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Agouti related polypeptide

Abba J Kastin, Weihong Pan
Pertinent to pandemic obesity, the discovery of endogenous peptides that affect the ingestion of food has led to the question of how these ingestive peptides exert their actions in the brain. Whereas peripheral sources provide a ready reserve, the availability of ingestive peptides to their central nervous system targets can be regulated by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Some of the peptides/polypeptides are transported by saturable mechanisms from blood to brain. Examples include leptin, insulin, mahogany, and pancreatic polypeptide...
September 20, 2016: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
Shanthi Ganesan, Jackson Nteeba, Aileen F Keating
7,12-Dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA) depletes ovarian follicles and induces DNA damage in extra-ovarian tissues, thus, we investigated ovarian DMBA-induced DNA damage. Additionally, since obesity is associated with increased offspring birth defect incidence, we hypothesized that a DMBA-induced DNA damage response (DDR) is compromised in ovaries from obese females. Wild type (lean) non agouti (a/a) and KK.Cg-Ay/J heterozygote (obese) mice were dosed with sesame oil or DMBA (1mg/kg; intraperitoneal injection) at 18weeks of age, for 14days...
December 1, 2014: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Xin-Ling Fang, Xiao-Tong Zhu, Sheng-Feng Chen, Zhi-Qi Zhang, Qing-Jie Zeng, Lin Deng, Jian-Long Peng, Jian-Jian Yu, Li-Na Wang, Song-Bo Wang, Ping Gao, Qing-Yan Jiang, Gang Shu
Fasting-induced hypothalamic metabolic reprogramming is involved in regulating energy homeostasis and appetite in mammals, but this phenomenon remains unclear in poultry. In this study, the expression patterns of a panel of genes related to neuropeptides, glucose, and lipid metabolism enzymes in the hypothalamus of chickens during fasting and refeeding were characterized by microarray analysis and quantitative PCR. Results showed that 48 h of fasting upregulated (P < 0.05) the mRNA expressions of orexigenic neuropeptide Y and agouti-related protein but downregulated (P < 0...
November 2014: Poultry Science
Carmen Sobrino Crespo, Aránzazu Perianes Cachero, Lilian Puebla Jiménez, Vicente Barrios, Eduardo Arilla Ferreiro
The mechanisms for controlling food intake involve mainly an interplay between gut, brain, and adipose tissue (AT), among the major organs. Parasympathetic, sympathetic, and other systems are required for communication between the brain satiety center, gut, and AT. These neuronal circuits include a variety of peptides and hormones, being ghrelin the only orexigenic molecule known, whereas the plethora of other factors are inhibitors of appetite, suggesting its physiological relevance in the regulation of food intake and energy homeostasis...
2014: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Nabilah I Chowdhury, Renan P Souza, Arun K Tiwari, Eva J Brandl, Michelle Sicard, Herbert Y Meltzer, Jeffrey A Lieberman, James L Kennedy, Daniel J Müller
OBJECTIVES: The use of second-generation antipsychotic medications may result in substantial weight gain in a subset of schizophrenia patients. Distinct populations of neurons expressed in the hypothalamus, including the cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), the polypeptide pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) and the agouti-related protein (AGRP), have regulatory roles in weight control and energy homeostasis. Thus, we investigated the potential role of CART, POMC and AGRP genetic variants in antipsychotic-induced weight gain (AIWG)...
April 2014: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Michael J Krashes, Bhavik P Shah, Joseph C Madara, David P Olson, David E Strochlic, Alastair S Garfield, Linh Vong, Hongjuan Pei, Mitsuko Watabe-Uchida, Naoshige Uchida, Stephen D Liberles, Bradford B Lowell
Hunger is a hard-wired motivational state essential for survival. Agouti-related peptide (AgRP)-expressing neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) at the base of the hypothalamus are crucial to the control of hunger. They are activated by caloric deficiency and, when naturally or artificially stimulated, they potently induce intense hunger and subsequent food intake. Consistent with their obligatory role in regulating appetite, genetic ablation or chemogenetic inhibition of AgRP neurons decreases feeding. Excitatory input to AgRP neurons is important in caloric-deficiency-induced activation, and is notable for its remarkable degree of caloric-state-dependent synaptic plasticity...
March 13, 2014: Nature
X Y Chen, R Li, M Wang, Z Y Geng
In order to discover the mechanism of cold stress and identify differentially expressed genes in hypothalamus during cold stress, 4 weeks of age Huainan partridge chickens, Chinese indigenous breed, were chosen for 24 h cold stress and then hypothalamus were isolated and labeled by reverse transcription reaction for cDNA. Labeled cDNA were hybridized with cDNA microarray. After scanning and image processing, the different gene expression profiling of hypothalamus and normal control was investigated. The differentially expressed genes included 334 down-regulated genes and 543 up-regulated genes...
2014: Molecular Biology Reports
Kiran S Panickar
Polyphenols are natural substances and are enriched in vegetables, fruits, grains, bark, tea, and wine. Some polyphenols have insulin-potentiating and anti-inflammatory effects, both of which are important in obesity. Dietary supplementation with polyphenolic compounds is associated with reduced diet-induced obesity and/or metabolic syndrome in animal and human studies. Insights into mechanisms that regulate food intake and satiety have led to an increased understanding of obesity but the pathogenesis underlying obesity is lacking...
January 2013: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Juan Roa, Allan E Herbison
Hypothalamic neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons act to sense and coordinate the brain's responses to metabolic cues. One neuronal network that is very sensitive to metabolic status is that controlling fertility. In this study, we investigated the impact of neuropeptides released by NPY and POMC neurons on the cellular excitability of GnRH neurons, the final output cells of the brain controlling fertility. The majority (∼70%) of GnRH neurons were activated by α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone, and this resulted from the direct postsynaptic activation of melanocortin receptor 3 and melanocortin receptor 4...
November 2012: Endocrinology
Michael Smeltzer, Karen Scott, Susan Melhorn, Eric Krause, Randall Sakai
During recovery from social stress in a visible burrow system (VBS), during which a dominance hierarchy is formed among the males, rats display hyperphagia and gain weight preferentially as visceral adipose tissue. By proportionally increasing visceral adiposity, social stress may contribute to the establishment of metabolic disorder. Amylin was administered to rats fed ad libitum during recovery from VBS stress in an attempt to prevent hyperphagia and the resultant gain in body weight and fat mass. Amylin treatment reduced food intake, weight gain, and accumulation of fat mass in male burrow rats, but not in male controls that spent time housed with a single female rather than in the VBS...
September 15, 2012: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Michael E Madonna, Jennifer Schurdak, Ying-Kui Yang, Stephen Benoit, Glenn L Millhauser
The agouti-related protein (AgRP) plays a central role in energy balance by reducing signaling through the hypothalamic melanocortin receptors (McRs) 3 and 4, in turn stimulating feeding and decreasing energy expenditure. Mature AgRP(83-132), produced by endoproteolytic processing, contains a central region that folds as an inhibitor cystine knot (ICK) stabilized by a network of disulfide bonds; this domain alone carries the molecular features for high affinity McR binding and inverse agonism. Outside of the ICK domain are two polypeptide segments, an N-terminal extension and a C-terminal loop, both completely conserved but of unknown function...
February 17, 2012: ACS Chemical Biology
Jon M Resch, Joanne P Boisvert, Allison E Hourigan, Christopher R Mueller, Sun Shin Yi, Sujean Choi
Numerous studies have demonstrated that the hypothalamic ventromedial nuclei (VMN) regulate energy homeostasis by integrating and utilizing behavioral and metabolic mechanisms. The VMN heavily express pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) type I receptors (PAC1R). Despite the receptor distribution, most PACAP experiments investigating affects on feeding have focused on intracerebroventricular administration or global knockout mice. To identify the specific contribution of PACAP signaling in the VMN, we injected PACAP directly into the VMN and measured feeding behavior and indices of energy expenditure...
December 2011: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
A E Relling, K Lee, S C Loerch, C K Reynolds
The capacity for glucose, propionate or hormones of splanchnic origin to influence appetite by directly regulating the expression of neuropeptides in the feeding centres of the hypothalamus of the ruminant is not described. Therefore, our objective was to measure the direct effect of metabolites (glucose and propionate) or hormones [insulin, cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and polypeptide YY (PYY)] on hypothalamic mRNA concentrations for neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) following in vitro incubation...
August 2012: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Inmaculada Cubero, Montserrat Navarro, Francisca Carvajal, Jose Manuel Lerma-Cabrera, Todd E Thiele
BACKGROUND: The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of peptides that are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor, pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC). Previous research has shown that MC receptor (MCR) agonists reduce, and MCR antagonists increase, ethanol consumption in rats and mice. Consistently, genetic deletion of the endogenous MCR antagonist, agouti-related protein (AgRP), causes reductions of ethanol-reinforced lever pressing and binge-like ethanol drinking in C57BL/6J mice. Ethanol also has direct effects on the central MC system, as chronic exposure to an ethanol-containing diet causes significant reductions of alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) immunoreactivity in specific brain regions of Sprague-Dawley rats...
April 2010: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
A E Relling, J L Pate, C K Reynolds, S C Loerch
The objectives of the present study were 1) to evaluate the effects of supplemental fat and ME intake on plasma concentrations of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK), glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, ghrelin, and oxyntomodulin; and 2) to determine the association of these peptides with DMI and the hypothalamic concentration of mRNA for the following neuropeptides: neuropeptide Y (NPY), agouti-related peptide (AgRP), and proopiomelanocortin (POMC). In a completely randomized block design with a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments, 32 pens with 2 wethers each were restricted-fed (2...
February 2010: Journal of Animal Science
M Navarro, I Cubero, L Ko, T E Thiele
The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of peptides that are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Recent pharmacological and genetic evidence suggests that melanocortin receptor (MCR) signaling modulates neurobiological responses to ethanol and ethanol intake. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) is synthesized by neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus and is a natural antagonist of MCRs. Because central administration of the functionally active AgRP fragment AgRP-(83-132) increases ethanol intake by C57BL/6 J mice, we determined if mutant mice lacking normal production of AgRP (AgRP(-/-)) and maintained on a C57BL/6 J genetic background would show reduced self-administration of ethanol relative to littermate wild-type (AgRP(+/+)) mice...
June 2009: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Anshu Gupta, Malathi Srinivasan, Supaporn Thamadilok, Mulchand S Patel
The offspring of high fat (HF) diet-fed rats display increased body weight during adulthood. However, it is not known whether the changes in appetite regulation in these animals occur in utero or postnatally. We investigated the effects of maternal obesity induced by a HF diet prior to and during pregnancy on leptin and insulin signaling and the expression of orexigenic and anorexigenic peptides in term fetal hypothalami. The consumption of a HF diet prior to and during pregnancy resulted in obesity in HF female rats; additionally, HF female rats exhibited hyperinsulinemia and hyperleptinemia which were exaggerated in late gestation compared with control female rats that were fed a standard rodent laboratory chow (LC)...
March 2009: Journal of Endocrinology
Malathi Srinivasan, Paul Mitrani, Gigani Sadhanandan, Catherine Dodds, Suhad Shbeir-ElDika, Shanthie Thamotharan, Hussam Ghanim, Paresh Dandona, Sherin U Devaskar, Mulchand S Patel
Newborn rat pups artificially raised on a high-carbohydrate (HC) milk formula are chronically hyperinsulinemic and develop adult-onset obesity. As HC rats display aberrations in body weight regulation, hypothalamic adaptations predisposing to obesity have been investigated in this study. The artificial rearing of neonatal rat pups on the HC milk formula resulted in significant increases in the mRNA levels of neuropeptide Y, agouti-related polypeptide, and galanin in the hypothalamus of 12-day-old HC rats. Simultaneously, decreases in the mRNA levels of POMC, melanocortin receptor-4, cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript, and corticotrophin-releasing factor were observed in the hypothalamus of these rats...
June 2008: Journal of Endocrinology
Montserrat Navarro, Inmaculada Cubero, Darin J Knapp, George R Breese, Todd E Thiele
BACKGROUND: The melanocortin (MC) system is composed of peptides that are cleaved from the polypeptide precursor proopiomelanocortin (POMC). Recent pharmacologic and genetic evidence suggests that MC receptor (MCR) signaling modulates neurobiologic responses to ethanol and ethanol intake. Because ethanol decreases POMC mRNA levels, we determined if exposure to an ethanol-containing diet (ED) would significantly reduce central immunoreactivity of the MC peptide alpha-MSH in rats. We also determined if ethanol exposure would alter the immunoreactivity of agouti-related protein (AgRP), an endogenous MCR antagonist...
February 2008: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Katrin Dürr, Ebba Norsted, Burçak Gömüç, Elisabet Suarez, Jens Hannibal, Björn Meister
Several lines of evidence support a role for pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) in the regulation of energy balance. In the present study, we have used fluorescent in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry to investigate in detail the cellular localization and chemical content of PACAP mRNA- and peptide-containing neuronal cell bodies in the mediobasal hypothalamus of the rat. PACAP mRNA-containing cell bodies were demonstrated in high numbers in the ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and in lower numbers in the arcuate nucleus (Arc)...
December 2007: Brain Research
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