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globus pallidus

Zhibin Wang, Xiao-Guang Luo, Chao Gao
In the clinic, the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) largely depends on clinicians' experience. When the diagnosis is made, approximately 80% of dopaminergic cells in the substantia nigra (SN) have been lost. Additionally, it is rather challenging to differentiate PD from atypical parkinsonian disorders (APD). Clinially-available 3T conventional MRI contributes little to solve these problems. The pathologic alterations of parkinsonism show abnormal brain iron deposition, and therefore susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI), which is sensitive to iron concentration, has been applied to find iron-related lesions for the diagnosis and differentiation of PD in recent decades...
2016: Translational Neurodegeneration
Ali Yusuf Öner, Berrak Barutcu, Şükrü Aykol, Emin Turgut Tali
OBJECTIVES: There have been recent studies evaluating brain magnetic resonance imaging changes in patients with normal renal function, after intravenous administration of gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs). Their findings were supported by histological evidence as well and brought a new vision concerning what needs to be learned to provide better patient care. In this report, we aim to present brain magnetic resonance imaging changes after intrathecal administration of a linear ionic agent (gadopentetate dimeglumine)...
October 13, 2016: Investigative Radiology
Julien Bonenfant, Sophie Drapier, Jean François Houvenaghel, Florian Naudet, Claire Haegelen, Paul Sauleau, Marc Vérin
INTRODUCTION: Over a 3-year period, we monitored the efficacy and safety of deep-brain stimulation of the globus pallidus pars interna in patients with advanced Parkinson's disease whose cognitive, psychiatric impairment and/or dopa-resistant axial motor signs made them ineligible for surgery targeting the subthalamic nucleus. METHODS: A total of 25 patients were assessed before surgery, 1 year and 3 years after surgery, on the UPDRS and a neuropsychological battery...
October 11, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
Sheena L Dupuy, Shahamat Tauhid, Shelley Hurwitz, Renxin Chu, Fawad Yousuf, Rohit Bakshi
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this pilot study was to compare cerebral gray matter (GM) atrophy over 1 year in patients starting dimethyl fumarate (DMF) for multiple sclerosis (MS) to that of patients on no disease-modifying treatment (noDMT). DMF is an established therapy for relapsing-remitting (RR) MS. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 20 patients with RRMS at the start of DMF [age (mean ± SD) 46.1 ± 10.2 years, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) score 1...
October 15, 2016: Neurology and Therapy
Tulio Guadalupe, Samuel R Mathias, Theo G M vanErp, Christopher D Whelan, Marcel P Zwiers, Yoshinari Abe, Lucija Abramovic, Ingrid Agartz, Ole A Andreassen, Alejandro Arias-Vásquez, Benjamin S Aribisala, Nicola J Armstrong, Volker Arolt, Eric Artiges, Rosa Ayesa-Arriola, Vatche G Baboyan, Tobias Banaschewski, Gareth Barker, Mark E Bastin, Bernhard T Baune, John Blangero, Arun L W Bokde, Premika S W Boedhoe, Anushree Bose, Silvia Brem, Henry Brodaty, Uli Bromberg, Samantha Brooks, Christian Büchel, Jan Buitelaar, Vince D Calhoun, Dara M Cannon, Anna Cattrell, Yuqi Cheng, Patricia J Conrod, Annette Conzelmann, Aiden Corvin, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Fabrice Crivello, Udo Dannlowski, Greig I de Zubicaray, Sonja M C de Zwarte, Ian J Deary, Sylvane Desrivières, Nhat Trung Doan, Gary Donohoe, Erlend S Dørum, Stefan Ehrlich, Thomas Espeseth, Guillén Fernández, Herta Flor, Jean-Paul Fouche, Vincent Frouin, Masaki Fukunaga, Jürgen Gallinat, Hugh Garavan, Michael Gill, Andrea Gonzalez Suarez, Penny Gowland, Hans J Grabe, Dominik Grotegerd, Oliver Gruber, Saskia Hagenaars, Ryota Hashimoto, Tobias U Hauser, Andreas Heinz, Derrek P Hibar, Pieter J Hoekstra, Martine Hoogman, Fleur M Howells, Hao Hu, Hilleke E Hulshoff Pol, Chaim Huyser, Bernd Ittermann, Neda Jahanshad, Erik G Jönsson, Sarah Jurk, Rene S Kahn, Sinead Kelly, Bernd Kraemer, Harald Kugel, Jun Soo Kwon, Herve Lemaitre, Klaus-Peter Lesch, Christine Lochner, Michelle Luciano, Andre F Marquand, Nicholas G Martin, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Jean-Luc Martinot, David Mataix-Cols, Karen Mather, Colm McDonald, Katie L McMahon, Sarah E Medland, José M Menchón, Derek W Morris, Omar Mothersill, Susana Munoz Maniega, Benson Mwangi, Takashi Nakamae, Tomohiro Nakao, Janardhanan C Narayanaswaamy, Frauke Nees, Jan E Nordvik, A Marten H Onnink, Nils Opel, Roel Ophoff, Marie-Laure Paillère Martinot, Dimitri Papadopoulos Orfanos, Paul Pauli, Tomáš Paus, Luise Poustka, Janardhan Yc Reddy, Miguel E Renteria, Roberto Roiz-Santiáñez, Annerine Roos, Natalie A Royle, Perminder Sachdev, Pascual Sánchez-Juan, Lianne Schmaal, Gunter Schumann, Elena Shumskaya, Michael N Smolka, Jair C Soares, Carles Soriano-Mas, Dan J Stein, Lachlan T Strike, Roberto Toro, Jessica A Turner, Nathalie Tzourio-Mazoyer, Anne Uhlmann, Maria Valdés Hernández, Odile A van den Heuvel, Dennis van der Meer, Neeltje E M van Haren, Dick J Veltman, Ganesan Venkatasubramanian, Nora C Vetter, Daniella Vuletic, Susanne Walitza, Henrik Walter, Esther Walton, Zhen Wang, Joanna Wardlaw, Wei Wen, Lars T Westlye, Robert Whelan, Katharina Wittfeld, Thomas Wolfers, Margaret J Wright, Jian Xu, Xiufeng Xu, Je-Yeon Yun, JingJing Zhao, Barbara Franke, Paul M Thompson, David C Glahn, Bernard Mazoyer, Simon E Fisher, Clyde Francks
The two hemispheres of the human brain differ functionally and structurally. Despite over a century of research, the extent to which brain asymmetry is influenced by sex, handedness, age, and genetic factors is still controversial. Here we present the largest ever analysis of subcortical brain asymmetries, in a harmonized multi-site study using meta-analysis methods. Volumetric asymmetry of seven subcortical structures was assessed in 15,847 MRI scans from 52 datasets worldwide. There were sex differences in the asymmetry of the globus pallidus and putamen...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Kaiwu He, Fei Qi, Chunni Guo, Shuqin Zhan, Hua Xu, Jianjun Liu, Xifei Yang
Transient receptor potential cation (TRPC) channel proteins are abundantly expressed in brain. However, the functions of these TRPC proteins such as TRPC1 are largely unclear. In this study, we reported that TRPC1 deficiency caused movement disorder as measured by swimming test, modified open field test and sunflower seeds eating test. Immunofluorescent staining showed significant loss of both NeuN-positive cells and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) -positive cells in the caudate putamen (CPu), the external globus pallidus (GPe), and the substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) in 5-month-old TRPC1 knockout mice (TRPC1-/-) compared to the wild type (WT) mice...
October 11, 2016: Oncotarget
Frédérique J Liégeois, Michael S Hildebrand, Alexandra Bonthrone, Samantha J Turner, Ingrid E Scheffer, Melanie Bahlo, Alan Connelly, Angela T Morgan
FOXP2 is the major gene associated with severe, persistent, developmental speech and language disorders. While studies in the original family in which a FOXP2 mutation was found showed volume reduction and reduced activation in core language and speech networks, there have been no imaging studies of different FOXP2 mutations. We conducted a multimodal MRI study in an eight-year-old boy (A-II) with a de novo FOXP2 intragenic deletion. A-II showed marked bilateral volume reductions in the hippocampus, thalamus, globus pallidus, and caudate nucleus compared with 26 control males (effect sizes from -1 to -3)...
October 13, 2016: Scientific Reports
Joohi Jimenez-Shahed, Ilknur Telkes, Ashwin Viswanathan, Nuri F Ince
Background: Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is an emerging treatment strategy for severe, medication-refractory Tourette syndrome (TS). Thalamic (Cm-Pf) and pallidal (including globus pallidus interna, GPi) targets have been the most investigated. While the neurophysiological correlates of Parkinson's disease (PD) in the GPi and subthalamic nucleus (STN) are increasingly recognized, these patterns are not well characterized in other disease states. Recent findings indicate that the cross-frequency coupling (CFC) between beta band and high frequency oscillations (HFOs) within the STN in PD patients is pathologic...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ivan Vorisek, Michael Syka, Lydia Vargova
Diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance (DW-MR) is an important diagnostic tool in Huntington disease (HD), a fatal hereditary neurodegenerative disorder. To clarify the nature of diffusivity changes in HD, we compared the apparent diffusion coefficient of water (ADCW ) acquired by DW-MR with extracellular space volume fraction α and tortuosity λ, measured by the iontophoretic method in the R6/2 mouse model of HD and in wild-type controls (WT). In anisotropic globus pallidus (GP), diffusion measurements were performed in the mediolateral (x), rostrocaudal (y), and ventrodorsal (z) axes...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Omid Talakoub, Bogdan Neagu, Kaviraja Udupa, Eric Tsang, Robert Chen, Milos R Popovic, Willy Wong
We are interested in characterizing how brain networks interact and communicate with each other during voluntary movements. We recorded electrical activities from the globus pallidus pars interna (GPi), subthalamic nucleus (STN) and the motor cortex during voluntary wrist movements. Seven patients with dystonia and six patients with Parkinson's disease underwent bilateral deep brain stimulation (DBS) electrode placement. Local field potentials from the DBS electrodes and scalp EEG from the electrodes placed over the motor cortices were recorded while the patients performed externally triggered and self-initiated movements...
October 11, 2016: Scientific Reports
Zaw Aung Khant, Toshinori Hirai, Yoshihito Kadota, Rie Masuda, Takanori Yano, Minako Azuma, Yukiko Suzuki, Kuniyuki Tashiro
We report a 34-year-old male who manifested T1 shortening of the cerebral cortices after more than 86 contrast-enhanced MRI studies. We observed high-signal intensity (SI) on T1-weighted images (T1WIs) not only in the globus pallidus, dentate nucleus, and pulvinar of thalamus, but also in the cortices of the pre- and post-central gyri and around the calcarine sulcus. High SI in the cerebral cortices was not clearly demonstrated on T1WI scans performed 11 years earlier. The high SI we observed in these areas of the brain corresponded to areas with a normal iron-deposition predilection...
October 11, 2016: Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences: MRMS
Anna Castrioto, Odeya Marmor, Marc Deffains, Dafna Willner, Eduard Linetsky, Hagai Bergman, Zvi Israel, Renana Eitan, David Arkadir
Classical rate models of basal ganglia circuitry associate discharge rate of the globus pallidus external and internal segments (GPe, GPi respectively) solely with dopaminergic state and predict an inverse ratio between the discharge rates of the two pallidal segments. In contrast, the effects of other rate modulators such as general anesthesia (GA) on this ratio have been ignored. To respond to this need, we recorded the neuronal activity in the GPe and GPi in awake and anesthetized human patients with dystonia (57 and 53 trajectories respectively) and in awake patients with Parkinson's disease (PD, 16 trajectories) undergoing deep brain stimulation procedures...
September 26, 2016: European Journal of Neuroscience
Ruben Smith, Martin Schain, Christer Nilsson, Olof Strandberg, Tomas Olsson, Douglas Hägerström, Jonas Jögi, Edilio Borroni, Michael Schöll, Michael Honer, Oskar Hansson
BACKGROUND: Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) is difficult to diagnose accurately. The recently developed tau PET tracers may improve the diagnostic work-up of PSP. METHODS: Regional tau accumulation was studied using (18) F-AV-1451 PET in 11 patients with PSP and 11 age-matched healthy controls in the Swedish BioFinder study. RESULTS: (18) F-AV-1451 standard uptake volume ratios were significantly higher in the basal ganglia in PSP patients when compared with controls (globus pallidus 1...
October 6, 2016: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Erwin B Montgomery
Theories impact the movement disorders clinic, not only affecting the development of new therapies but determining how current therapies are used. Models are theories that are procedural rather than declarative. Theories and models are important because, as argued by Kant, one cannot know the thing-in-itself (das Ding an sich) and only a model is knowable. Further, biological variability forces higher level abstraction relevant for all variants. It is that abstraction that is raison d'être of theories and models...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Shahin Nasr, Herminia D Rosas
: The caudate nucleus is a part of the visual corticostriatal loop (VCSL), receiving input from different visual areas and projecting back to the same cortical areas via globus pallidus, substantia nigra, and thalamus. Despite perceptual and navigation impairments in patients with VCSL disruption due to caudate atrophy (e.g., Huntington's disease, HD), the relevance of the caudate nucleus and VCSL on cortical visual processing is not fully understood. In a series of fMRI experiments, we found that the caudate showed a stronger functional connection to parahippocampal place area (PPA) compared with adjacent regions (e...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Koji Yamashita, Akio Hiwatashi, Osamu Togao, Kazufumi Kikuchi, Hiroo Yamaguchi, Yuriko Suzuki, Ryotaro Kamei, Ryo Yamasaki, Jun-Ichi Kira, Hiroshi Honda
PURPOSE: To evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) laterality derived from arterial spin labeling (ASL) in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD) patients compared with those with advanced stages. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight patients with PD (21 patients in early stages, 17 patients in advanced stages) were retrospectively studied. The CBF maps derived from 3T ASL data were co-registered to the corresponding 3DT1WI using SPM 12 software. Caudate nucleus (CN), putamen (PT), globus pallidus (GP), and thalamus (TH) were manually traced on the representative axial slices of 3DT1WI...
October 3, 2016: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Laura Cif, Philippe Coubes
BACKGROUND: Heterogeneous by the underlying pathobiology and clinical presentation, childhood onset dystonia is most frequently progressive, with related disability and limitations in functions of daily living. Consequently, there is an obvious need for efficient symptomatic therapies. METHODS AND RESULTS: Following lesional surgery to basal ganglia (BG) and thalamus, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a more conservative and adjustable intervention to and validated for internal segment of the globus pallidus (GPi), highly efficient in treating isolated "primary" dystonia and associated symptoms such as subcortical myoclonus...
September 7, 2016: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
Judith A Boel, Vincent J J Odekerken, Ben A Schmand, Gert J Geurtsen, Danielle C Cath, Martijn Figee, Pepijn van den Munckhof, Rob J de Haan, P Richard Schuurman, Rob M A de Bie
BACKGROUND: Effects on non-motor symptoms, mainly cognitive and psychiatric side effects, could influence the decision for either globus pallidus pars interna (GPi) or subthalamic nucleus (STN) deep brain stimulation (DBS) for patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). OBJECTIVE: 1) To compare cognitive and psychiatric outcomes 3 years after GPi DBS versus STN DBS, and 2) to report on occurrence of suicidal ideation, psychiatric diagnoses, social functioning, and marital satisfaction 3 years after DBS...
September 19, 2016: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
H Sun, P Seres, A H Wilman
Standard functional MRI (fMRI), which includes resting-state or paradigm-driven designs, is widely used in studies of brain function, aging, and disease. These fMRI studies typically use two-dimensional gradient echo-planar imaging, which inherently contains phase data that enables quantitative susceptibility mapping (QSM). This work focuses on the dual value of QSM within fMRI studies, by providing both a localized analysis of functional changes in activated tissue, and iron-sensitive structural maps in deep grey matter (DGM)...
September 30, 2016: NMR in Biomedicine
Adolfo Ramirez-Zamora, Brian Kaszuba, Lucy Gee, Julia Prusik, Eric Molho, Meghan Wilock, Damian Shin, Julie G Pilitsis
OBJECTIVES: Dystonic tremor (DT) is defined as a postural/kinetic tremor occurring in the body region affected by dystonia. DT is typically characterized by focal tremors with irregular amplitudes and variable frequencies typically below 7Hz. Pharmacological treatment is generally unsuccessful and guidelines for deep brain stimulation (DBS) targeting and indications are scarce. In this article, we present the outcome and neurophysiologic data of two patients with refractory, focal limb DT treated with Globus Pallidus interna (Gpi) DBS and critically review the current literature regarding surgical treatment of DT discussing stereotactic targets and treatment considerations...
November 2016: Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery
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