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Lejo Johnson Chacko, Dominik T Schmidbauer, Stephan Handschuh, Alen Reka, Karl D Fritscher, Patrik Raudaschl, Rami Saba, Michael Handler, Peter P Schier, Daniel Baumgarten, Natalie Fischer, Elisabeth J Pechriggl, Erich Brenner, Romed Hoermann, Rudolf Glueckert, Anneliese Schrott-Fischer
Stable posture and body movement in humans is dictated by the precise functioning of the ampulla organs in the semi-circular canals. Statistical analysis of the interrelationship between bony and membranous compartments within the semi-circular canals is dependent on the visualization of soft tissue structures. Thirty-one human inner ears were prepared, post-fixed with osmium tetroxide and decalcified for soft tissue contrast enhancement. High resolution X-ray microtomography images at 15 μm voxel-size were manually segmented...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Francesco Doglietto, Marco Ferrari, Davide Mattavelli, Francesco Belotti, Vittorio Rampinelli, Hussein Kheshaifati, Davide Lancini, Alberto Schreiber, Tommaso Sorrentino, Marco Ravanelli, Barbara Buffoli, Lena Hirtler, Roberto Maroldi, Piero Nicolai, Luigi Rodella, Marco Maria Fontanella
BACKGROUND: Transnasal endoscopic approaches to the clivus have been recently established. Comparative analyses with "classic" lateral approaches are limited. OBJECTIVE: To compare transnasal endoscopic and lateral approaches to the clivus, quantifying exposure and working volume of each approach in the anatomy laboratory. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Five injected specimens (10 sides) underwent high-resolution computed tomography. In each specimen, transnasal endoscopic (Paraseptal, Transrostral, Extended Transrostral, Transethmoidal, Extended Transclival approach without and with intradural hypophysiopexy) and lateral approaches (Retrosigmoid, Far-lateral, Presigmoid retro- and trans-labyrinthine) to the clivus were performed...
February 27, 2018: World Neurosurgery
A P Casani, N Cerchiai, E Navari
Lindsay and Hemenway syndrome is characterised by a posterior canal benign paroxysmal positional vertigo following a partial unilateral vestibular loss affecting the same side. The syndrome is caused by damage of structures innervated by the superior division of the vestibular nerve and perfused by the anterior vestibular artery; the detached otoconia can cause vertigo in the still intact posterior semicircular canal. The most recent vestibular instrumental techniques allow reaching an accurate topodiagnosis in case of peripheral vestibular failure...
February 28, 2018: Acta Otorhinolaryngologica Italica
Kanaga Arul Nambi Rajan, Marwa Khater, Francesca Soncin, Donald Pizzo, Matteo Moretto-Zita, Jonathan Pham, Orysya Stus, Pooja Iyer, Veronique Tache, Louise C Laurent, Mana M Parast
INTRODUCTION: Placental insufficiency, arising from abnormal trophoblast differentiation and function, is a major cause of fetal growth restriction. Sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) is a ubiquitously-expressed NAD-dependent protein deacetylase which plays a key role in numerous cellular processes, including cellular differentiation and metabolism. Though Sirt1 has been widely studied, its role in placentation and trophoblast differentiation is unclear. METHOD: Sirt1-heterozygous mice were mated and evaluated at various points during embryogenesis...
February 2018: Placenta
Yoon Chan Rah, Won Gue Han, Jae Woo Joo, Kuk Jin Nam, Jihye Rhee, Jae Jun Song, Gi Jung Im, Sung Won Chae, Hak Hyun Jung, June Choi
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate long-term hearing changes and surgical outcomes for middle ear cholesteatoma with labyrinthine fistula following complete surgical removal of the cholesteatoma matrix. METHODS: Consecutive samples of 43 patients who underwent 1-stage complete resection of the cholesteatoma matrix overlying a labyrinthine fistula were obtained. Immediate and long-term hearing changes were analyzed in association with fistula size. Accuracy of various diagnostic examinations was assessed...
February 1, 2018: Annals of Otology, Rhinology, and Laryngology
Maria Eduarda Di Cavalcanti Alves de Souza, Klinger Vagner Teixeira da Costa, Pedro de Lemos Menezes
INTRODUCTION: Caffeine can be considered the most consumed drug by adults worldwide, and can be found in several foods, such as chocolate, coffee, tea, soda and others. Overall, caffeine in moderate doses, results in increased physical and intellectual productivity, increases the capacity of concentration and reduces the time of reaction to sensory stimuli. On the other hand, high doses can cause noticeable signs of mental confusion and error induction in intellectual tasks, anxiety, restlessness, muscle tremors, tachycardia, labyrinthine changes, and tinnitus...
December 24, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
A F Jahn
OBJECTIVE: A distinct subgroup of patients, presenting with apparently spontaneous onset of vertigo, is described. RESULTS: Although vestibular evaluation revealed caloric weakness, the proximate cause of vertigo was not labyrinthine dysfunction, but rather the loss of vestibular compensation for an older and previously compensated labyrinthine injury. CONCLUSION: Instead of addressing the vestibular weakness, effective management needs to focus on the condition that has caused the loss of compensation...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
Chang-Hee Kim, Jin Woo Choi, Kyu Jin Han, Yong Sik Lee, Jung Eun Shin
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the incidence of positional nystagmus (PN) using a head-roll test in patients with Ramsay Hunt syndrome with vertigo (RHS_V) and discuss possible mechanisms. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: Tertiary referral academic medical center. PATIENTS: Twenty-eight patients with RHS_V were enrolled. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Eye movements were recorded at positions of head roll to the right or left, and PN was classified as direction-fixed or direction-changing...
January 16, 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Julie B Guerin, Diana L Vork, Lourdes Eguiguren, Alexander P Marston, Colin L W Driscoll, Matthew L Carlson, Nancy K Henry, John I Lane
OBJECTIVE: To report the presentation, diagnosis, management, and convalescence of labyrinthine sequestrum (LS) and summarize all previously published cases. PATIENT(S): Eleven-year-old female with LS. INTERVENTION(S): Multidisciplinary diagnostic evaluation and treatment. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Imaging and laboratory findings, medical and surgical treatment. RESULTS: We describe a case of LS secondary to medically recalcitrant suppurative otitis media in an 11-year-old female and review all eight previously reported cases...
March 2018: Otology & Neurotology
Simy K Parikh, Samuel A Frank
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Neurology
Luke Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Neurology
Chafic Karam, Robert C Griggs
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 16, 2018: Neurology
Stefan K Plontke, Sabrina Kösling, Torsten Rahne
OBJECTIVE: To describe the technique for surgical tumor removal, cochlear implant (CI) electrode placement and reconstruction of the surgical defect in patients with intracochlear schwannomas. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case review. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: Ten patients (five men, five women, mean age 48 ± 12 yr) with profound or severe to profound hearing loss due to intralabyrinthine schwannomas with intracochlear location...
December 27, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
Johnathan C Valesano, Carrie M Carr, Laurence J Eckel, Matthew L Carlson, John I Lane
OBJECTIVE: Non-contrast MRI of the internal auditory canal (IAC) using high-resolution T2WI (T2 weighted image) has been proposed as the primary screening study in patients with sudden or asymmetric sensorineural hearing loss (ASNHL). However, there are concerns that non-contrast MRI may not detect labyrinthine pathology, specifically intralabyrinthine schwannomas (ILSs). The purpose of this study was to determine if non-contrast high-resolution T2WI alone are adequate to exclude these uncommon intralabyrinthine tumors...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Yuefeng Chen, Kai Zhang, Yanfeng Xu, Yanxu Che, Linna Guan, Yefeng Li
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the reliability of temporal bone high-resolution CT (HRCT) in patients with traumatic facial paralysis. METHODS: HRCT with cross-sectional scanning and multi-planar reformation (MPR) was performed on 26 cases with traumatic facial paralysis, and the preoperative imaging manifestations were compared with surgical findings. RESULTS: Preoperative HRCT revealed fallopian canal damage at the posterior genu in 1 case, geniculate ganglion in 22 cases, labyrinthine segment in 4 cases, tympanic segment in 13 cases and mastoid segment in 0 case, while surgical findings confirmed fallopian canal damage at the posterior genu in 7 cases, geniculate ganglion in 23 cases, labyrinthine segment in 4 cases, tympanic segment in 17 cases and mastoid segment in 7 cases...
December 5, 2017: American Journal of Otolaryngology
Raymond van de Berg, Sally Rosengren, Herman Kingma
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the last decades, researchers suggested that clinical assessment of labyrinthine function in detail became easy thanks to video head impulse tests (VHITs), vestibular evoked myogenic potential test (VEMP) and video-oculography (VOG). It has been argued that they can replace electronystagmography, the caloric and rotatory chair tests. This review addresses the latest evaluations of these tests and the opportunities they offer, but also the limitations in clinical practice...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
Hilla Levo, Heikki Aalto, Timo P Hirvonen
OBJECTIVE: To explore clinical features of patients with bilateral vestibular hypofunction (BVH) verified in motorized head impulse test (MHIT). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We examined clinical records of 23 adult patients (10 males and 13 females), whose gain of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in the MHIT was bilaterally lowered. Fifteen of 62 unilateral cochlear implant (CI) recipients routinely tested both pre- and postoperatively with the MHIT had BVH. Eight of 198 vestibular outpatients selected to the MHIT due to clinical causes had BVH...
November 2, 2017: Journal of International Advanced Otology
Aytül Gökçe, Daniele Avitabile, Stephen Coombes
Continuum neural field equations model the large-scale spatio-temporal dynamics of interacting neurons on a cortical surface. They have been extensively studied, both analytically and numerically, on bounded as well as unbounded domains. Neural field models do not require the specification of boundary conditions. Relatively little attention has been paid to the imposition of neural activity on the boundary, or to its role in inducing patterned states. Here we redress this imbalance by studying neural field models of Amari type (posed on one- and two-dimensional bounded domains) with Dirichlet boundary conditions...
October 26, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Neuroscience
N K Prenzler, B Schwab, D M Kaplan, S El-Saied
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the role of explorative tympanotomy in patients with Profound Sudden Sensorineural Hearing Loss (SSNHL) without clinical evidence of perilymphatic or labyrinthine fistula and to compare intraoperative findings with the postoperative hearing outcome. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective study of all patients diagnosed with SSNHL who underwent explorative tympanotomy between 2002 and 2005. SETTINGS: Tertiary care university-affiliated hospital...
January 2018: American Journal of Otolaryngology
E Siero
Many ecosystems exhibit gapped, labyrinthine, striped or spotted patterns. Important examples are vegetation patterns in drylands: these patterns are viewed as precursors of a catastrophic transition to a degraded state. A possible source of degradation is overgrazing, but many current spatially extended models include grazing in a local linear way. In this article nonlocal grazing responses are derived, taking into account (1) how many consumers there are (demographic response) (2) where they are (aggregative response) and (3) how much they forage (functional response)...
January 7, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
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