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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#1
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27668113/persistent-down-beating-torsional-positional-nystagmus-posterior-semicircular-canal-light-cupula
#2
Akihide Ichimura, Koji Otsuka
A 16-year-old boy with rotatory positional vertigo and nausea, particularly when lying down, visited our clinic. Initially, we observed vertical/torsional (downward/leftward) nystagmus in the supine position, and it did not diminish. In the sitting position, nystagmus was not provoked. Neurological examinations were normal. We speculated that persistent torsional down-beating nystagmus was caused by the light cupula of the posterior semicircular canal. This case provides novel insights into the light cupula pathophysiology...
2016: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27666432/upbeat-nystagmus-after-bilateral-superior-canal-plugging-a-peripheral-cause-of-vertical-nystagmus
#3
Jeffrey D Sharon, John P Carey, Michael C Schubert
Vertical nystagmus without a torsional component is generally considered a finding indicative of central nervous system pathology. We report two cases of purely upbeat nystagmus elicited with mastoid vibration after bilateral superior canal plugging, to highlight the vestibular pathophysiology involved in this unusual peripheral cause for upbeat nystagmus. Laryngoscope, 2016.
September 26, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27660495/atypical-oculopalatal-tremor-as-the-presentation-of-vertebral-artery-dolichoectasia
#4
Kavin Vanikieti, Piyaphon Cheecharoen, Panitha Jindahra, Sirin Lueangaram, Tanyatuth Padungkiatsagul
Vertebrobasilar dolichoectasia (VBD) is a rare dilative arteriopathy defined as elongation or widening of the intracranial vertebral and/or basilar arteries. The prevalence ranges from 0.06% to 5.8%. The majority of VBDs are asymptomatic. Downbeat nystagmus has been reported as a component of an infrequent ocular movement disorder in VBD. Nevertheless, oculopalatal tremor (OPT), delayed sequelae of a brainstem lesion, has never been demonstrated in VBD cases. Synchronized rhythmic involuntary contractions of the soft palate with an ocular pendular nystagmus, predominantly vertical pendular nystagmus, are the hallmark presentation...
2016: International Medical Case Reports Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27638073/acute-unilateral-loss-of-vestibular-function
#5
M Fetter
Sudden unilateral loss of vestibular function is the most severe condition that can occur in the vestibular system. The clinical syndrome is caused by the physiologic properties of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) arc. In the normal situation, the two peripheral vestibular end organs are connected to a functional unit in coplanar pairs of semicircular canals working in a push-pull mode. "Push-pull" mode means that, when one side is excited, the other side is inhibited, and vice versa due to two mechanisms...
2016: Handbook of Clinical Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27497392/paroxysmal-vertigo-with-nystagmus-in-children
#6
Tomoko Okumura, Takao Imai, Kayoko Higashi-Shingai, Yumi Ohta, Tetsuo Morihana, Takashi Sato, Suzuyo Okazaki, Yoriko Iwamoto, Yukiko Hanada, Yoshiyuki Ozono, Ryusuke Imai, Kazuya Ohata, Hidenori Inohara
INTRODUCTION: A pathological nystagmus is an objective sign that a patient feels vertigo. However, there have been few opportunities to observe and record pathological nystagmus during a paroxysmal vertigo attack. Furthermore, it can be difficult to obtain cooperation in pediatric patients. We present two cases of paroxysmal vertigo in children in whom we successfully recorded and analyzed their pathological nystagmus during a vertigo attack. METHODS: Of a total sample of 4349 patients seen at our hospital for dizziness in the last decade, a retrospective analysis revealed that 68 were children (<15 years old; 1...
September 2016: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27448548/unilateral-internuclear-ophthalmoplegia-strabismus-and-transient-torsional-nystagmus-in-focal-pontine-infarction
#7
Ali S Haider
Vertebrobasilar stroke carries a high mortality rate and can have symptom patterns that are complex and difficult to diagnose. Isolated infarcts of the pons are uncommon and the neuro-ophthalmic presentation of pontine stroke can be quite variable. There is a paucity of cases in the literature documenting neuro-ophthalmic pathology as the sole or primary manifestation of pontine stroke. Here is presented the case of a unilateral internuclear ophthalmoplegia (INO) with concomitant skew deviation, contralesional exotropia and ipsiversive torsional nystagmus as the initial and only presenting feature of an isolated pontine stroke...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27358321/vestibular-and-oculomotor-influences-on-visual-dependency
#8
R Edward Roberts, Mariane Da Silva Melo, Aazim A Siddiqui, Qadeer Arshad, Mitesh Patel
The degree to which a person relies on visual stimuli for spatial orientation is termed visual dependency (VD). VD is considered a perceptual trait or cognitive style influenced by psychological factors and mediated by central reweighting of the sensory inputs involved in spatial orientation. VD is often measured with the rod-and-disk test, in which participants align a central rod to the subjective visual vertical (SVV) in the presence of a background that is either stationary or rotating around the line of sight-dynamic SVV...
September 1, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27174206/classification-diagnostic-criteria-and-management-of-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo
#9
Takao Imai, Noriaki Takeda, Tetsuo Ikezono, Kohichiro Shigeno, Masatsugu Asai, Yukio Watanabe, Mamoru Suzuki
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vertigo and the posterior and/or lateral semicircular canals are usually affected. BPPV is characterized by brief attacks of rotatory vertigo associated with positional and/or positioning nystagmus, which are elicited by specific head positions or changes in head position relative to gravity. In patients with the posterior-canal-type of BPPV, torsional nystagmus is induced by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. In patients with the lateral-canal-type of BPPV, horizontal geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus is induced by the supine roll test...
May 9, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126292/-the-vestibular-craniovertebral-joints
#10
A Lappat, L J Dorn, M Hölzl
INTRODUCTION: The significance of cervical proprioception for human balance has thus far not been sufficiently elucidated. The aim of this study was to provoke selective cervico-vestibular stimulation using the trunk excursion test (TET) we ourselves constructed. This chair is designed to enable evaluation of cervico-ocular reactions during isolated trunk excursion and possible effects of aging. METHODS: The previously used head excursion test (HET) was statistically compared to the TET...
May 2016: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26986871/benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-in-2-children-a-case-series
#11
Jennifer L Fay
PURPOSE: The purpose of this case report is to present the cases of 2 boys with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). KEY POINTS: Patient A (11 years old) and Patient B (9 years old) had complaints of vertigo with position changes. Both exhibited left torsion upbeating nystagmus in the left Dix-Hallpike (DH) test and complaints of vertigo with reproduction of their symptoms, indicating BPPV. Both were treated with a left canalith repositioning maneuver and reported decreased incidence of positional vertigo upon reevaluation...
2016: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26978880/anomalous-head-postures-in-strabismus-and-nystagmus-diagnosis-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Luminita Teodorescu
UNLABELLED: Abnormal head positions are adopted in order to improve visual acuity, to avoid diplopia or to obtain a more comfortable binocular vision. The head can be turned or tilted toward right or left, with the chin rotated up or downwards or combination of these positions. The ophthalmologic examination including the assessment of versions leads to the diagnosis. When versions are free, the cause may be congenital nystagmus or strabismus with large angle. When versions are limited we suspect paralytic or restrictive strabismus...
July 2015: Romanian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26973594/bilateral-vestibular-hypofunction-insights-in-etiologies-clinical-subtypes-and-diagnostics
#13
F Lucieer, P Vonk, N Guinand, R Stokroos, H Kingma, Raymond van de Berg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the different etiologies and clinical subtypes of bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) and the value of diagnostic tools in the diagnostic process of BVH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective case review was performed on 154 patients diagnosed with BVH in a tertiary referral center, between 2013 and 2015. Inclusion criteria comprised (1) imbalance and/or oscillopsia during locomotion and (2) summated slow phase velocity of nystagmus of less than 20°/s during bithermal caloric tests...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26782915/-strabismus-sursoabductorius-put-into-the-context-of-eighteen-years-of-strabismus-surgery-analysis
#14
J Krásný
AIM: To familiarize with the form of combined horizontal and vertical deviations and its development and put it into the context of eighteen years of strabismus surgery analysis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: During the period from 1996 to 2014, there were at the Department of Ophthalmology, 2nd Medical Faculty, Charles University and Faculty Hospital Královské Vinohrady, Prague, Czech Republic, E.U., operated on 2 248 patients due to the eye position misalignment. The surgery of dynamic (comitant) strabismus (esotropia, exotropia, vertical deviations and their combinations) was altogether performed in 81...
2015: Ceská a Slovenská Oftalmologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26759440/nystagmus-in-a-newborn-a-manifestation-of-joubert-syndrome-in-the-neonatal-period
#15
Inês Salva, Carolina Albuquerque, Ana Moreira, Catarina Dâmaso
Joubert syndrome is a rare disorder, usually autosomal recessive, with a prevalence of 1:80,000 to 1:100,000. This disease presents most commonly as breathing irregularities, although the two major clinical criteria are hypotonia and developmental delay, sometimes associated with ocular movement abnormalities. The severity of the presentation varies, ranging from mild cases with normal intelligence to severe developmental delays associated with early death. We report a case of a newborn who presented to the emergency department for absent ocular fixation and torsional nystagmus without other neurological abnormalities...
2016: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26562906/how-were-eye-movements-recorded-before-yarbus
#16
Nicholas J Wade
Alfred Yarbus introduced a new dimension of precision in recording how the eyes moved, either when attempts were made to keep them stationary or when scanning pictures. Movements of the eyes had been remarked upon for millennia, but recording how they move is a more recent preoccupation. Emphasis was initially placed on abnormalities of oculomotor function (like strabismus) before normal features were considered. The interest was in where the eyes moved to rather than determining how they got there. The most venerable technique for examining ocular stability involved comparing the relative motion between an afterimage and a real image...
2015: Perception
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26557364/apogeotropic-posterior-semicircular-canal-benign-paroxysmal-positional-vertigo-some-clinical-and-therapeutic-considerations
#17
Paolo Vannucchi, Rudi Pecci, Beatrice Giannoni, Fabio Di Giustino, Rossana Santimone, Arianna Mengucci
We lately reported the cases of patients complaining positional vertigo whose nystagmic pattern was that of a peripheral torsional vertical positional down beating nystagmus originating from a lithiasis of the non-ampullary arm of the posterior semicircular canal (PSC). We considered this particular pathological picture the apogeotropic variant of PSC benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV). Since the description of the pilot cases we observed more than 150 patients showing the same clinical sign and course of symptoms...
January 21, 2015: Audiology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26537642/the-evaluation-of-the-neck-torsion-test-in-subjective-examinations-of-patients-with-vertigo-and-or-hearing-loss
#18
Piotr Niewiadomski, Hanna Zielińska-Bliźniewskaw, Jarosław Miloński, Piotr Pietkiewicz, Jurek Olszewski
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this work was to evaluate the diagnostic value of the neck torsion test in VNG, Doppler ultrasonography and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in patients with vertigo and/or hearing loss due to intracranial vascular malformations. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study covered 47 patients, 30 female and 17 male (mean age, 55.5 years; range, 19-74 years) with vertigo and/or hearing disorders and the asymmetry of vertebral arteries. Each patient underwent a subjective examination, an otolaryngological examination, otoneurological diagnostics, VNG with gaze tracking in the straight ahead position and in the 600 left and right neck torsion, the neck torsion test, audiological diagnostics including I-, III- and V-wave latency of the brainstem evoked potentials in the straight ahead position and the right ear stimulation in the 600 right neck torsion and the left ear stimulation in the neck torsion to the left, Doppler ultrasonography with measuring the diameter of vertebral arteries and the velocity of the blood flow in these vessels with the use of the neck torsion test...
2015: Otolaryngologia Polska. the Polish Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26165775/audiovestibular-impairments-associated-with-intracranial-hypotension
#19
Jae-Hwan Choi, Kee-Yong Cho, Seung-Yi Cha, Jae-Deuk Seo, Min-Ji Kim, Yu Ri Choi, Sung-Hee Kim, Ji-Soo Kim, Kwang-Dong Choi
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the patterns and mechanisms of audiovestibular impairments associated with intracranial hypotension. METHODS: We had consecutively recruited 16 patients with intracranial hypotension at the Neurology Center of Pusan National University Hospital for two years. Spontaneous, gaze-evoked, and positional nystagmus were recorded using 3D video-oculography in all patients, and the majority of them also had pure tone audiometry and bithermal caloric tests...
October 15, 2015: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26059663/eye-muscle-surgery-for-recurrent-nystagmus-related-to-head-tilt-after-prior-torsional-surgery
#20
Burton J Kushner, David M Gamm
PURPOSE: To describe the usefulness of anterior nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscle in the fixing eye to treat nystagmus-mediated head tilt recurring after prior torsional surgery. METHODS: The medical records of patients who underwent anterior nasal transposition of the inferior oblique muscle in the fixing eye to treat recurrence of head tilt after prior successful torsional surgery were retrospectively reviewed. RESULTS: Three patients met inclusion criteria...
June 2015: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
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