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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430875/progressive-atrophy-of-the-globus-pallidus-primary-atrophy-of-the-pallidal-system-a-system-disease-of-the-paralysis-agitans-type-characterized-by-atrophy-of-the-motor-cells-of-the-corpus-striatum-a-contribution-to-the-function-of-the-corpus-striatum-by-j-ramsay
#1
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408878/reward-based-motor-adaptation-mediated-by-basal-ganglia
#2
Taegyo Kim, Khaldoun C Hamade, Dmitry Todorov, William H Barnett, Robert A Capps, Elizaveta M Latash, Sergey N Markin, Ilya A Rybak, Yaroslav I Molkov
It is widely accepted that the basal ganglia (BG) play a key role in action selection and reinforcement learning. However, despite considerable number of studies, the BG architecture and function are not completely understood. Action selection and reinforcement learning are facilitated by the activity of dopaminergic neurons, which encode reward prediction errors when reward outcomes are higher or lower than expected. The BG are thought to select proper motor responses by gating appropriate actions, and suppressing inappropriate ones...
2017: Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384468/genetically-distinct-parallel-pathways-in-the-entopeduncular-nucleus-for-limbic-and-sensorimotor-output-of-the-basal-ganglia
#3
Michael L Wallace, Arpiar Saunders, Kee Wui Huang, Adrienne C Philson, Melissa Goldman, Evan Z Macosko, Steven A McCarroll, Bernardo L Sabatini
The basal ganglia (BG) integrate inputs from diverse sensorimotor, limbic, and associative regions to guide action-selection and goal-directed behaviors. The entopeduncular nucleus (EP) is a major BG output nucleus and has been suggested to channel signals from distinct BG nuclei to target regions involved in diverse functions. Here we use single-cell transcriptional and molecular analyses to demonstrate that the EP contains at least three classes of projection neurons-glutamate/GABA co-releasing somatostatin neurons, glutamatergic parvalbumin neurons, and GABAergic parvalbumin neurons...
April 5, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28377699/computational-model-of-recurrent-subthalamo-pallidal-circuit-for-generation-of-parkinsonian-oscillations
#4
Osamu Shouno, Yoshihisa Tachibana, Atsushi Nambu, Kenji Doya
Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder caused by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia. Abnormally synchronized neuronal oscillations between 8 and 15 Hz in the basal ganglia are implicated in motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease. However, how these abnormal oscillations are generated and maintained in the dopamine-depleted state is unknown. Based on neural recordings in a primate model of Parkinson's disease and other experimental and computational evidence, we hypothesized that the recurrent circuit between the subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the external segment of the globus pallidus (GPe) generates and maintains parkinsonian oscillations, and that the cortical excitatory input to the STN amplifies them...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358600/pallidal-stimulation-in-an-11-year-old-boy-with-treatment-resistant-tourette-syndrome
#5
Ayse Kilincaslan, Sabri Aydin, Burcu Ece Kok, Hande Akcakaya, Zuhal Yapici
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 30, 2017: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28304188/the-effect-of-unilateral-thalamic-deep-brain-stimulation-on-the-vocal-dysfunction-in-a-patient-with-spasmodic-dysphonia-interrogating-cerebellar-and-pallidal-neural-circuits
#6
Anujan Poologaindran, Zurab Ivanishvili, Murray D Morrison, Linda A Rammage, Mini K Sandhu, Nancy E Polyhronopoulos, Christopher R Honey
Spasmodic dysphonia (SD) is a neurological disorder of the voice where a patient's ability to speak is compromised due to involuntary contractions of the intrinsic laryngeal muscles. Since the 1980s, SD has been treated with botulinum toxin A (BTX) injections into the throat. This therapy is limited by the delayed-onset of benefits, wearing-off effects, and repeated injections required every 3 months. In a patient with essential tremor (ET) and coincident SD, the authors set out to quantify the effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation (DBS) on vocal function while investigating the underlying motor thalamic circuitry...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275715/matched-behavioral-and-neural-adaptations-for-low-sound-level-echolocation-in-a-gleaning-bat-antrozous-pallidus
#7
Kevin R Measor, Brian C Leavell, Dustin H Brewton, Jeffrey Rumschlag, Jesse R Barber, Khaleel A Razak
In active sensing, animals make motor adjustments to match sensory inputs to specialized neural circuitry. Here, we describe an active sensing system for sound level processing. The pallid bat uses downward frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps as echolocation calls for general orientation and obstacle avoidance. The bat's auditory cortex contains a region selective for these FM sweeps (FM sweep-selective region, FMSR). We show that the vast majority of FMSR neurons are sensitive and strongly selective for relatively low levels (30-60 dB SPL)...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28270751/understanding-the-role-of-gpcr-heteroreceptor-complexes-in-modulating-the-brain-networks-in-health-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Dasiel O Borroto-Escuela, Jens Carlsson, Patricia Ambrogini, Manuel Narváez, Karolina Wydra, Alexander O Tarakanov, Xiang Li, Carmelo Millón, Luca Ferraro, Riccardo Cuppini, Sergio Tanganelli, Fang Liu, Malgorzata Filip, Zaida Diaz-Cabiale, Kjell Fuxe
The introduction of allosteric receptor-receptor interactions in G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) heteroreceptor complexes of the central nervous system (CNS) gave a new dimension to brain integration and neuropsychopharmacology. The molecular basis of learning and memory was proposed to be based on the reorganization of the homo- and heteroreceptor complexes in the postjunctional membrane of synapses. Long-term memory may be created by the transformation of parts of the heteroreceptor complexes into unique transcription factors which can lead to the formation of specific adapter proteins...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259781/evaluating-accuracy-of-striatal-pallidal-and-thalamic-segmentation-methods-comparing-automated-approaches-to-manual-delineation
#9
Carolina Makowski, Sophie Béland, Penelope Kostopoulos, Nikhil Bhagwat, Gabriel A Devenyi, Ashok K Malla, Ridha Joober, Martin Lepage, M Mallar Chakravarty
Accurate automated quantification of subcortical structures is a greatly pursued endeavour in neuroimaging. In an effort to establish the validity and reliability of these methods in defining the striatum, globus pallidus, and thalamus, we investigated differences in volumetry between manual delineation and automated segmentations derived by widely used FreeSurfer and FSL packages, and a more recent segmentation method, the MAGeT-Brain algorithm. In a first set of experiments, the basal ganglia and thalamus of thirty subjects (15 first episode psychosis [FEP], 15 controls) were manually defined and compared to the labels generated by the three automated methods...
March 1, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247116/considerations-in-deep-brain-stimulation-dbs-for-pediatric-secondary-dystonia
#10
Deki Tsering, Laura Tochen, Bennett Lavenstein, Srijaya K Reddy, Yael Granader, Robert F Keating, Chima O Oluigbo
PURPOSE: There is a paucity of effective long-term medication treatment for secondary dystonias. In situations where significantly impairing secondary dystonias fail to respond to typical enteral medications and intrathecal (or even intraventricular) baclofen, consideration should be given to the use of deep brain stimulation (DBS). While Level I evidence and long-term follow-up clearly demonstrate the efficacy of DBS for primary dystonia, the evidence for secondary dystonia remains mixed and unclear...
April 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242732/inhibitory-dysfunction-contributes-to-some-of-the-motor-and-non-motor-symptoms-of-movement-disorders-and-psychiatric-disorders
#11
REVIEW
Marjan Jahanshahi, John C Rothwell
Recently, it has been proposed that similar to goal-directed and habitual action mediated by the fronto-striatal circuits, the fronto-striato-subthalamic-pallidal-thalamo-cortical network may also mediate goal-directed and habitual (automatic) inhibition in both the motor and non-motor domains. Within this framework, some of the clinical manifestations of Parkinson's disease, dystonia, Tourette syndrome and obsessive-compulsive disorder can be considered to represent an imbalance between goal-directed and habitual action and inhibition...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236811/neuropsychological-performance-changes-following-subthalamic-versus-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-parkinson-s-disease-a-systematic-review-and-metaanalysis
#12
Ahmed Elgebaly, Mohamed Elfil, Attia Attia, Mayar Magdy, Ahmed Negida
BACKGROUND: Studies comparing subthalamus (STN) and globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for the management of Parkinson's disease in terms of neuropsychological performance are scarce and heterogeneous. Therefore, we performed a systematic review and metaanalysis to compare neuropsychological outcomes following STN DBS versus GPi DBS. METHODS: A computer literature search of PubMed, the Web of Science, and Cochrane Central was conducted. Records were screened for eligible studies, and data were extracted and synthesized using Review Manager (v...
February 27, 2017: CNS Spectrums
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203182/treatable-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemia
#13
Masahiro Okazaki, Makito Hirano, Tomoki Iwatsu, Masaki Yamana, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takao Satou, Susumu Kusunoki
We report the first patient with pathologically proven leukoencephalopathy associated with hypophosphatemia. A 61-year-old woman had repetitive episodes of decreased consciousness with pontine and pallidal lesions and extensive leukoencephalopathy on MRI, later found to be associated with hypophosphatemia. Although hypophosphatemia has been linked to central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic myelinolysis), lesions in the deep white matter have not been reported. Brain biopsy performed during the first diagnosis process revealed nonspecific demyelination with gliosis, a finding similar to that of chronic osmotic myelinolysis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199993/intraoperative-thresholds-for-capsular-stimulation-are-reliable-for-chronic-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#14
René Reese, Martin M Reich, Daniela Falk, Günther Deuschl, H Maximilian Mehdorn, Jens Volkmann
BACKGROUND: The threshold current for inducing muscle contractions by stimulation of pyramidal tract fibres adjacent to the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is, besides microelectrode recordings for the determination of nuclear boundaries, currently the only neurophysiological marker for intraoperative refinement of the anatomically planned target point for pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) in dystonia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between intraoperative thresholds for muscle contractions under general anaesthesia and postoperative thresholds in GPi-DBS...
February 16, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186378/efficacy-of-pallidal-stimulation-in-isolated-dystonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
E Moro, C LeReun, J K Krauss, A Albanese, J-P Lin, S Walleser Autiero, T C Brionne, M Vidailhet
The aim of this review was to provide strong clinical evidence of the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in isolated inherited or idiopathic dystonia. Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of bilateral GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia. Absolute and percentage changes from baseline in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) motor and disability scores were pooled, and associations between treatment effect and patient characteristics were explored using meta-regression...
April 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176009/dopamine-and-serotonin-modulation-of-motor-and-non-motor-functions-of-the-non-human-primate-striato-pallidal-circuits-in-normal-and-pathological-states
#16
REVIEW
Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Léon Tremblay
Thanks to the non-human primate (NHP), we have shown that the pharmacological disturbance of the anterior striatum or of external globus pallidus triggers a set of motivation and movement disorders, depending on the functional subterritory involved. One can, therefore, assume that the aberrant activity of the different subterritories of basal ganglia (BG) could lead to different behavioral disorders in neuropsychiatric disorders as Tourette's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. We are now addressing in the NHP the impact of modulating dopamine or serotonin within the BG on behavioral disorders...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165911/acute-severe-depression-induced-by-stimulation-of-the-right-globus-pallidus-internus
#17
Johanna Philipsson, Rickard L Sjöberg, Jerome Yelnik, Patric Blomstedt
Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123013/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#18
Jasper A Heinsbroek, Daniela N Neuhofer, William C Griffin, Griffin S Siegel, Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Yonatan M Kupchik, Peter W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, whereas activity in D2-MSNs inhibits, motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115486/phosphodiesterase-10a-opposite-changes-in-striato-pallidal-and-striato-entopeduncular-pathways-of-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-dyt1-dystonia
#19
V D'Angelo, V Castelli, M Giorgi, S Cardarelli, I Saverioni, F Palumbo, P Bonsi, A Pisani, C Giampà, R Sorge, S Biagioni, F R Fusco, G Sancesario
We report that changes of phosphodiesterase-10A (PDE10A) can map widespread functional imbalance of basal ganglia circuits in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia overexpressing mutant torsinA. PDE10A is a key enzyme in the catabolism of second messenger cAMP and cGMP, whose synthesis is stimulated by D1 and inhibited by D2 receptors, expressed in striato-entopeducuncular/substantia nigra or striato-pallidal pathways, respectively.PDE10A was studied in control mice (NT), and in mice carrying human wild-type torsinA (hWT) or mutant torsinA (hMT)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107446/amygdala-atrophy-and-its-functional-disconnection-with-the-cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-circuit-in-major-depressive-disorder-in-females
#20
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Connie Svob, Jun Long, Xiaofu He, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Jian Dong, Zuping Zhang, Zhishun Wang, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23)...
2017: PloS One
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