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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137852/dysarthria-in-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-depends-on-the-posterior-location-of-active-electrode-contacts-a-pilot-study
#1
K A M Pauls, P J Bröckelmann, S Hammesfahr, J Becker, A Hellerbach, V Visser-Vandewalle, T A Dembek, I G Meister, L Timmermann
BACKGROUND: Pallidal Deep Brain Stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an efficient treatment for primary dystonia. We investigated stimulation-induced dysarthria, which is the most frequent side-effect of GPi-DBS. METHODS: Speech was recorded while reading a standard text, and performing rapid syllable repetitions ON and OFF DBS in ten dystonia patients (6 men; 3 cervical, 4 segmental, 3 generalized, unselected for DBS-related speech impairments). Speech and articulation rate, pauses, and syllable repetition rates were extracted via acoustic analysis...
November 7, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133709/experience-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia-at-a-tertiary-care-centre-in-india-an-initial-experience
#2
M Manjunath, Ravi Yadav, Srinivas Dwarakanath, Ketan Jhunjhunwala, A Jafar, Pratibha Surathi, Abhishek Lenka, Albert Stezin, S Sampath, Pramod K Pal
INTRODUCTION: Dystonia is one of the most prevalent forms of movement disorders and is characterized by sustained or intermittent muscle contractions causing abnormal, often repetitive, movements, postures, or both. Dystonia causes significant morbidity with an adverse impact on the quality of life. When dystonia is medically refractory, causing severe pain and impairment in activities of daily living, deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus interna (GPi) is a potential option to reduce disability...
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133690/pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-dystonia
#3
Manmohan Singh, Kanwaljit Garg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2017: Neurology India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130551/a-localized-pallidal-physiomarker-in-cervical-dystonia
#4
Wolf-Julian Neumann, Andreas Horn, Siobhan Ewert, Julius Huebl, Christof Brücke, Colleen Slentz, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVE: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) allows for direct recordings of neuronal activity from the human basal ganglia. In Parkinson's disease, a disease-specific physiomarker was identified that is now used to investigate adaptive closed-loop stimulation in first studies. In dystonia such a physiomarker is missing. METHODS: Pallidal oscillations were recorded from 153 contact pairs in 27 patients. We investigated whether power amplitudes in theta and beta bands correlate with dystonic symptom severity across patients...
November 11, 2017: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29112946/targeting-of-cadherin-11-decreases-skin-fibrosis-in-the-tight-skin-1-mouse-model
#5
Mesias Pedroza, Robert L Welschhans, Sandeep K Agarwal
OBJECTIVE: Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an autoimmune disease clinically manifesting as progressive fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Cadherin-11 (CDH11) expression is increased in fibrotic skin and lung tissue. Targeting CDH11 may be an effective approach to treating fibrosis. We hypothesize that targeting CDH11 will decrease fibrosis in the tight skin-1 (Tsk-1) mouse model. METHODS: CDH11 expression was determined in the Tsk-1 mouse model using quantitative real time PCR and immunofluorescence (IF)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29051496/evidence-for-a-task-dependent-switch-in-subthalamo-nigral-basal-ganglia-signaling
#6
Jay J Jantz, Masayuki Watanabe, Ron Levy, Douglas P Munoz
Basal ganglia (BG) can either facilitate or inhibit movement through excitatory and inhibitory pathways; however whether these opposing signals are dynamically regulated during healthy behavior is not known. Here, we present compelling neurophysiological evidence from three complimentary experiments in non-human primates, indicating task-specific changes in tonic BG pathway weightings during saccade behavior with different cognitive demands. First, simultaneous local field potential recording in the subthalamic nucleus (STN; BG input) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr; BG output) reveals task-dependent shifts in subthalamo-nigral signals...
October 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038241/sensorimotor-processing-in-the-basal-ganglia-leads-to-transient-beta-oscillations-during-behavior
#7
Amin Mirzaei, Arvind Kumar, Daniel Leventhal, Nicolas Mallet, Ad Aertsen, Joshua Berke, Robert Schmidt
Brief epochs of beta oscillations have been implicated in sensorimotor control in the basal ganglia of task-performing healthy animals. However, which neural processes underlie their generation and how they are affected by sensorimotor processing remains unclear. To determine the mechanisms underlying transient beta oscillations in the local field potential (LFP), we combined computational modeling of the subthalamo-pallidal network for the generation of beta oscillations with realistic stimulation patterns derived from single unit data...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037828/chemogenetic-modulation-of-cholinergic-interneurons-reveals-their-regulating-role-on-the-direct-and-indirect-output-pathways-from-the-striatum
#8
Patrick Aldrin-Kirk, Andreas Heuer, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Marcus Davidsson, Bengt Mattsson, Tomas Björklund
The intricate balance between dopaminergic and cholinergic neurotransmission in the striatum has been thoroughly difficult to characterize. It was initially described as a seesaw with a competing function of dopamine versus acetylcholine. Recent technical advances however, have brought this view into question suggesting that the two systems work rather in concert with the cholinergic interneurons (ChIs) driving dopamine release. In this study, we have utilized two transgenic Cre-driver rat lines, a choline acetyl transferase ChAT-Cre transgenic rat and a novel double-transgenic tyrosine hydroxylase TH-Cre/ChAT-Cre rat to further elucidate the role of striatal ChIs in normal motor function and in Parkinson's disease...
October 14, 2017: Neurobiology of Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018335/a-connectomic-analysis-of-the-human-basal-ganglia-network
#9
Alberto Cacciola, Alessandro Calamuneri, Demetrio Milardi, Enricomaria Mormina, Gaetana Chillemi, Silvia Marino, Antonino Naro, Giuseppina Rizzo, Giuseppe Anastasi, Angelo Quartarone
The current model of basal ganglia circuits has been introduced almost two decades ago and has settled the basis for our understanding of basal ganglia physiology and movement disorders. Although many questions are yet to be answered, several efforts have been recently made to shed new light on basal ganglia function. The traditional concept of "direct" and "indirect" pathways, obtained from axonal tracing studies in non-human primates and post-mortem fiber dissection in the human brain, still retains a remarkable appeal but is somehow obsolete...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982612/brain-regional-iron-contents-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy
#10
Seung Ha Lee, Chul Hyoung Lyoo, Sung Jun Ahn, Juha O Rinne, Myung Sik Lee
INTRODUCTION: To determine motor-related brain regions in which iron contents correlate with the degree of motor deficits of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with probable PSP and 20 controls were included. Using a 3.0T magnetic resonance imaging scanner, R2* values were measured in the putamen, globus pallidus (GP), substantia nigra (SN), subthalamic nucleus, and dentate nucleus. After adjustment for disease duration and age at examination, correlations between regional brain R2* values and Unified Parkinson Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) total motor scores or subscores for bradykinesia, rigidity, tremor, or axial motor deficits were investigated...
September 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975047/development-of-hyperkinesias-after-long-term-pallidal-stimulation-for-idiopathic-segmental-dystonia
#11
Andreas Wloch, Christian Blahak, Mahmoud Abdallat, Hans E Heissler, Marc E Wolf, Joachim K Krauss
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the globus pallidus internus (GPi) has become an established treatment for dystonia. While bradykinetic symptoms may occur on chronic stimulation, the appearance of hyperkinetic movements has not been well characterized. CASE REPORT: We report on the development of hyperkinesias after more than 10 years of GPi DBS. DISCUSSION: Hyperkinesias may evolve upon long-term GPi DBS in dystonia. This might be related to a combined effect consisting of a reduced threshold for effective GPi stimulation for dystonia and spread of current to the globus pallidus externus...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975046/intractable-blepharospasm-treated-with-bilateral-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation
#12
Nijee S Luthra, Kyle T Mitchell, Monica M Volz, Idit Tamir, Phillip A Starr, Jill L Ostrem
BACKGROUND: Blepharospasm can be present as an isolated dystonia or in conjunction with other forms of cranial dystonia, causing significant disability. CASE REPORT: We report a case of a 69-year-old male with craniocervical dystonia, manifesting primarily as incapacitating blepharospasm refractory to medical treatments. He underwent bilateral globus pallidus (GP) deep brain stimulation (DBS) with complete resolution of his blepharospasm and sustained benefit at 12 months postoperatively...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972591/altered-activation-and-connectivity-in-a-hippocampal-basal-ganglia-midbrain-circuit-during-salience-processing-in-subjects-at-ultra-high-risk-for-psychosis
#13
T Winton-Brown, A Schmidt, J P Roiser, O D Howes, A Egerton, P Fusar-Poli, N Bunzeck, A A Grace, E Duzel, S Kapur, P McGuire
Animal models of psychosis propose that abnormal hippocampal activity drives increased subcortical dopamine function, which is thought to contribute to aberrant salience processing and psychotic symptoms. These effects appear to be mediated through connections between the hippocampus, ventral striatum/pallidum and the midbrain. The aim of the present study was to examine the activity and connectivity in this pathway in people at ultra high risk (UHR) for psychosis. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to compare neural responses in a hippocampal-basal ganglia-midbrain network during reward, novelty and aversion processing between 29 UHR subjects and 32 healthy controls...
October 3, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972096/pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-dystonia-a-long-term-study
#14
Sara Meoni, Valérie Fraix, Anna Castrioto, Alim Louis Benabid, Eric Seigneuret, Laurent Vercueil, Pierre Pollak, Paul Krack, Eric Chevrier, Stephan Chabardes, Elena Moro
BACKGROUND: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (globus pallidus internus (GPi) DBS) is the best therapeutic option for disabling isolated idiopathic (IID) and inherited (INH) dystonia. Acquired dystonia (AD) may also benefit from GPi DBS. Efficacy and safety in the long-term remained to be established. OBJECTIVE: To retrospectively assess long-term clinical outcomes and safety in dystonic patients who underwent GPi DBS. METHODS: Patients were videotaped and assessed preoperatively and postoperatively (1-year and at last available follow-up) using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale (motor score (BFMDRS-M); disability score (BFMDRS-D))...
November 2017: Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28961350/motor-cortical-plasticity-relates-to-symptom-severity-and-clinical-benefit-from-deep-brain-stimulation-in-cervical-dystonia
#15
Daniel Kroneberg, Philip Plettig, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Andrea A Kühn
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between motor cortical plasticity, intracortical inhibition, and clinical response to pallidal deep brain stimulation (DBS) in patients with cervical dystonia (CD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Response to paired associative stimulation (PAS) and short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) were assessed in patients with CD before and after three months of DBS and correlated with severity of dystonic symptoms as assessed by Toronto-Western-Spasmodic Torticollis Rating Scale (TWSTRS) severity score...
September 29, 2017: Neuromodulation: Journal of the International Neuromodulation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28944153/sequential-development-of-non-arteritic-anterior-ischemic-optic-neuropathy-in-a-patient-on-hemodialysis
#16
Mukesh Jain, Renuka Srinivasan, K Ramesh Babu, M Swapnil Parchand
Purpose: Non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NA-AION) is typically a disorder of patients 50 years and older predisposed to the vascular and structural optic disc risk factors. We present an interesting case of sequential development of NA-AION in a 45-year-old patient with end-stage renal disease undergoing hemodialysis. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 45-year-old female on hemodialysis for chronic renal failure complained of sequential acute onset sudden painless gross diminution of vision in right eye followed by the left eye...
2017: GMS Ophthalmology Cases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942154/pallidal-low-%C3%AE-low-%C3%AE-phase-amplitude-coupling-inversely-correlates-with-parkinson-disease-symptoms
#17
Christos Tsiokos, Mahsa Malekmohammadi, Nicholas AuYong, Nader Pouratian
OBJECTIVE: Recent discoveries suggest that it is most likely the coupling of β oscillations (13-30Hz) and not merely their power that relates to Parkinson disease (PD) pathophysiology. METHODS: We analyzed power and phase amplitude coupling (PAC) in local field potentials (LFP) recorded from Pallidum after placement of deep brain stimulation (DBS) leads in nineteen PD patients and three patients with dystonia. RESULTS: Within GPi, we identified PAC between phase of β and amplitude of high frequency oscillations (200-300Hz) and distinct β-low γ (40-80Hz) PAC both modulated by contralateral movement...
November 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28925076/using-the-robust-design-framework-and-relative-abundance-to-predict-the-population-size-of-pallid-sturgeon-scaphirhynchus-albus-in-the-lower-missouri-river
#18
K D Steffensen, L A Powell, M A Pegg
Several population viability models were constructed to aid recovery in endangered Scaphirhynchus albus, but these models are dependent upon accurate and precise input parameters that are not provided with standard catch per unit effort (CPUE) indices. Nine years of sampling efforts, under the robust design framework, provided 1223 unique captures with an 18·3% recapture rate. The annual population estimates varied from 4·0-7·3 fish rkm(-1) for wild and 8·4-18·4 fish rkm(-1) for hatchery-reared S...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910619/loss-of-hyperdirect-pathway-cortico-subthalamic-inputs-following-degeneration-of-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#19
Hong-Yuan Chu, Eileen L McIver, Ryan F Kovaleski, Jeremy F Atherton, Mark D Bevan
The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) are linked to abnormally correlated and coherent activity in the cortex and subthalamic nucleus (STN). However, in parkinsonian mice we found that cortico-STN transmission strength had diminished by 50%-75% through loss of axo-dendritic and axo-spinous synapses, was incapable of long-term potentiation, and less effectively patterned STN activity. Optogenetic, chemogenetic, genetic, and pharmacological interrogation suggested that downregulation of cortico-STN transmission in PD mice was triggered by increased striato-pallidal transmission, leading to disinhibition of the STN and increased activation of STN NMDA receptors...
September 13, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898493/egg-shape-mimicry-in-parasitic-cuckoos
#20
M R G Attard, I Medina, N E Langmore, E Sherratt
Parasitic cuckoos lay their eggs in nests of host species. Rejection of cuckoo eggs by hosts has led to the evolution of egg mimicry by cuckoos, whereby their eggs mimic the colour and pattern of their host eggs to avoid egg recognition and rejection. There is also evidence of mimicry in egg size in some cuckoo-host systems, but currently it is unknown whether cuckoos can also mimic the egg shape of their hosts. In this study, we test whether there is evidence of mimicry in egg form (shape and size) in three species of Australian cuckoos: the fan-tailed cuckoo Cacomantis flabelliformis, which exploits dome nesting hosts, the brush cuckoo Cacomantis variolosus, which exploits both dome and cup nesting hosts, and the pallid cuckoo Cuculus pallidus, which exploits cup nesting hosts...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
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