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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28757258/bdnf-over-expression-induces-striatal-serotonin-fiber-sprouting-and-increases-the-susceptibility-to-l-dopa-induced-dyskinesia-in-6-ohda-lesioned-rats
#1
Elisabetta Tronci, Francesco Napolitano, Ana Muñoz, Camino Fidalgo, Francesca Rossi, Anders Björklund, Alessandro Usiello, Manolo Carta
In addition to its role in neuronal survival, the brain neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been shown to influence serotonin transmission and synaptic plasticity, events strongly implicated in the appearance of l-DOPA-induced dyskinesia (LID), a motor complication occurring in parkinsonian patients after long-term treatment with the dopamine precursor. In order to evaluate a possible influence of BDNF in the appearance of LID, 6-OHDA-lesioned rats received a striatal injection of different concentrations of an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector over-expressing either BDNF or GFP, as control vector...
July 27, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726122/beta-ketothiolase-deficiency-presenting-with-metabolic-stroke-after-a-normal-newborn-screen-in-two-individuals
#2
Monica H Wojcik, Klaas J Wierenga, Lance H Rodan, Inderneel Sahai, Sacha Ferdinandusse, Casie A Genetti, Meghan C Towne, Roy W A Peake, Philip M James, Alan H Beggs, Catherine A Brownstein, Gerard T Berry, Pankaj B Agrawal
Beta-ketothiolase (mitochondrial acetoacetyl-CoA thiolase) deficiency is a genetic disorder characterized by impaired isoleucine catabolism and ketone body utilization that predisposes to episodic ketoacidosis. It results from biallelic pathogenic variants in the ACAT1 gene, encoding mitochondrial beta-ketothiolase. We report two cases of beta-ketothiolase deficiency presenting with acute ketoacidosis and "metabolic stroke." The first patient presented at 28 months of age with metabolic acidosis and pallidal stroke in the setting of a febrile gastrointestinal illness...
July 20, 2017: JIMD Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712991/low-beta-cortico-pallidal-coherence-decreases-during-movement-and-correlates-with-overall-reaction-time
#3
Bernadette C M van Wijk, Wolf-Julian Neumann, Gerd-Helge Schneider, Tilmann H Sander, Vladimir Litvak, Andrea A Kühn
Beta band oscillations (13-30 Hz) are a hallmark of cortical and subcortical structures that are part of the motor system. In addition to local population activity, oscillations also provide a means for synchronization of activity between regions. Here we examined the role of beta band coherence between the internal globus pallidus (GPi) and (motor) cortex during a simple reaction time task performed by nine patients with idiopathic dystonia. We recorded local field potentials from deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrodes implanted in bilateral GPi in combination with simultaneous whole-head magneto-encephalography (MEG)...
July 13, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701731/bloc-1-deficiency-causes-alterations-in-amino-acid-profile-and-in-phospholipid-and-adenosine-metabolism-in-the-postnatal-mouse-hippocampus
#4
S M van Liempd, D Cabrera, F Y Lee, E González, E C Dell'Angelica, C A Ghiani, J M Falcon-Perez
Biogenesis of lysosome-related organelles complex-1 (BLOC-1) is a protein complex involved in the formation of endosomal tubular structures that mediates the sorting of protein cargoes to specialised compartments. In this study, we present insights into the metabolic consequences caused by BLOC-1 deficiency in pallid mice, which carry a null mutation in the Bloc1s6 gene encoding an essential component of this complex. The metabolome of the hippocampus of pallid mice was analysed using an untargeted, liquid chromatography-coupled mass spectrometric approach...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690015/causes-of-failure-of-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-in-cases-with-pre-operative-diagnosis-of-isolated-dystonia
#5
K Amande M Pauls, Joachim K Krauss, Constanze E Kämpfer, Andrea A Kühn, Christoph Schrader, Martin Südmeyer, Niels Allert, Rainer Benecke, Christian Blahak, Jana K Boller, Gereon R Fink, Wolfgang Fogel, Thomas Liebig, Faycal El Majdoub, Philipp Mahlknecht, Josef Kessler, Joerg Mueller, Juergen Voges, Matthias Wittstock, Alexander Wolters, Mohammad Maarouf, Elena Moro, Jens Volkmann, Kailash P Bhatia, Lars Timmermann
INTRODUCTION: Pallidal deep brain stimulation (GPi-DBS) is an effective therapy for isolated dystonia, but 10-20% of patients show improvement below 25-30%. We here investigated causes of insufficient response to GPi-DBS in isolated dystonia in a cross-sectional study. METHODS: Patients with isolated dystonia at time of surgery, and <30% improvement on the Burke-Fahn-Marsden dystonia-rating-scale (BFMDRS) after ≥6 months of continuous GPi-DBS were videotaped ON and OFF stimulation, and history, preoperative videos, brain MRI, medical records, stimulation settings, stimulation system integrity, lead location, and genetic information were obtained and reviewed by an expert panel...
June 28, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689640/distinct-ventral-pallidal-neural-populations-mediate-separate-symptoms-of-depression
#6
Daniel Knowland, Varoth Lilascharoen, Christopher Pham Pacia, Sora Shin, Eric Hou-Jen Wang, Byung Kook Lim
Major depressive disorder (MDD) patients display a common but often variable set of symptoms making successful, sustained treatment difficult to achieve. Separate depressive symptoms may be encoded by differential changes in distinct circuits in the brain, yet how discrete circuits underlie behavioral subsets of depression and how they adapt in response to stress has not been addressed. We identify two discrete circuits of parvalbumin-positive (PV) neurons in the ventral pallidum (VP) projecting to either the lateral habenula or ventral tegmental area contributing to depression...
July 13, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669294/unilateral-thalamic-and-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-idiopathic-hemidystonia-results-of-individual-and-combined-stimulations-case-report
#7
Victor Goulenko, Paulo Luiz da Costa Cruz, Paulo Niemeyer Filho
Pallidal stimulation has been the usual surgical treatment for dystonia in the last decades. The continuous investigation of the physiopathology and the motor pathways involved leads to the search for complementary targets to improve results. The authors present the case of a 37-year-old woman who had suffered from idiopathic hemidystonia with hyperkinetic and hypokinetic movements for 11 years, and who was treated with deep brain stimulation. A brief literature review is also provided. The globus pallidus internus and the ventral intermediate/ventral oral posterior complex of the thalamus were stimulated separately and simultaneously for 3 months and compared using the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale and the Global Dystonia Severity Rating Scale, with a 3...
July 2017: Neurosurgical Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659792/the-serotonin-receptor-6-antagonist-idalopirdine-and-acetylcholinesterase-inhibitor-donepezil-have-synergistic-effects-on-brain-activity-a-functional-mri-study-in-the-awake-rat
#8
Craig F Ferris, Praveen Kulkarni, Jason R Yee, Mark Nedelman, Inge E M de Jong
The 5-HT6 receptor is a promising target for cognitive disorders, in particular for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other CNS disorders. The high-affinity and selective 5-HT6 receptor antagonist idalopirdine (Lu AE58054) is currently in development for mild-moderate AD as adjunct therapy to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We studied the effects of idalopirdine alone and in combination with the AChEI donepezil on brain activity using BOLD (Blood Oxygen Level Dependent) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the awake rat...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652413/dopaminergic-modulation-of-synaptic-integration-and-firing-patterns-in-the-rat-entopeduncular-nucleus
#9
Hagar Lavian, Mara Almog, Ravit Madar, Yocheved Loewenstern, Izhar Bar-Gad, Eitan Okun, Alon Korngreen
Dopamine is known to differentially modulate the impact of cortical input to the striatum between the direct and indirect pathways of the basal ganglia (BG). However, the role of extrastriatal dopamine receptors (DRs) in BG information processing is less clear. To investigate the role of extrastriatal DRs, we studied their distribution and function in one of the output nuclei of the BG of the rodent, the entopeduncular nucleus (EP). qRT-PCR indicated that all DR subtypes were expressed by EP neurons, suggesting that both D1-like receptors (D1LRs) and D2-like receptors (D2LRs) were likely to affect information processing in the EP...
July 26, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648949/welding-related-brain-and-functional-changes-in-welders-with-chronic-and-low-level-exposure
#10
Eun-Young Lee, Michael R Flynn, Mechelle M Lewis, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
Although an essential nutrient, manganese (Mn) can be toxic at high doses. There is, however, uncertainty regarding the effects of chronic low-level Mn-exposure. This review provides an overview of Mn-related brain and functional changes based on studies of a cohort of asymptomatic welders who had lower Mn-exposure than in most previous work. In welders with low-level Mn-exposure, we found: 1) Mn may accumulate in the brain in a non-linear fashion: MRI R1 (1/T1) signals significantly increased only after a critical level of exposure was reached (e...
June 23, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647565/review-of-the-cytology-and-connections-of-the-lateral-habenula-an-avatar-of-adaptive-behaving
#11
REVIEW
Daniel S Zahm, David H Root
The cytology and connections of the lateral habenula (LHb) are reviewed. The habenula is first introduced, after which the cytology of the LHb is discussed mainly with reference to cell types, general topography and descriptions of subnuclei. An overview of LHb afferent connections is given followed by some details about the projections to LHb from a number of structures. An overview of lateral habenula efferent connections is given followed by some details about the projections from LHb to a number of structures...
June 21, 2017: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645853/anterior-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-for-tourette-s-syndrome-a-randomised-double-blind-controlled-trial
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Marie-Laure Welter, Jean-Luc Houeto, Stéphane Thobois, Benoit Bataille, Marc Guenot, Yulia Worbe, Andreas Hartmann, Virginie Czernecki, Eric Bardinet, Jerome Yelnik, Sophie Tezenas du Montcel, Yves Agid, Marie Vidailhet, Philippe Cornu, Audrey Tanguy, Solène Ansquer, Nematollah Jaafari, Emmanuel Poulet, Giulia Serra, Pierre Burbaud, Emmanuel Cuny, Bruno Aouizerate, Pierre Pollak, Stephan Chabardes, Mircea Polosan, Michel Borg, Denys Fontaine, Bruno Giordana, Sylvie Raoul, Tiphaine Rouaud, Anne Sauvaget, Isabelle Jalenques, Carine Karachi, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been proposed to treat patients with severe Tourette's syndrome, and open-label trials and two small double-blind trials have tested DBS of the posterior and the anterior internal globus pallidus (aGPi). We aimed to specifically assess the efficacy of aGPi DBS for severe Tourette's syndrome. METHODS: In this randomised, double-blind, controlled trial, we recruited patients aged 18-60 years with severe and medically refractory Tourette's syndrome from eight hospitals specialised in movement disorders in France...
August 2017: Lancet Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639329/estimating-abundance-without-recaptures-of-marked-pallid-sturgeon-in-the-mississippi-river
#13
Nicholas A Friedenberg, Jan J Hoover, Krista Boysen, K Jack Killgore
Abundance estimates are essential for estimating the viability of populations and the risks posed by alternative management actions. An effort to estimate abundance via a repeated mark-recapture experiment may fail to recapture marked individuals. We present a framework for obtaining lower bounds on abundance in the absence of recaptures for both panmictic and spatially-structured populations. We applied this nil-recapture method to data from a 12-year survey of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower and middle Mississippi River; none of the 241 individuals marked were recaptured in the survey...
June 22, 2017: Conservation Biology: the Journal of the Society for Conservation Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638318/maturation-behavioral-activation-and-connectivity-of-adult-born-medium-spiny-neurons-in-a-striatal-song-nucleus
#14
Jennifer Kosubek-Langer, Lydia Schulze, Constance Scharff
Neurogenesis continues in the adult songbird brain. Many telencephalic song control regions incorporate new neurons into their existing circuits in adulthood. One song nucleus that receives many new neurons is Area X. Because this striatal region is crucial for song learning and song maintenance the recruitment of new neurons into Area X could influence these processes. As an entry point into addressing this possibility, we investigated the maturation and connectivity within the song circuit and behavioral activation of newly generated Area X neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631404/structural-connectivity-differences-in-motor-network-between-tremor-dominant-and-nontremor-parkinson-s-disease
#15
Gaetano Barbagallo, Maria Eugenia Caligiuri, Gennarina Arabia, Andrea Cherubini, Angela Lupo, Rita Nisticò, Maria Salsone, Fabiana Novellino, Maurizio Morelli, Giuseppe Lucio Cascini, Domenico Galea, Aldo Quattrone
Motor phenotypes of Parkinson's disease (PD) are recognized to have different prognosis and therapeutic response, but the neural basis for this clinical heterogeneity remains largely unknown. The main aim of this study was to compare differences in structural connectivity metrics of the main motor network between tremor-dominant and nontremor PD phenotypes (TD-PD and NT-PD, respectively) using probabilistic tractography-based network analysis. A total of 63 PD patients (35 TD-PD patients and 28 NT-PD patients) and 30 healthy controls underwent a 3 T MRI...
September 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624528/derivation-of-an-occupational-exposure-level-for-manganese-in-welding-fumes
#16
Lisa A Bailey, Laura E Kerper, Julie E Goodman
Exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) in occupational settings is known to lead to adverse neurological effects. Since Mn is an essential nutrient, there are mechanisms that maintain its homeostatic control in the body, and there is some level of Mn in air that does not perturb Mn homeostasis. However, the Mn exposure concentrations at which no adverse effects are expected in occupational settings vary considerably across regulatory agencies. We set out to derive a Mn Occupational Exposure Level (OEL) for welders based on a review of studies that evaluated Mn exposure concentrations from welding fumes and: (1) neurological effects in welders; (2) levels of Mn in the brains of welders (via pallidal index [PI] estimated from magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]); (3) other biomarkers of Mn exposure in welders (i...
June 15, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616357/improvement-of-post-hypoxic-myoclonus-with-bilateral-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#17
Ritesh A Ramdhani, Steven J Frucht, Brian H Kopell
BACKGROUND: Post-hypoxic myoclonus (PHM) is a syndrome that occurs when a patient has suffered hypoxic brain injury. The myoclonus is usually multifocal and generalized, often stemming from both cortical and subcortical origins. In severe cases, pharmacological treatments with antiepileptic medications may not satisfactorily control the myoclonus. METHODS: We present a case of a 23-year-old male with chronic medication refractory PHM following a cardiopulmonary arrest related to an asthmatic attack who improved with bilateral globus pallidus internus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS)...
2017: Tremor and Other Hyperkinetic Movements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28601961/basal-ganglia-movement-disorders-and-deep-brain-stimulation-advances-made-through-non-human-primate-research
#18
REVIEW
Thomas Wichmann, Hagai Bergman, Mahlon R DeLong
Studies in non-human primates (NHPs) have led to major advances in our understanding of the function of the basal ganglia and of the pathophysiologic mechanisms of hypokinetic movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease and hyperkinetic disorders such as chorea and dystonia. Since the brains of NHPs are anatomically very close to those of humans, disease states and the effects of medical and surgical approaches, such as deep brain stimulation (DBS), can be more faithfully modeled in NHPs than in other species...
June 10, 2017: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28590521/seventy-years-of-pallidotomy-for-movement-disorders
#19
REVIEW
Laura Cif, Marwan Hariz
The year 2017 marks the 70th anniversary of the birth of human stereotactic neurosurgery. The first procedure was a pallidotomy for Huntington's disease. However, it was for Parkinson's disease that pallidotomy was soon adopted worldwide. Pallidotomy was abandoned in the late 1950s in favor of thalamotomy because of the latter's more striking effect on tremor. The advent of levodopa put a halt to all surgery for PD. In the mid-1980s, Laitinen reintroduced the posteroventral pallidotomy of Leksell, and this procedure spread worldwide thanks to its efficacy on most parkinsonian symptoms including levodopa-induced dyskinesias and thanks to basic scientific work confirming the role of the globus pallidus internus in the pathophysiology of PD...
July 2017: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548593/bilateral-deep-brain-stimulation-of-the-subthalamic-nucleus-in-primary-meige-syndrome
#20
Shikun Zhan, Fafa Sun, Yixin Pan, Wei Liu, Peng Huang, Chunyan Cao, Jing Zhang, Dianyou Li, Bomin Sun
OBJECTIVE Subthalamic nucleus deep brain stimulation has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of primary Meige syndrome. However, assessments of its efficacy and safety have been limited to several case reports and small studies. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective study to assess the efficacy and safety of bilateral subthalamic nucleus stimulation in 15 patients with primary Meige syndrome who responded poorly to medical treatments or botulinum toxin injections. Using the movement and disability subscores of the Burke-Fahn-Marsden Dystonia Rating Scale, the authors evaluated the severity of patients' dystonia and related before surgery and at final follow-up during neurostimulation...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
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