Read by QxMD icon Read


Anand Rughani, Jason M Schwalb, Christos Sidiropoulos, Julie Pilitsis, Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Jennifer A Sweet, Sandeep Mittal, Alberto J Espay, Jorge Gonzalez Martinez, Aviva Abosch, Emad Eskandar, Robert Gross, Ron Alterman, Clement Hamani
QUESTION 1: Is bilateral subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation (STN DBS) more, less, or as effective as bilateral globus pallidus internus deep brain stimulation (GPi DBS) in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease, as measured by improvements in Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale, part III (UPDRS-III) scores? RECOMMENDATION: Given that bilateral STN DBS is at least as effective as bilateral GPi DBS in treating motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (as measured by improvements in UPDRS-III scores), consideration can be given to the selection of either target in patients undergoing surgery to treat motor symptoms...
March 12, 2018: Neurosurgery
Jérôme Linden, Alexander S James, Colin McDaniel, J David Jentsch
Neuroimaging studies in animal models and human subjects have each revealed that relatively low striatal dopamine D2-like receptor binding potential is associated with poor impulse control and with vulnerability for addiction-related behaviors. These studies cannot, however, disambiguate the roles for various pools of D2 receptors found in the striatum (e.g., those expressed on medium spiny striato-pallidal neurons vs on dopamine-releasing nerve terminals) in these behavioral outcomes. To clarify the role of the latter pool, namely, D2 autoreceptors, we studied mice carrying a conditional DRD2 gene, with or without Cre-recombinase expressed under the transcriptional control of the dopamine transporter gene locus (autoDrd2-KO, n = 19 and controls, n = 21)...
January 2018: ENeuro
D L Marinus Oterdoom, Martje E van Egmond, Luisa Cassini Ascencao, J Marc C van Dijk, Assel Saryyeva, Martijn Beudel, Joachim Runge, Tom J de Koning, Mahmoud Abdallat, Hendriekje Eggink, Marina A J Tijssen, Joachim K Krauss
Background: DYT6 dystonia can have an unpredictable clinical course and the result of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the internal part of the globus pallidus (GPi) is known to be less robust than in other forms of autosomal dominant dystonia. Patients who had previous stereotactic surgery with insufficient clinical benefit form a particular challenge with very limited other treatment options available. Case Report: A pediatric DYT6 patient unexpectedly deteriorated to status dystonicus 1 year after GPi DBS implantation with good initial clinical response...
2018: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
Jee-Young Lee, Nicholas P Lao-Kaim, Jacopo Pasquini, Günther Deuschl, Nicola Pavese, Paola Piccini
BACKGROUND: s: Over recent years there have been some conflicting reports upon the role of pallidal dopaminergic denervation in rest tremor in Parkinson's disease. OBJECTIVES: To clarify this issue we analyzed the clinical and 123I-FP-CIT SPECT data of a large cohort of early Parkinson's disease patients enrolled in the PPMI study. METHODS: Pallidal and striatal dopamine transporter uptake ratios were calculated in 382 patients (120 no-tremor, 60 tremor-dominant, and 202 indeterminate) and 150 controls...
February 24, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
S Zittel, V Tadic, C K E Moll, T Bäumer, A Fellbrich, A Gulberti, D Rasche, N Brüggemann, V Tronnier, A Münchau
INTRODUCTION: Pharmacological treatment of chorea in Huntington's disease (HD) is often limited by poor efficacy or side effects. Pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been considered in these patients but experience is so far limited. METHODS: We prospectively evaluated the effects of bilateral DBS of the Globus pallidus internus (GPi) over one year in six severely affected HD patients with treatment refractory chorea in an advanced stage of the disease. Primary endpoint of the study was improvement in chorea...
February 20, 2018: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Sonja Hinz, Gemma Navarro, Rafael Franco, Christa E Müller, Kjell Fuxe
Adenosine is a nucleoside mainly formed by degradation of ATP, located intracellularly or extracellularly, and acts as a neuromodulator. It operates as a volume transmission signal through diffusion and flow in the extracellular space to modulate the activity of both glial cells and neurons. The effects of adenosine are mediated via four adenosine receptor subtypes: A1R, A2AR, A2BR, A3R. The A2AR has a wide-spread distribution but it is especially enriched in the ventral and dorsal striatum where it is mainly located in the striato-pallidal GABA neurons at a synaptic and extrasynaptic location...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Joseph H Friedman, Stanley Fahn
BACKGROUND: Management of tardive syndromes (TS) is challenging, with only a few evidence-based therapeutic algorithms reported in the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) guideline in 2013. OBJECTIVE: To update the evidence-based recommendations and provide a practical treatment algorithm for management of TS by addressing 5 questions: 1) Is withdrawal of dopamine receptor blocking agents (DRBAs) an effective TS treatment? 2) Does switching from typical to atypical DRBAs reduce TS symptoms? 3) What is the efficacy of pharmacologic agents in treating TS? 4) Do patients with TS benefit from chemodenervation with botulinum toxin? 5) Do patients with TS benefit from surgical therapy? METHODS: Systematic reviews were conducted by searching PsycINFO, Ovid MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Cochrane for articles published between 2012 and 2017 to identify new evidence published after the 2013 AAN guidelines...
February 5, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Jessica Tooley, Lauren Marconi, Jason Bondoc Alipio, Bridget Matikainen-Ankney, Polymnia Georgiou, Alexxai V Kravitz, Meaghan C Creed
BACKGROUND: The ability to appropriately integrate and respond to rewarding and aversive stimuli is essential for survival. The ventral pallidum (VP) plays a critical role in processing both rewarding and aversive stimuli. However, the VP is a heterogeneous structure, and how VP subpopulations integrate into larger reward networks to ultimately modulate these behaviors is not known. We identify a noncanonical population of glutamatergic VP neurons that play a unique role in responding to aversive stimuli and constraining inappropriate reward seeking...
January 12, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Joni Ricks-Oddie, Yvette Bordelon, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) are equally efficacious in the management of Parkinson disease (PD). Studies of STN-DBS have revealed a therapeutic reduction in excessive cortical β-γ phase-amplitude coupling (PAC). It is unclear whether this is specific to STN-DBS and potentially mediated by modulation of the hyperdirect pathway or if it is a generalizable mechanism seen with DBS of other targets. Moreover, it remains unclear how cortical signals are differentially modulated by movement versus therapy...
January 31, 2018: Brain Stimulation
L Marti-Sanchez, J D Ortigoza-Escobar, A Darling, M Villaronga, H Baide, M Molero-Luis, M Batllori, M I Vanegas, J Muchart, L Aquino, R Artuch, A Macaya, M A Kurian, Pérez Dueñas
BACKGROUND: The SLC39A14, SLC30A10 and SLC39A8 are considered to be key genes involved in manganese (Mn) homeostasis in humans. Mn levels in plasma and urine are useful tools for early recognition of these disorders. We aimed to explore further biomarkers of Mn deposition in the central nervous system in two siblings presenting with acute dystonia and hypermanganesemia due to mutations in SLC39A14. These biomarkers may help clinicians to establish faster and accurate diagnosis and to monitor disease progression after chelation therapy is administered...
January 30, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Zhen Ni, Sang Jin Kim, Nicolas Phielipp, Soumya Ghosh, Kaviraja Udupa, Carolyn A Gunraj, Utpal Saha, Mojgan Hodaie, Suneil K Kalia, Andres M Lozano, Darrin J Lee, Elena Moro, Alfonso Fasano, Mark Hallett, Anthony E Lang, Robert Chen
OBJECTIVE: Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) relieves symptoms in dystonia patients. However, the physiological effects produced by GPi DBS are not fully understood. In particular, how a single-pulse GPi DBS changes cortical circuits has never been investigated. We studied the modulation of motor cortical excitability and plasticity with single-pulse GPi DBS in dystonia patients with bilateral implantation of GPi DBS. METHODS: The cortical evoked potentials from DBS were recorded with electroencephalography...
January 25, 2018: Annals of Neurology
Shiro Horisawa, Taku Ochiai, Shinichi Goto, Takeshi Nakajima, Nobuhiko Takeda, Takakazu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
OBJECTIVE Meige syndrome is characterized by blepharospasm and varied subphenotypes of craniocervical dystonia. Current literature on pallidal surgery for Meige syndrome is limited to case reports and a few small-scale studies. The authors investigated the clinical outcomes of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in patients with Meige syndrome. METHODS Sixteen patients who underwent GPi DBS at the Tokyo Women's Medical University Hospital between 2002 and 2015 were included in this study...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Takaomi Taira, Shiro Horisawa, Nobuhiko Takeda, Prajakta Ghate
During the past 2 decades, deep brain stimulation (DBS) took over the position of radiofrequency (RF) lesioning of thalamic or pallidal targets for control of movement disorders. Superiority of DBS over RF lesioning is widely accepted, and most neurosurgeons even regard RF lesioning to be old-fashioned and dangerous. Such concepts emerged from the data of old stereotactic operations with ventriculography and without computerized planning. Hardware-related complications are not negligible in long-term DBS therapy, and DBS only controls the symptoms...
2018: Progress in Neurological Surgery
Kyoko Aoyagi, Yoshinori Higuchi, Yoji Okahara, Maidinamu Yakufujiang, Takuma Matsuda, Yoshitaka Yamanaka, Tatsuya Yamamoto, Shigeki Hirano, Yasuo Iwadate
A 41-year-old man was diagnosed with chronic pulmonary thromboembolism and underwent pulmonary thromboendarterectomy (PTE) with deep hypothermia and circulatory arrest. Five days after the operation, chorea emerged in the lower extremities. The patient was referred to our hospital for disabling chorea 16 years after PTE. Neurological examination revealed choreatic movements in the four extremities. Brain magnetic resonance images indicated atrophy in the bilateral head of the caudate nuclei. The patient underwent deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the bilateral globus pallidus interna (GPi)...
December 16, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
Michał Sobstyl, Grażyna Brzuszkiewicz-Kuźmicka, Artur Zaczyński, Tomasz Pasterski, Marta Aleksandrowicz, Mirosław Ząbek
BACKGROUND: The aim of the present study was to report the short-term as well long-term results of bilateral pallidal stimulation in 6 consecutive patients for severe debilitating craniocervical dystonia (Meige syndrome) using Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS). METHODS: We evaluated 6 consecutive patients with the diagnosis of intractable long-standing craniocervical dystonia. The formal objective assessment included the motor and disability BFMDRS scores...
December 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Luka Milosevic, Suneil K Kalia, Mojgan Hodaie, Andres M Lozano, Alfonso Fasano, Milos R Popovic, William D Hutchison
Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus is an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease symptoms. The therapeutic benefits of deep brain stimulation are frequency-dependent, but the underlying physiological mechanisms remain unclear. To advance deep brain stimulation therapy an understanding of fundamental mechanisms is critical. The objectives of this study were to (i) compare the frequency-dependent effects on cell firing in subthalamic nucleus and substantia nigra pars reticulata; (ii) quantify frequency-dependent effects on short-term plasticity in substantia nigra pars reticulata; and (iii) investigate effects of continuous long-train high frequency stimulation (comparable to conventional deep brain stimulation) on synaptic plasticity...
December 11, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Christopher E Vaaga, Kimberly E Miller, Ágnes L Bodor, David J Perkel
Songbirds learn to produce vocalizations early in life by listening to, then copying the songs of conspecific males. The anterior forebrain pathway, homologous to a basal ganglia-forebrain circuit, is essential for song learning. The projection between the striato-pallidal structure, Area X, and the medial portion of the dorsolateral thalamic nucleus (DLM) is strongly hyperpolarizing in adults, due to a very negative chloride reversal potential (Person & Perkel, Neuron 46:129-140, 2005). The chloride reversal potential is determined, in part, by the expression level of a neuron-specific potassium-chloride cotransporter, KCC2, which is developmentally upregulated in mammals...
April 15, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Benjamin S C Wade, Jing Sui, Gerhard Hellemann, Amber M Leaver, Randall T Espinoza, Roger P Woods, Christopher C Abbott, Shantanu H Joshi, Katherine L Narr
Relapse of depression following treatment is high. Biomarkers predictive of an individual's relapse risk could provide earlier opportunities for prevention. Since electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) elicits robust and rapidly acting antidepressant effects, but has a >50% relapse rate, ECT presents a valuable model for determining predictors of relapse-risk. Although previous studies have associated ECT-induced changes in brain morphometry with clinical response, longer-term outcomes have not been addressed. Using structural imaging data from 42 ECT-responsive patients obtained prior to and directly following an ECT treatment index series at two independent sites (UCLA: n = 17, age = 45...
December 8, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
H Tomoum, N Habeeb, I Elagouza, H Mobarez
AIM: This study assessed cardiac performance and iron in subjects aged 12-36 months with breath-holding spells (BHSs). METHODS: We consecutively recruited 40 subjects (55% male) experiencing BHSs from the general paediatric outpatients department at the Children's Hospital, Ain Shams University, Egypt, from 2015 to 2016. The 20 matched comparisons were mainly healthy siblings. The workup included iron levels and electrocardiograms. RESULTS: The age at the onset of BHSs was 5-24 months with a median monthly frequency of 13...
December 6, 2017: Acta Paediatrica
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Laura Egloff, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Stimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are frequently used as cognitive enhancers in healthy people, whereas 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) is proposed to enhance mood and empathy in healthy subjects. However, comparative data on the effects of MPH and modafinil on negative emotions in healthy subjects have been widely missing. The aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of MPH and modafinil on the neural correlates of fearful face processing using MDMA as a positive control...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"