualized and flexible nutrition plans are critical to successfully meet the daily, weekly, and cyclic nutrient requirements of a rower...
July 2016: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Marta Stachowicz, Anna Lebiedzińska
Sports training causes an increased load on the musculoskeletal, hormonal and immune system, which makes maintaining homeostasis in the organism more difficult. Maintaining metabolic balance in the athlete's body is important due to the necessity to obtain high physical fitness. One factor that facilitates optimization of health and increased endurance is a balanced diet. Proper nutrition enables provision of energy-giving and body-building substances as well as bioelements and vitamins, which influence metabolic processes and play regulatory functions...
2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Laura L Frank, Mary S McCarthy
PURPOSE: To examine the difference in bone health and body composition via blood biomarkers, bone mineral density, anthropometrics and dietary intake following deployment to Afghanistan among soldiers randomized to receive telehealth coaching promoting nutrition and exercise. METHODS: This was a prospective, longitudinal, cluster-randomized, controlled trial with repeated measures in 234 soldiers. Measures included heel bone scan for bone mineral density, blood biomarkers for bone formation, resorption, and turnover, body composition via Futrex, resting metabolic rate via MedGem, physical activity using the Baecke Habitual Physical Activity Questionnaire, and dietary intake obtained from the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire...
May 2016: Military Medicine
James Cameron Morehen, Warren Jeremy Bradley, Jon Clarke, Craig Twist, Catherine Hambly, John Roger Speakman, James Peter Morton, Graeme Leonard Close
Rugby League is a high-intensity collision sport competed over 80-minutes. Training loads are monitored to maximise recovery and assist in the design of nutritional strategies although no data are available on the Total Energy Expenditure (TEE) of players. We therefore assessed Resting Metabolic Rate (RMR) and TEE in six Super-League players over two consecutive weeks in-season including one-game per week. Fasted RMR was assessed followed by a baseline urine sample before oral administration of a bolus dose of hydrogen (deuterium 2H) and oxygen (18O) stable isotopes in the form of water (2H218O)...
April 20, 2016: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Alireza Naderi, Conrad P Earnest, Ryan P Lowery, Jacob M Wilson, Mark E T Willems
Many sports involve repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise. High-intensity exercise is compromised, however, by the early onset of exercise-induced fatigue. Metabolic by-products, ion dysbalance and amount of phosphocreatine are considered the main peripheral causes of fatigue during high-intensity exercise. Intake of nutritional ergogenic aids is commonplace to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise by offsetting the potential mechanisms of fatigue. Creatine, probably one of the best known nutritional aids to enhance performance of high-intensity exercise, has convincingly substantiated its ergogenic potential...
October 2016: Sports Medicine
Johannes H G M van Beek, Thomas B L Kirkwood, James B Bassingthwaighte
Ageing and lifespan are strongly affected by metabolism. The maximal possible uptake of oxygen is not only a good predictor of performance in endurance sports, but also of life expectancy. Figuratively speaking, healthy ageing is a competitive sport. Although the root cause of ageing is damage to macromolecules, it is the balance with repair processes that is decisive. Reduced or intermittent nutrition, hormones and intracellular signalling pathways that regulate metabolism have strong effects on ageing. Homeostatic regulatory processes tend to keep the environment of the cells within relatively narrow bounds...
April 6, 2016: Interface Focus
Simão Serrano, Pedro Figueiredo, João Páscoa Pinheiro
Stress fractures are frequently underdiagnosed and undertreated despite being common in sports. Early diagnosis is crucial; therefore, a high index of clinical suspicion is required. Complementary examinations are essential for diagnosis and follow-up. The authors report a clinical case of a young adult triathlon athlete referring mechanical pain in the rear left foot, with 2 weeks' progression. An earlier increase in daily training intensity was recorded. Complementary examinations confirmed a calcaneal fatigue fracture...
June 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Krystyna Gawlik, Anna Zwierzchowska, Barbara Rosołek
Lipid disorders, obesity and overweight are considered one of the most important modifiable cardiovascular risk factors. Population surveys carried out in Poland have demonstrated a tendency for lipid disorders to occur in 70% and overweight and obesity in more than half of Poles. No such studies have been conducted in groups of people with vision impairment so far. Yet, regular involvement of visually impaired people in sports is likely to reduce cardiovascular risk. Therefore, the authors attempted to evaluate the lipid profile and nutritional status of male goalball players...
November 22, 2015: Journal of Human Kinetics
Franz Kainberger, Anna L Falkowski, Lena Hirtler, Georg Riegler, Thomas Schlegl, Siddharth Thaker, Janina Patsch, Richard Crevenna
The aim is to review the modalities in musculoskeletal imaging with view on the prognostic impact for the patient's and for social outcome and with view on three major fields of preventive medicine: nutrition and metabolism, sports, and patient education. The added value provided by preventive imaging is (1) to monitor bone health and body composition with a broad spectrum of biomarkers, (2) to detect and quantify variants or abnormalities of nerves, muscles, tendons, bones, and joints with a risk of overuse, rupture, or fracture, and (3) to develop radiology reports from the widely used narrative format to structured text and multimedia datasets...
February 2016: Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift
Christian Lackinger, Albert Strehn, Thomas Ernst Dorner, Josef Niebauer, Sylvia Titze
BACKGROUND: More than 10 % (approximately 60,000) of the adult population in Styria, a federal state in the south of Austria, is granted a residential stay in a health resort each year. The target group for these stays is the general population aged between 30 and 65 years with minor symptoms such as risk factors for cardio-metabolic diseases. Stays are financed by health insurance companies and last up to three weeks. The treatment during the stays consists of exercise and nutritional intervention as well as psychological support when needed...
2015: BMC Public Health
Clyde Williams, Ian Rollo
The common pattern of play in 'team sports' is 'stop and go', i.e. where players perform repeated bouts of brief high-intensity exercise punctuated by lower intensity activity. Sprints are generally 2-4 s long and recovery between sprints is of variable length. Energy production during brief sprints is derived from the degradation of intra-muscular phosphocreatine and glycogen (anaerobic metabolism). Prolonged periods of multiple sprints drain muscle glycogen stores, leading to a decrease in power output and a reduction in general work rate during training and competition...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
Louise M Burke
During the period 1985-2005, studies examined the proposal that adaptation to a low-carbohydrate (<25 % energy), high-fat (>60 % energy) diet (LCHF) to increase muscle fat utilization during exercise could enhance performance in trained individuals by reducing reliance on muscle glycogen. As little as 5 days of training with LCHF retools the muscle to enhance fat-burning capacity with robust changes that persist despite acute strategies to restore carbohydrate availability (e.g., glycogen supercompensation, carbohydrate intake during exercise)...
November 2015: Sports Medicine
Kathryn L Beck, Jasmine S Thomson, Richard J Swift, Pamela R von Hurst
A number of factors contribute to success in sport, and diet is a key component. An athlete's dietary requirements depend on several aspects, including the sport, the athlete's goals, the environment, and practical issues. The importance of individualized dietary advice has been increasingly recognized, including day-to-day dietary advice and specific advice before, during, and after training and/or competition. Athletes use a range of dietary strategies to improve performance, with maximizing glycogen stores a key strategy for many...
2015: Open Access Journal of Sports Medicine
Alessandro Pingitore, Giuseppina Pace Pereira Lima, Francesca Mastorci, Alfredo Quinones, Giorgio Iervasi, Cristina Vassalle
Free radicals are produced during aerobic cellular metabolism and have key roles as regulatory mediators in signaling processes. Oxidative stress reflects an imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species and an adequate antioxidant defense. This adverse condition may lead to cellular and tissue damage of components, and is involved in different physiopathological states, including aging, exercise, inflammatory, cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. In particular, the relationship between exercise and oxidative stress is extremely complex, depending on the mode, intensity, and duration of exercise...
July 2015: Nutrition
Emily J Walker, Andrew J McAinch, Alice Sweeting, Robert J Aughey
OBJECTIVES: To quantify the energy expenditure of Australian Football training and matches and the total daily energy expenditure of Australian Football players using tri-axial accelerometers. DESIGN: Cross sectional observation study. METHODS: An algorithm was developed for the MiniMax 4.0 (Catapult Innovations, Scoresby Australia) using measured oxygen uptake and accelerometer data to estimate energy expenditure of 18 Australian Football players during training and matches...
February 2016: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Carolina Guerra-Segovia, Jorge Ocampo-Candiani
Obesity is a public health problem worldwide. It predominates in industrialized countries; however, it is prevalent in all nations. It is defined as a condition of excess adipose tissue and is the result of changes in lifestyle, excessive consumption of energy-dense foods with poor nutritional value, physical inactivity and the reduction of open space where one can practice a sport. Although obesity is associated with multiple diseases, it is important to stress that the metabolic changes caused by it affect skin physiology and play a predisposing factor for the development of skin diseases...
March 2015: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
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