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Melanocyte stimulating hormone

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29321171/sgk1-foxo3-signaling-in-hypothalamic-pomc-neurons-mediates-glucocorticoid-increased-adiposity
#1
Yalan Deng, Yuzhong Xiao, Feixiang Yuan, Yaping Liu, Xiaoxue Jiang, Jiali Deng, Geza Fejes-Toth, Aniko Naray-Fejes-Toth, Shanghai Chen, Yan Chen, Hao Ying, Qiwei Zhai, Yousheng Shu, Feifan Guo
Although central nervous system has been implicated in glucocorticoid-induced fat mass gain, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of our current study was to investigate the possible involvement of hypothalamic serum- and glucocorticoid-regulated kinase 1 (SGK1) in glucocorticoid-increased adiposity. It is well-known that SGK1 expression is induced by acute glucocorticoid treatment, interestingly, we found its expression was decreased in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, including POMC neurons, following chronic dexamethasone (Dex) treatment...
January 10, 2018: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316344/widespread-dynamic-and-pleiotropic-expression-of-the-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-system-is-conserved-across-chick-mouse-and-human-embryonic-development
#2
Anna C Thomas, Pauline Heux, Chloe Santos, Wisenave Arulvasan, Nita Solanky, Magalie E Carey, Dianne Gerrelli, Veronica A Kinsler, Heather C Etchevers
BACKGROUND: MC1R, a G-protein coupled receptor with high affinity for alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH), modulates pigment production in melanocytes from many species and is associated with human melanoma risk. MC1R mutations affecting human skin and hair color also have pleiotropic effects on the immune response and analgesia. Variants affecting human pigmentation in utero alter the congenital phenotype of both oculocutaneous albinism and congenital melanocytic naevi, and have a possible effect on birthweight...
January 8, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311485/evaluation-of-antimelanogenic-activity-and-mechanism-of-galangin-in-silico-and-in-vivo
#3
Ki Wung Chung, Hyeong Oh Jeong, Eun Kyeong Lee, Su Jeong Kim, Pusoon Chun, Hae Young Chung, Hyung Ryong Moon
Abnormal pigmentation owing to excessive melanin synthesis can result in serious problems such as freckles, age-spots, and melanoma. Tyrosinase inhibitors have been an interesting target for the treatment of hyperpigmentation because tyrosinase is the rate-limiting enzyme in melanin synthesis. The screening for strong tyrosinase inhibitors led to the finding of the flavonoid galangin, which showed notable inhibitory effects on mushroom tyrosinase. The IC50 value of galangin (3.55±0.39 µM) was lower than that of kojic acid (48...
2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311116/stim1-activation-of-adenylyl-cyclase-6-connects-ca2-and-camp-signaling-during-melanogenesis
#4
Rajender K Motiani, Jyoti Tanwar, Desingu Ayyappa Raja, Ayushi Vashisht, Shivangi Khanna, Sachin Sharma, Sonali Srivastava, Sridhar Sivasubbu, Vivek T Natarajan, Rajesh S Gokhale
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-plasma membrane (PM) junctions form functionally active microdomains that connect intracellular and extracellular environments. While the key role of these interfaces in maintenance of intracellular Ca2+ levels has been uncovered in recent years, the functional significance of ER-PM junctions in non-excitable cells has remained unclear. Here, we show that the ER calcium sensor protein STIM1 (stromal interaction molecule 1) interacts with the plasma membrane-localized adenylyl cyclase 6 (ADCY6) to govern melanogenesis...
January 8, 2018: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300356/synergistic-promotion-on-tyrosinase-inhibition-by-antioxidants
#5
Yan Wang, Mi-Mi Hao, Ying Sun, Li-Feng Wang, Hao Wang, Yan-Jun Zhang, Hong-Yan Li, Peng-Wei Zhuang, Zhen Yang
When exposed to ultraviolet radiation, the human skin produces profuse reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn activate a variety of biological responses. Mounting ROS levels activate tyrosinase by mobilizing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone in the epidermis and finally stimulates the melanocytes to produce melanin. Meanwhile, the Keap1-Nrf2/ARE pathway, which removes ROS, is activated at increased ROS levels, and antioxidant compounds facilitates the dissociation of Nrf2. In this study, we explored the possible suppressing effects of antioxidant compounds and tyrosine inhibitors on melanin formation and the promotory effects of these compounds on ROS scavenging...
January 4, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273098/hair-follicle-immune-privilege-revisited-the-key-to-alopecia-areata-management
#6
REVIEW
Ralf Paus, Silvia Bulfone-Paus, Marta Bertolini
The collapse of the immune privilege (IP) of the anagen hair bulb is now accepted as a key element in AA pathogenesis, and hair bulb IP restoration lies at the core of AA therapy. Here, we briefly review the essentials of hair bulb IP and recent progress in understanding its complexity. We discuss open questions and why the systematic dissection of hair bulb IP and its pharmacological manipulation (including the clinical testing of FK506 and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone analogs) promise to extend the range of future therapeutic options in AA and other IP collapse-related autoimmune diseases...
January 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology. Symposium Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226825/desacetyl-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-are-required-to-regulate-energy-balance
#7
Kathleen G Mountjoy, Alexandre Caron, Kristina Hubbard, Avik Shome, Angus C Grey, Bo Sun, Sarah Bould, Martin Middleditch, Beau Pontré, Ailsa McGregor, Paul W R Harris, Renata Kowalczyk, Margaret A Brimble, Rikus Botha, Karen M L Tan, Sarah J Piper, Christina Buchanan, Syann Lee, Anthony P Coll, Joel K Elmquist
OBJECTIVE: Regulation of energy balance depends on pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides and melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R). Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is the predicted natural POMC-derived peptide that regulates energy balance. Desacetyl-α-MSH, the precursor for α-MSH, is present in brain and blood. Desacetyl-α-MSH is considered to be unimportant for regulating energy balance despite being more potent (compared with α-MSH) at activating the appetite-regulating MC4R in vitro...
November 24, 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207659/2-3-4-dihydroxybenzylidene-malononitrile-as-a-novel-anti-melanogenic-compound
#8
Bonggi Lee, Kyoung Mi Moon, Jong Seung Lim, Yeojin Park, Do Hyun Kim, Sujin Son, Hyoung Oh Jeong, Dae Hyun Kim, Eun Kyeong Lee, Ki Wung Chung, Hye Jin An, Pusoon Chun, Arnold Y Seo, Ju-Hye Yang, Bong-Seon Lee, Jin Yeul Ma, Won-Kyung Cho, Hyung Ryong Moon, Hae Young Chung
Tyrosinase is a key player in ultraviolet-induced melanogenesis. Because excessive melanin accumulation in the skin can induce hyperpigmentation, the development of tyrosinase inhibitors has attracted attention in cosmetic-related fields. However, side effects including toxicity and low selectivity have limited the use of many tyrosinase inhibitors in cosmetics. We synthesized 12 novel 2-(substituted benzylidene)malononitrile derivatives and investigated their anti-melanogenic activities. Of these 12 compounds, 2-(3, 4-dihydroxy benzylidene)malononitrile (BMN11) exhibited the strongest inhibitory activity against tyrosinase (IC50 = 17...
October 31, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184811/dermatologic-manifestations-of-endocrine-disorders
#9
REVIEW
Michael Lause, Alisha Kamboj, Esteban Fernandez Faith
The skin serves as a window for clinicians to understand, diagnose, and monitor endocrine disease. Dermatologic manifestations of endocrinopathies contribute significantly to an individual's health and quality of life. In this review, we outline various disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, thyroid gland, pancreas, adrenal gland, and androgen axis as well as hereditary endocrine syndromes. In acromegaly, glycosaminoglycan deposition contributes to a thickening of skin and soft tissue, which manifests as coarsening and enlargement of facial and acral structures...
October 2017: Translational pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182034/molecular-imaging-and-radionuclide-therapy-of-melanoma-targeting-the-melanocortin-1-receptor
#10
Chengcheng Zhang, Kuo-Shyan Lin, François Bénard
Melanoma is a deadly disease at late metastatic stage, and early diagnosis and accurate staging remain the key aspects for managing melanoma. The melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1 R) is overexpressed in primary and metastatic melanomas, and its endogenous ligand, the α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH), has been extensively studied for the development of MC1 R-targeted molecular imaging and therapy of melanoma. Natural αMSH is not well suited for this purpose due to low stability in vivo. Unnatural amino acid substitutions substantially stabilized the peptide, while cyclization via lactam bridge and metal coordination further improved binding affinity and stability...
January 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152323/new-melanocortin-like-peptide-of-e-coli-can-suppress-inflammation-via-the-mammalian-melanocortin-1-receptor-mc1r-possible-endocrine-like-function-for-microbes-of-the-gut
#11
Xiaoling Qiang, Anthony S Liotta, Joseph Shiloach, J C Gutierrez, Haichao Wang, Mahendar Ochani, Kanta Ochani, Huan Yang, Aviva Rabin, Derek LeRoith, Maxine A Lesniak, Markus Böhm, Christian Maaser, Klaus Kannengiesser, Mark Donowitz, Shervin Rabizadeh, Christopher J Czura, Kevin J Tracey, Mark Westlake, Aida Zarfeshani, Syed F Mehdi, Ann Danoff, Xueliang Ge, Suparna Sanyal, Gary J Schwartz, Jesse Roth
E. coli releases a 33 amino acid peptide melanocortin-like peptide of E. coli (MECO-1) that is identical to the C-terminus of the E. coli elongation factor-G (EF-G) and has interesting similarities to two prominent mammalian melanocortin hormones, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH). Note that MECO-1 lacks HFRW, the common pharmacophore of the known mammalian melanocortin peptides. MECO-1 and the two hormones were equally effective in severely blunting release of cytokines (HMGB1 and TNF) from macrophage-like cells in response to (i) endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide) or (ii) pro-inflammatory cytokine HMGB-1...
2017: NPJ Biofilms and Microbiomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29099963/activity-of-the-hypothalamic-melanocortin-system-decreases-in-middle-aged-and-increases-in-old-rats
#12
Nóra Füredi, Alexandra Mikó, Balázs Gaszner, Diána Feller, Ildikó Rostás, Judit Tenk, Margit Solymár, Márta Balaskó, Erika Pétervári
Appearance of middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia both in humans and rodents suggests a role for regulatory alterations. Hypothalamic melanocortin agonist, alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH) produced in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) reduces body weight via inducing hypermetabolism and anorexia mainly through melanocortin 4 receptors (MC4R) in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Orexigenic ARC-derived agouti-related protein (AgRP) is an inverse agonist on MC4R in the PVN. Previously we demonstrated that characteristic age-related shifts in the catabolic effects of alpha-MSH may contribute both to middle-aged obesity and aging anorexia...
November 1, 2017: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090638/indomethacin-inhibits-melanogenesis-via-down-regulation-of-mitf-mrna-transcription
#13
Kazuomi Sato, Masahiro Takei, Ray Iyota, Yoshimasa Muraoka, Marika Nagashima, Yoshitaka Yoshimura
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) exhibit several divergent biological effects. In this study, we investigated the effect of indomethacin on melanin synthesis using B16F1 melanoma cells. Indomethacin inhibited α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-enhanced melanin synthesis in a dose-dependent manner. Western blotting analysis revealed that indomethacin significantly suppressed tyrosinase and Mitf protein levels. In a luciferase reporter assay, we found that indomethacin reduced tyrosinase promoter activity...
November 1, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058865/melanocortin-1-receptor-targeting-ultrasmall-silica-nanoparticles-for-dual-modality-human-melanoma-imaging
#14
Feng Chen, Xiuli Zhang, Kai Ma, Brian Madajewski, Miriam Benezra, Li Zhang, Evan Phillips, Melik Ziya Turker, Fabio Gallazzi, Michael Overholtzer, Mohan Pauliah, Mithat Gonen, Pat Zanzonico, Ulrich B Wiesner, Michelle S Bradbury, Thomas Quinn
The poor prognosis associated with malignant melanoma has not changed substantially over the past 30 years. Targeted molecular therapies, such as immunotherapy have shown promise, but suffer from resistance and off-target toxicities, underscoring the need for alternative therapeutic strategies that can be used in combination with existing protocols. Moreover, peptides targeting melanoma-specific markers, like the melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1-R), for imaging and therapy exhibit high renal uptake that limits clinical translation...
October 23, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056352/does-mch-play-a-role-on-establishment-or-maintenance-of-social-hierarchy-in-nile-tilapia
#15
Guilherme Corrêa Ramanzini, Gilson Luiz Volpato, Maria Aparecida Visconti
Body coloration has a fundamental role in animal communication by signaling sex, age, reproductive behavior, aggression, etc. Nile-tilapia exhibits dominance hierarchy and the dominants are paler than subordinates. During social interactions in these animals, these color changes occur rapidly, and normally the subordinates become dark. In teleosteans, from the great number of hormones and neurotransmitters involved in color changes, melanocyte hormone stimulates (α-MSH) and melanin concentrates hormone (MCH) are the most remarkable...
January 1, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044987/sticky-fingers-at-work-palmitoylation-dependent-mc1r-activation
#16
Jose Carlos Garcia-Borron, Celia Jimenez-Cervantes
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 17, 2017: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042315/il-1%C3%AE-reduces-glua1-phosphorylation-and-its-surface-expression-during-memory-reconsolidation-and-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-can-modulate-these-effects
#17
Ivana Machado, Helgi B Schiöth, Mercedes Lasaga, Teresa Scimonelli
Pro-inflammatory cytokines can affect cognitive processes such as learning and memory. Particularly, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) influences hippocampus-dependent memories. We previously reported that administration of IL-1β in dorsal hippocampus impaired contextual fear memory reconsolidation. This effect was reversed by the melanocortin alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH). Our results also demonstrated that IL-1β produced a significant decrease in glutamate release from dorsal hippocampus synaptosomes after reactivation of the fear memory...
October 14, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031731/evaluation-of-a-melanocortin-4-receptor-mc4r-agonist-setmelanotide-in-mc4r-deficiency
#18
Tinh-Hai Collet, Béatrice Dubern, Jacek Mokrosinski, Hillori Connors, Julia M Keogh, Edson Mendes de Oliveira, Elana Henning, Christine Poitou-Bernert, Jean-Michel Oppert, Patrick Tounian, Florence Marchelli, Rohia Alili, Johanne Le Beyec, Dominique Pépin, Jean-Marc Lacorte, Andrew Gottesdiener, Rebecca Bounds, Shubh Sharma, Cathy Folster, Bart Henderson, Stephen O'Rahilly, Elizabeth Stoner, Keith Gottesdiener, Brandon L Panaro, Roger D Cone, Karine Clément, I Sadaf Farooqi, Lex H T Van der Ploeg
OBJECTIVE: Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC)-derived peptides act on neurons expressing the Melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) to reduce body weight. Setmelanotide is a highly potent MC4R agonist that leads to weight loss in diet-induced obese animals and in obese individuals with complete POMC deficiency. While POMC deficiency is very rare, 1-5% of severely obese individuals harbor heterozygous mutations in MC4R. We sought to assess the efficacy of Setmelanotide in human MC4R deficiency. METHODS: We studied the effects of Setmelanotide on mutant MC4Rs in cells and the weight loss response to Setmelanotide administration in rodent studies and a human clinical trial...
October 2017: Molecular Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023410/long-term-osmotic-mini-pump-treatment-with-alpha-msh-improves-myocardial-function-in-zucker-diabetic-fatty-rats
#19
Miklos Szokol, Daniel Priksz, Mariann Bombicz, Balazs Varga, Arpad Kovacs, Gabor Aron Fulop, Tamas Csipo, Aniko Posa, Attila Toth, Zoltan Papp, Zoltan Szilvassy, Bela Juhasz
The present investigation evaluates the cardiovascular effects of the anorexigenic mediator alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (MSH), in a rat model of type 2 diabetes. Osmotic mini pumps delivering MSH or vehicle, for 6 weeks, were surgically implanted in Zucker Diabetic Fatty (ZDF) rats. Serum parameters, blood pressure, and weight gain were monitored along with oral glucose tolerance (OGTT). Echocardiography was conducted and, following sacrifice, the effects of treatment on ischemia/reperfusion cardiac injury were assessed using the isolated working heart method...
October 12, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020973/the-%C3%AE-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-peroxisome-proliferator-activated-receptor-%C3%AE-pathway-down-regulates-proliferation-in-melanoma-cell-lines
#20
Enrica Flori, Eleonora Rosati, Giorgia Cardinali, Daniela Kovacs, Barbara Bellei, Mauro Picardo, Vittoria Maresca
BACKGROUND: The α-Melanocyte Stimulating Hormone (αMSH)/Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) interaction promotes melanogenesis through the cAMP/PKA pathway. The direct induction of this pathway by Forskolin (FSK) is also known to enhance melanocyte proliferation. αMSH acts as a mitogenic agent in melanocytes and its effect on proliferation of melanoma cells is less known. We previously identified the αMSH/Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor (PPARγ) pathway as a new pathway on the B16-F10 mouse melanoma cell line...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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