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globus pallidus

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920666/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-the-evolution-of-the-amygdalar-hippocampal-habenular-connectivity-in-vertebrates
#1
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
Appetitive-searching (reward-seeking) and distress-avoiding (misery-fleeing) behavior are essential for all free moving animals to stay alive and to have offspring. Therefore, even the oldest ocean-dwelling animal creatures, living about 560 million years ago and human ancestors, must have been capable of generating these behaviors. The current article describes the evolution of the forebrain with special reference to the development of the misery-fleeing system. Although, the earliest vertebrate ancestor already possessed a dorsal pallium, which corresponds to the human neocortex, the structure and function of the neocortex was acquired quite recently within the mammalian evolutionary line...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914146/pregnancy-and-delivery-in-a-generalized-dystonia-patient-treated-with-internal-globus-pallidal-deep-brain-stimulation-a-case-report
#2
Hye Ran Park, Jae Meen Lee, Hyeyoung Park, Chae Won Shin, Han Joon Kim, Hee Pyoung Park, Dong Gyu Kim, Beom Seok Jeon, Sun Ha Paek
Internal globus pallidus (GPi) deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been widely accepted as an effective treatment modality of medically refractory dystonia. However, there have been few studies regarding the safety issue of pregnancy and childbirth related with DBS. This report describes a female patient who was pregnant and delivered a baby after GPi DBS surgery. A 33-year-old female patient with acquired generalized dystonia underwent bilateral GPi DBS implantation. She obtained considerable improvement in both movement and disability after DBS implantation...
January 2017: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911751/the-lateral-habenula-circuitry-reward-processing-and-cognitive-control
#3
Phillip M Baker, Thomas Jhou, Bo Li, Masayuki Matsumoto, Sheri J Y Mizumori, Marcus Stephenson-Jones, Aleksandra Vicentic
There has been a growing interest in understanding the role of the lateral habenula (LHb) in reward processing, affect regulation, and goal-directed behaviors. The LHb gets major inputs from the habenula-projecting globus pallidus and the mPFC, sending its efferents to the dopaminergic VTA and SNc, serotonergic dorsal raphe nuclei, and the GABAergic rostromedial tegmental nucleus. Recent studies have made advances in our understanding of the LHb circuit organization, yet the precise mechanisms of its involvement in complex behaviors are largely unknown...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906525/the-clinical-utility-of-qsm-disease-diagnosis-medical-management-and-surgical-planning
#4
REVIEW
Sarah Eskreis-Winkler, Yan Zhang, Jingwei Zhang, Zhe Liu, Alexey Dimov, Ajay Gupta, Yi Wang
Quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM) is an MR technique that depicts and quantifies magnetic susceptibility sources. Mapping iron, the dominant susceptibility source in the brain, has many important clinical applications. Herein, we review QSM applications in the diagnosis, medical management, and surgical treatment of disease. To assist in early disease diagnosis, QSM can identify elevated iron levels in the motor cortex of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients, in the substantia nigra of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, in the globus pallidus, putamen, and caudate of Huntington's disease patients, and in the basal ganglia of Wilson's disease patients...
December 1, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890445/acute-carbon-monoxide-poisoning-mr-imaging-findings-with-clinical-correlation
#5
D M Kim, I H Lee, J Y Park, S-B Hwang, D S Yoo, C J Song
PURPOSE: To assess the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings, including diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) in patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and correlate MRI findings with carboxyhemoglobin levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The MRI examinations and medical records of seven men with a mean age of 43±16.0years (SD) (range: 25-63 years) with acute CO poisoning were reviewed. MRI examinations were analyzed with respect to lesion location, imaging presentation on T1- and T2-weighted images, and diffusion characteristics on DWI and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps...
November 24, 2016: Diagnostic and Interventional Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882200/calcification-in-globus-pallidus-and-putamen-of-multiple-sclerosis-patients-versus-healthy-subjects-using-quantitative-susceptibility-mapping
#6
Muhammad Arshad Javid, M Afzal Khan, Naima Amin, Azeem Nabi
BACKGROUND: Calcification has been well reported in basal ganglia and it grows rapidly in globus pallidus (GP) followed by putamen (PUT) and caudate nucleus because of their high metabolic rate and displays high susceptibility effects. Therefore, the current study focused on magnetic susceptibility effect of calcium content in normal and diseased tissue due to metabolic changes. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate calcium content in GP and PUT structures of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients versus healthy subjects using quantitative susceptibility mapping...
October 2016: Iranian Journal of Radiology: a Quarterly Journal Published By the Iranian Radiological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880915/blunted-mglur-activation-disinhibits-striatopallidal-transmission-in-parkinsonian-mice
#7
Qiaoling Cui, Jason E Pitt, Arin Pamukcu, Jean-Francois Poulin, Omar S Mabrouk, Michael P Fiske, Isabel B Fan, Elizabeth C Augustine, Katherine A Young, Robert T Kennedy, Rajeshwar Awatramani, C Savio Chan
The prevailing circuit model predicts that hyperactivity of the striatopallidal pathway and subsequently increased inhibition of external globus pallidus (GPe) neurons lead to the hypokinetic symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). It is believed that hyperactivity of the striatopallidal pathway is due to inactivity of dopamine receptors on the somatodendritic membrane of striatopallidal neurons, but the exact cellular underpinnings remain unclear. In this study, we show that mouse GPe astrocytes critically control ambient glutamate level, which in turn gates striatopallidal transmission via the activation of presynaptic metabotropic glutamate receptors...
November 22, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877029/comments-on-the-paper-efficacies-of-globus-pallidus-stimulation-and-subthalamic-nucleus-stimulation-for-advanced-parkinson-s-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#8
COMMENT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876666/comparison-of-the-stereotactic-accuracies-of-function-guided-deep-brain-stimulation-calculated-using-multi-track-target-locations-geometrically-inferred-from-three-dimensional-trajectory-rotations-and-of-mri-guided-deep-brain-stimulation-and-outcomes
#9
Seong-Cheol Park, Chong Sik Lee, Seok Min Kim, Eu Jene Choi, Jung Kyo Lee
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, multi-track trajectories in deep brain stimulation (DBS) have usually been approximated. Using a geometrically more accurate method, we compared the stereotactic accuracy of DBS with multi-track microelectrode recording and awake stimulation (Function-Group), and MRI-guided-DBS (MRI Group). METHODS: One hundred and seventy-two leads used in DBS between April 2014 and January 2016 were evaluated for stereotactic errors. Targets were the subthalamic nucleus (STN, 139 leads) or globus pallidus interna (GPi, 33 leads)...
November 19, 2016: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876655/dorsal-root-ganglion-stimulation-attenuates-the-bold-signal-response-to-noxious-sensory-input-in-specific-brain-regions-insights-into-a-possible-mechanism-for-analgesia
#10
Christopher P Pawela, Jeffery M Kramer, Quinn H Hogan
Targeted dorsal root ganglion (DRG) electrical stimulation (i.e. ganglionic field stimulation - GFS) is an emerging therapeutic approach to alleviate chronic pain. Here we describe blood oxygen-level dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) responses to noxious hind-limb stimulation in a rat model that replicates clinical GFS using an electrode implanted adjacent to the DRG. Acute noxious sensory stimulation in the absence of GFS caused robust BOLD fMRI response in brain regions previously associated with sensory and pain-related response, such as primary/secondary somatosensory cortex, retrosplenial granular cortex, thalamus, caudate putamen, nucleus accumbens, globus pallidus, and amygdala...
November 19, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871916/association-of-neurobehavioral-performance-with-r2-in-the-caudate-nucleus-of-asymptomatic-welders
#11
Eun-Young Lee, Paul J Eslinger, Michael R Flynn, Daymond Wagner, Guangwei Du, Mechelle M Lewis, Lan Kong, Richard B Mailman, Xuemei Huang
OBJECTIVES: Welding fumes contain several metals including manganese (Mn) and iron (Fe) that may affect the nervous system. Previous studies of potential welding-related neurotoxicity have focused primarily on Mn exposure. The current study examined neurobehavioral and brain imaging changes in asymptomatic welders and their associations with both Mn and Fe exposure measurements. METHODS: Data were obtained from subjects with (n=46) and without (controls; n=31) a history of welding exposure...
November 18, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866799/inhibitory-control-in-the-cortico-basal-ganglia-thalamocortical-loop-complex-regulation-and-interplay-with-memory-and-decision-processes
#12
Wei Wei, Xiao-Jing Wang
We developed a circuit model of spiking neurons that includes multiple pathways in the basal ganglia (BG) and is endowed with feedback mechanisms at three levels: cortical microcircuit, corticothalamic loop, and cortico-BG-thalamocortical system. We focused on executive control in a stop signal task, which is known to depend on BG across species. The model reproduces a range of experimental observations and shows that the newly discovered feedback projection from external globus pallidus to striatum is crucial for inhibitory control...
December 7, 2016: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862612/the-role-of-the-pallidothalamic-fibre-tracts-in-deep-brain-stimulation-for-dystonia-a-diffusion-mri-tractography-study
#13
Verena Eveline Rozanski, Nadia Moreira da Silva, Seyed-Ahmad Ahmadi, Jan Mehrkens, Joao da Silva Cunha, Jean-Christophe Houde, Christian Vollmar, Kai Bötzel, Maxime Descoteaux
BACKGROUND: Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) of the Globus pallidus internus (GPi) is gold standard treatment in medically refractory dystonia. Recent evidence indicates that stimulation effects are also due to axonal modulation and affection of a fibre network. For the GPi, the pallidothalamic tracts are known to be the major motor efferent pathways. The aim of this study is to explore the anatomic vicinity of these tracts and DBS electrodes in dystonia applying diffusion tractography. METHODS: Diffusion MRI was acquired in ten patients presenting for DBS for dystonia...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862544/brain-morphology-and-cortical-thickness-variations-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-patients-differences-among-neurological-psychiatric-and-nonneuropsychiatric-manifestations
#14
Nicolle Zimmermann, Diogo Goulart Corrêa, Gustavo Tukamoto, Tania Netto, Denis Batista Pereira, Rochele Paz Fonseca, Emerson Leandro Gasparetto
PURPOSE: To determine whether systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) affecting subcortical white matter volumes, deep gray matter volumes, and cortical thickness differ between groups of SLE patients with psychiatric (P-SLE), neurological (N-SLE), or nonneuropsychiatric (non-NPSLE) presentations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty-seven participants were divided into three groups (P-SLE [n = 19], N-SLE [n = 12], and non-NPSLE [n = 36]) and examined with a 1.5T MRI scanner...
November 8, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857684/spatial-localization-of-sources-in-the-rat-subthalamic-motor-region-using-an-inverse-current-source-density-method
#15
Kees J van Dijk, Marcus L F Janssen, Daphne G M Zwartjes, Yasin Temel, Veerle Visser-Vandewalle, Peter H Veltink, Abdelhamid Benazzouz, Tjitske Heida
Objective: In this study we introduce the use of the current source density (CSD) method as a way to visualize the spatial organization of evoked responses in the rat subthalamic nucleus (STN) at fixed time stamps resulting from motor cortex stimulation. This method offers opportunities to visualize neuronal input and study the relation between the synaptic input and the neural output of neural populations. Approach: Motor cortex evoked local field potentials and unit activity were measured in the subthalamic region, with a 3D measurement grid consisting of 320 measurement points and high spatial resolution...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856671/deformed-subcortical-structures-are-related-to-past-hiv-disease-severity-in-youth-with-perinatally-acquired-hiv-infection
#16
C Paula Lewis-de Los Angeles, Kathryn I Alpert, Paige L Williams, Kathleen Malee, Yanling Huo, John G Csernansky, Ram Yogev, Russell B Van Dyke, Elizabeth R Sowell, Lei Wang
BACKGROUND: Combination antiretroviral therapy has led to increased survival among youth with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV). However, cognitive deficits continue to be common. Histopathological studies in adults have found HIV concentrated in subcortical structures, which are involved in sensory processing, movement, and higher-order cognition that emerges with development. METHODS: We conducted magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing in 40 youth with PHIV at one site of the Adolescent Master Protocol of the Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study...
December 2016: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856398/recovery-of-accurate-t2-from-historical-1-5-tesla-proton-density-and-t2-weighted-images-application-to-7-year-t2-changes-in-multiple-sclerosis-brain
#17
Md Nasir Uddin, Kelly C McPhee, Gregg Blevins, Alan H Wilman
OBJECTIVE: To determine accurate quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2) using retrospective clinical images and apply it to examine 7-year changes in multiple sclerosis (MS) brain. METHODS: A method for T2 mapping from retrospective proton density (PD) and T2-weighted fast spin echo images was recently introduced, but requires measurement of flip angles. We examined whether 1.5T flip angle variation in brain can be predicted, thus enabling T2 analysis of historical PD and T2-weighted images without a concurrent flip angle map...
November 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853372/post-stroke-dyskinesias
#18
REVIEW
Mohammad Obadah Nakawah, Eugene C Lai
Strokes, whether ischemic or hemorrhagic, are among the most common causes of secondary movement disorders in elderly patients. Stroke-related (vascular) movement disorders, however, are uncommon complications of this relatively common disease. The spectrum of post-stroke movement disorders is broad and includes both hypo- and hyperkinetic syndromes. Post-stroke dyskinesias are involuntary hyperkinetic movements arising from cerebrovascular insults and often present with mixed phenotypes of hyperkinesia which can sometimes be difficult to classify...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843694/grey-matter-abnormalities-in-methcathinone-abusers-with-a-parkinsonian-syndrome
#19
Julius Juurmaa, Ricarda A L Menke, Pierre Vila, Andreas Müürsepp, Tiiu Tomberg, Pilvi Ilves, Mait Nigul, Heidi Johansen-Berg, Michael Donaghy, Charlotte J Stagg, Ainārs Stepens, Pille Taba
BACKGROUND: A permanent Parkinsonian syndrome occurs in intravenous abusers of the designer psychostimulant methcathinone (ephedrone). It is attributed to deposition of contaminant manganese, as reflected by characteristic globus pallidus hyperintensity on T1-weighted MRI. METHODS: We have investigated brain structure and function in methcathinone abusers (n = 12) compared to matched control subjects (n = 12) using T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI...
November 2016: Brain and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843470/childhood-neurogenic-stuttering-due-to-bilateral-congenital-abnormality-in-globus-pallidus-a-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#20
Mohammad Javad Saeedi, Ebrahim Esfandiary, Mostafa Almasi Dooghaee
Objective The basal ganglia are a group of structures that act as a cohesive functional unit. They are situated at the base of the forebrain and are strongly connected with the cerebral cortex and thalamus. Some speech disorders such as stuttering can resulted from disturbances in the circuits between the basal ganglia and the language motor area of the cerebral cortex. Stuttering consists of blocks, repetitive, prolongation or cessation of speech. We present a 7.5 -year-old male child with bilateral basal ganglia lesion in globus pallidus with unclear reason...
2016: Iranian Journal of Child Neurology
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