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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203182/treatable-leukoencephalopathy-in-a-patient-with-hypophosphatemia
#1
Masahiro Okazaki, Makito Hirano, Tomoki Iwatsu, Masaki Yamana, Hidekazu Suzuki, Takao Satou, Susumu Kusunoki
We report the first patient with pathologically proven leukoencephalopathy associated with hypophosphatemia. A 61-year-old woman had repetitive episodes of decreased consciousness with pontine and pallidal lesions and extensive leukoencephalopathy on MRI, later found to be associated with hypophosphatemia. Although hypophosphatemia has been linked to central pontine and extrapontine myelinolysis (osmotic myelinolysis), lesions in the deep white matter have not been reported. Brain biopsy performed during the first diagnosis process revealed nonspecific demyelination with gliosis, a finding similar to that of chronic osmotic myelinolysis...
September 2016: Case Reports in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199993/intraoperative-thresholds-for-capsular-stimulation-are-reliable-for-chronic-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#2
René Reese, Martin M Reich, Daniela Falk, Günther Deuschl, H Maximilian Mehdorn, Jens Volkmann
BACKGROUND: The threshold current for inducing muscle contractions by stimulation of pyramidal tract fibres adjacent to the globus pallidus internus (GPi) is, besides microelectrode recordings for the determination of nuclear boundaries, currently the only neurophysiological marker for intraoperative refinement of the anatomically planned target point for pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) in dystonia. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between intraoperative thresholds for muscle contractions under general anaesthesia and postoperative thresholds in GPi-DBS...
February 16, 2017: Stereotactic and Functional Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186378/efficacy-of-pallidal-stimulation-in-isolated-dystonia-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#3
REVIEW
E Moro, C LeReun, J K Krauss, A Albanese, J-P Lin, S Walleser Autiero, T C Brionne, M Vidailhet
The aim of this review was to provide strong clinical evidence of the efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) in isolated inherited or idiopathic dystonia. Eligible studies were identified after a systematic literature review of the effects of bilateral GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia. Absolute and percentage changes from baseline in the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (BFMDRS) motor and disability scores were pooled, and associations between treatment effect and patient characteristics were explored using meta-regression...
February 10, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28176009/dopamine-and-serotonin-modulation-of-motor-and-non-motor-functions-of-the-non-human-primate-striato-pallidal-circuits-in-normal-and-pathological-states
#4
REVIEW
Véronique Sgambato-Faure, Léon Tremblay
Thanks to the non-human primate (NHP), we have shown that the pharmacological disturbance of the anterior striatum or of external globus pallidus triggers a set of motivation and movement disorders, depending on the functional subterritory involved. One can, therefore, assume that the aberrant activity of the different subterritories of basal ganglia (BG) could lead to different behavioral disorders in neuropsychiatric disorders as Tourette's syndrome and Parkinson's disease. We are now addressing in the NHP the impact of modulating dopamine or serotonin within the BG on behavioral disorders...
February 7, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165911/acute-severe-depression-induced-by-stimulation-of-the-right-globus-pallidus-internus
#5
Johanna Philipsson, Rickard L Sjöberg, Jerome Yelnik, Patric Blomstedt
Depressive symptoms may occur after Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) in the subthalamic nucleus. This is often explained by reduced pharmacological treatment after surgery, and not as a direct effect of DBS. Pallidal DBS seems not to be associated with such side effects and have not, to our knowledge, previously been reported. We present a patient with acute depressive symptoms induced by pallidal DBS. We believe this case strengthen the hypothesis that the basal ganglia and structures involved in the functional connectome of these nucleuses play a role not only in regulation of movement but also in regulation of mood...
February 6, 2017: Neurocase
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28123013/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#6
Jasper A Heinsbroek, Daniela N Neuhofer, William C Griffin, Griffin S Siegel, Ana-Clara Bobadilla, Yonatan M Kupchik, Peter W Kalivas
: Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor-expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, whereas activity in D2-MSNs inhibits, motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement...
January 25, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28115486/phosphodiesterase-10a-opposite-changes-in-striato-pallidal-and-striato-entopeduncular-pathways-of-a-transgenic-mouse-model-of-dyt1-dystonia
#7
V D'Angelo, V Castelli, M Giorgi, S Cardarelli, I Saverioni, F Palumbo, P Bonsi, A Pisani, C Giampà, R Sorge, S Biagioni, F R Fusco, G Sancesario
: We report that changes of phosphodiesterase-10A (PDE10A) can map widespread functional imbalance of basal ganglia circuits in a mouse model of DYT1 dystonia overexpressing mutant torsinA. PDE10A is a key enzyme in the catabolism of second messenger cAMP and cGMP, whose synthesis is stimulated by D1 and inhibited by D2 receptors, expressed in striato-entopeducuncular/substantia nigra or striato-pallidal pathways, respectively.PDE10A was studied in control mice (NT), and in mice carrying human wild-type torsinA (hWT) or mutant torsinA (hMT)...
January 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107446/amygdala-atrophy-and-its-functional-disconnection-with-the-cortico-striatal-pallidal-thalamic-circuit-in-major-depressive-disorder-in-females
#8
Jie Yang, Yingying Yin, Connie Svob, Jun Long, Xiaofu He, Yuqun Zhang, Zhi Xu, Lei Li, Jie Liu, Jian Dong, Zuping Zhang, Zhishun Wang, Yonggui Yuan
BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is approximately twice as common in females than males. Furthermore, female patients with MDD tend to manifest comorbid anxiety. Few studies have explored the potential anatomical and functional brain changes associated with MDD in females. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the anatomical and functional changes underlying MDD in females, especially within the context of comorbid anxiety. METHODS: In this study, we recruited antidepressant-free females with MDD (N = 35) and healthy female controls (HC; N = 23)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078738/dorsal-pallidal-neurons-directly-link-the-nidopallium-and-midbrain-in-the-zebra-finch-taeniopygia-guttata
#9
J Martin Wild
The dorsal pallidum in birds is considered similar, if not homologous, to the globus pallidus (GP) of mammals. The dorsal pallidum projects to both thalamic and midbrain targets similar to the direct and indirect pathways arising from the internal and external segments of the GP. In the present study retrograde and anterograde tracing studies revealed a previously undescribed projection of the avian dorsal pallidum. This arises from a specific dorsomedial component, which terminates in the intercollicular nucleus and partly surrounds the avian equivalent of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075530/dysregulation-of-pldn-pallidin-is-a-mechanism-for-platelet-dense-granule-deficiency-in-runx1-haplodeficiency
#10
G F Mao, L E Goldfinger, D C Fan, M P Lambert, G Jalagadugula, R Freishtat, A K Rao
BACKGROUND: Inherited RUNX1 haplodeficiency is associated with thrombocytopenia and platelet dysfunction. Dense granule (DG) deficiency is reported in patients with RUNX1 haplodeficiency, but the molecular mechanisms are unknown. Platelet mRNA expression profiling in a patient previously reported by us with a RUNX1 mutation and platelet dysfunction showed decreased expression of PLDN (BLOC1S6), which encodes for pallidin, a subunit of BLOC-1 (biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1) involved in granule biogenesis...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046822/su-f-i-17-white-matter-track-based-analysis-at-limbic-abnormalities-in-cognitive-impairment
#11
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment with depression (MCID) is common and associated with disability and cognitive impairment, with high probability of relapse. Hypothesize that a sign of WM disintegration would be observed in MCID than MCI nondepression (MCIND), especially in frontal and limbic regions and patients with depression would show reduced GM density in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior gyrus cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) the abnormalities of long association fiber tracts integrity are correlated with geriatric depression...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27993470/application-and-further-characterization-of-the-snap-bean-s156-r123-ozone-biomonitoring-system-in-relation-to-ambient-air-temperature
#12
Evgenios Agathokleous, Costas J Saitanis, Kent O Burkey, Georgia Ntatsi, Vasiliki Vougeleka, Alsayed M Mashaheet, Andreas Pallides
Increased mixing ratios of ground-level ozone (O3) threaten individual plants, plant communities and ecosystems. In this sense, O3 biomonitoring is of great interest. The O3-sensitive S156 and the O3-tolerant R123 genotypes of snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) have been proposed as a potential tool for active biomonitoring of ambient O3. In the present study, an O3 biomonitoring was conducted, with the S156/R123 tool, along with a monitoring of O3 and other environmental conditions in an urban area in Athens, Greece, during the growing seasons of 2012 and 2013...
December 16, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989846/cortical-areas-involved-in-behavioral-expression-of-external-pallidum-dysfunctions-a-pet-imaging-study-in-non-human-primates
#13
Laurent Galineau, Aurélie Kas, Yulia Worbe, Marion Chaigneau, Anne-Sophie Herard, Martine Guillermier, Thierry Delzescaux, Jean Féger, Philippe Hantraye, Léon Tremblay
The external pallidum (GPe) is a component of the indirect pathway centrally placed in the basal ganglia. Studies already demonstrated that the pharmacological disinhibition of the sensorimotor, associative, and limbic GPe produced dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, respectively. The aim of this study was to investigate the cortical regions altered by the disinhibition of each GPe functional territory. Thus, 5 macaques were injected with bicuculline in sensorimotor, associative, and limbic sites of the GPe producing dyskinesia, hyperactivity, and compulsive behaviors, and underwent in vivo positron tomography with (18)F-2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose to identify cortical dysfunctions related to GPe disinhibition...
October 28, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927934/ten-year-results-of-pallidal-stimulation-for-cricopharyngeal-dystonia-with-spasmodic-dysphonia
#14
Shiro Horisawa, Taku Ochiai, Shinichi Goto, Takeshi Nakajima, Takakazu Kawamata, Takaomi Taira
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 10, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914146/pregnancy-and-delivery-in-a-generalized-dystonia-patient-treated-with-internal-globus-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report
#15
Hye Ran Park, Jae Meen Lee, Hyeyoung Park, Chae Won Shin, Han Joon Kim, Hee Pyoung Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Beom Seok Jeon, Sun Ha Paek
Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909104/loss-of-plasticity-in-the-d2-accumbens-pallidal-pathway-promotes-cocaine-seeking
#16
J A Heinsbroek, D N Neuhofer, W C Griffin, G S Siegel, A-C Bobadilla, Y M Kupchik, P W Kalivas
Distinct populations of D1- and D2-dopamine receptor expressing medium spiny neurons (D1-/D2-MSNs) comprise the nucleus accumbens, and activity in D1-MSNs promotes, while activity in D2-MSNs inhibits motivated behaviors. We used chemogenetics to extend D1-/D2-MSN cell specific regulation to cue-reinstated cocaine seeking in a mouse model of self-administration and relapse, and found that either increasing activity in D1-MSNs or decreasing activity in D2-MSNs augmented cue-induced reinstatement. Both D1- and D2-MSNs provide substantial GABAergic innervation to the ventral pallidum, and chemogenetic inhibition of ventral pallidal neurons blocked the augmented reinstatement elicited by chemogenetic regulation of either D1- or D2-MSNs...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871916/association-of-neurobehavioral-performance-with-r2-in-the-caudate-nucleus-of-asymptomatic-welders
#17
Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Michael R Flynn, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) that may affect the nervous system. Previous studies of potential welding-related neurotoxicity have focused primarily on Mn exposure. The current study examined neurobehavioral and brain imaging changes in asymptomatic welders and their associations with both Mn and Fe exposure measurements. METHODS: Data were obtained from subjects with (n=46) and without (controls; n=31) a history of welding exposure...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852779/ventral-pallidum-output-pathways-in-context-induced-reinstatement-of-alcohol-seeking
#18
Asheeta A Prasad, Gavan P McNally
: Ventral pallidum (VP) is a well-established locus for the reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse and reinstatement of drug seeking. However, VP neurons are at the origin of multiple output pathways, with strong projections to ventral tegmental area (VTA), subthalamic nucleus (STN), lateral hypothalamus, among others, and the roles of these VP output pathways in reinstatement of drug seeking remain poorly understood. Here we addressed these issues using a combination of neuroanatomical tracing and chemogenetic approaches...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27820618/pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-the-treatment-of-levodopa-responsive-juvenile-dystonia-and-parkinsonism-secondary-to-spg11-mutation
#19
Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Lucy Gee, Youngwon Youn, Damian S Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27778037/direct-modulation-of-firing-activity-by-dopamine-d2-like-receptors-in-the-globus-pallidus-of-both-normal-and-parkinsonian-rats
#20
Yong-Cun Zhu, Yan Xue, Hui-Ling Diao, Hua Chen, Hong-Yun Liu, Xiao-Hua Han, Lei Chen
The globus pallidus occupies a critical position in the indirect pathway of the basal ganglia circuit, which regulates movement under both normal and pathological conditions. Previous studies have shown that the globus pallidus receives dopaminergic innervation from the axonal collaterals of nigrostriatal fibers. Both dopamine D1 and D2 like receptors are expressed in the globus pallidus. The present study was aimed to investigate the direct in vivo electrophysiological effects of dopamine D2 like receptors in the globus pallidus of both normal and parkinsonian rats...
October 25, 2016: Sheng Li Xue Bao: [Acta Physiologica Sinica]
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