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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628917/anatomical-characteristics-of-facial-nerve-and-cochlea-interaction
#1
Nadine Schart-Morén, Sune Larsson, Helge Rask-Andersen, Hao Li
OBJECTIVE: The aim was to study the relationship between the labyrinthine portion (LP) of the facial canal and the cochlea in human inner ear molds and temporal bones using micro-CT and 3D rendering. A reduced cochlea-facial distance may spread electric currents from the cochlear implant to the LP and cause facial nerve stimulation. Influencing factors may be the topographic anatomy and otic capsule properties. METHODS: An archival collection of human temporal bones underwent micro-CT and 3D reconstruction...
June 20, 2017: Audiology & Neuro-otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623973/dynamic-maternal-and-fetal-notch-activity-and-expression-in-placentation
#2
Heather I Levin, Chantae S Sullivan-Pyke, Virginia E Papaioannou, Ronald J Wapner, Jan K Kitajewski, Carrie J Shawber, Nataki C Douglas
INTRODUCTION: Murine placentation requires trophoblast Notch2, while the Notch ligand, JAGGED1, is reduced in invasive trophoblasts from women with preeclampsia. However, the placental cells with active Notch signaling and expression of other Notch proteins and ligands in placentation have yet to be defined. We sought to identify endothelial cell and trophoblast subtypes with canonical Notch signaling in the decidua and placenta and correlate this to expression of Notch proteins and ligands...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623972/placentation-in-the-colugos-cynocephalus-volans-and-galeopterus-variegatus-dermoptera-and-the-transition-from-labyrinthine-to-villous-placentation-in-primates
#3
A M Carter, A M Mess
INTRODUCTION: Phylogenetics and genomics place colugos as the sister group to primates. Therefore their placentation is of interest in an evolutionary perspective. Previous accounts are fragmentary, not readily accessible and sometimes contradictory. METHODS: We have examined archival material covering the early development of fetal membranes and placenta, the fate of the yolk sac and definitive placentation. RESULTS: Initially the trophoblast extended over a rather broad but shallow area, enclosing maternal blood spaces...
July 2017: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28607891/cholesteatoma-induced-labyrinthine-fistula-is-aggressiveness-in-removing-disease-justified
#4
Prem Sagar, K Devaraja, Rajeev Kumar, Sumanth Bolu, Suresh C Sharma
Issues of complete disease clearance and hearing preservation in cholesteatoma induced labyrinthine fistula cases has been discussed and updated in this article. Successful disease clearance and hearing preservation in a case of cholesteatoma induced isolated cochlear promontory fistula encouraged us to retrospectively analyse 13 more cases of cholesteatoma induced labyrinthine fistula who presented in emergency service as complicated chronic suppurtive otitis media. Pre-operatively nine patients experienced vertigo, two had profound sensori neural hearing loss and radiology was suggestive of labyrinthine fistula in 12 patients...
June 2017: Indian Journal of Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28573817/imaging-of-labyrinthine-fistula-after-repair-with-bone-pate
#5
Jeffrey T Vrabec
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To demonstrate imaging of labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma and illustrate outcome following repair with bone pate. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective review. METHODS: Patients with labyrinthine fistula due to cholesteatoma were identified, and pre- and postoperative imaging was assessed. Method of repair was recorded. The fistula site was examined for patency and bone density after repair. RESULTS: Twenty-nine fistulae were seen in a cohort of 375 cholesteatoma cases (8%)...
June 2, 2017: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28570419/ultra-high-field-9-4-t-mri-analysis-of-contrast-agent-transport-across-the-blood-perilymph-barrier-and-intrastrial-fluid-blood-barrier-in-the-mouse-inner-ear
#6
S Allen Counter, Sahar Nikkhou-Aski, Peter Damberg, Cecilia Engmér Berglin, Göran Laurell
HYPOTHESIS: Effective paramagnetic contrast agent for the penetration of the perilymphatic spaces of the scala tympani, scala vestibuli, and scala media of the mouse inner ear can be determined using intravenous injection of various gadolinium (Gd) complexes and ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) at 9.4 Tesla. BACKGROUND: A number of contrast agents have been explored in experimental high-field MRI to determine the most effective Gd complex for ideal signal-to-noise ratio and maximal visualization of the in vivo mammalian inner ear in analyzing the temporal and spatial parameters involved in drug penetration of the blood-perilymph barrier and intrastrial fluid-blood barrier in the mouse model using MRI...
May 31, 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28532527/how-i-do-it-underwater-endoscopic-ear-surgery-for-plugging-in-superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome
#7
D Yamauchi, Y Hara, H Hidaka, T Kawase, Y Katori
BACKGROUND: Underwater endoscopic ear surgery does not require suction and so protects the inner ear from unexpected aeration that may damage its function in the treatment of labyrinthine fistula. A method of underwater endoscopic ear surgery is proposed for the treatment of superior canal dehiscence. METHODS: Underwater endoscopic ear surgery was performed for plugging of the superior semicircular canal through the transmastoid approach. Saline solution was infused into the mastoid cavity through an Endo-Scrub Lens Cleaning Sheath...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Laryngology and Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523740/new-data-about-semicircular-canal-morphology-and-locomotion-in-modern-hominoids
#8
Anne Le Maître, Philipp Schuetz, Patrick Vignaud, Michel Brunet
The labyrinth has two functional parts: the cochlea for audition and the vestibular system for equilibrioception. In the latter, the semicircular ducts and the otolithic organs are sensitive to rotational and linear accelerations of the head, respectively. The labyrinthine morphology influences perception accuracy, hence the adaptation to a specific locomotor pattern. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between locomotion and semicircular canal morphology using geometric morphometrics, and to explain these links with existing functional models...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523122/sex-differences-in-rat-placental-development-from-pre-implantation-to-late-gestation
#9
J I Kalisch-Smith, D G Simmons, M Pantaleon, K M Moritz
BACKGROUND: A male fetus is suggested to be more susceptible to in utero and birth complications. This may be due in part to altered morphology or function of the XY placenta. We hypothesised that sexual dimorphism begins at the blastocyst stage with sex differences in the progenitor trophectoderm (TE) and its derived trophoblast lineages, as these cells populate the majority of cell types within the placenta. We investigated sex-specific differences in cell allocation in the pre-implantation embryo and further characterised growth and gene expression of the placental compartments from the early stages of the definitive placenta through to late gestation...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507174/elevated-adenosine-induces-placental-dna-hypomethylation-independent-of-a2b-receptor-signaling-in-preeclampsia
#10
Aji Huang, Hongyu Wu, Takayuki Iriyama, Yujin Zhang, Kaiqi Sun, Anren Song, Hong Liu, Zhangzhe Peng, Lili Tang, Minjung Lee, Yun Huang, Xin Ni, Rodney E Kellems, Yang Xia
Preeclampsia is a prevalent pregnancy hypertensive disease with both maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Emerging evidence indicates that global placental DNA hypomethylation is observed in patients with preeclampsia and is linked to altered gene expression and disease development. However, the molecular basis underlying placental epigenetic changes in preeclampsia remains unclear. Using 2 independent experimental models of preeclampsia, adenosine deaminase-deficient mice and a pathogenic autoantibody-induced mouse model of preeclampsia, we demonstrate that elevated placental adenosine not only induces hallmark features of preeclampsia but also causes placental DNA hypomethylation...
May 15, 2017: Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489383/confined-electroconvective-and-flexoelectric-instabilities-deep-in-the-freedericksz-state-of-nematic-cb7cb
#11
Kanakapura S Krishnamurthy, Nani Babu Palakurthy, Channabasaveshwar V Yelamaggad
We report wormlike flexoelectric structures evolving deep in the Freedericksz state of a nematic layer of the liquid crystal cyanobiphenyl-(CH2)7-cyanobiphenyl. They form in the predominantly splay-bend thin boundary layers and are built up of solitary flexoelectric domains of the Bobylev-Pikin type. Their formation is possibly triggered by the gradient flexoelectric surface instability that remains optically discernible up to unusually high frequencies. The threshold voltage at which the worms form scales as square root of the frequency; in their extended state, worms often appear as labyrinthine structures on a section of loops that separate regions of opposite director deviation...
May 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484627/the-chinchilla-as-a-novel-animal-model-of-pregnancy
#12
Emmeli Mikkelsen, Henrik Lauridsen, Per Mose Nielsen, Haiyun Qi, Thomas Nørlinger, Maria Dahl Andersen, Niels Uldbjerg, Christoffer Laustsen, Puk Sandager, Michael Pedersen
Several parameters are important when choosing the most appropriate animal to model human obstetrics, including gestation period, number of fetuses per gestation and placental structure. The domesticated long-tailed chinchilla (Chinchilla lanigera) is a well-suited and appropriate animal model of pregnancy that often will carry only one offspring and has a long gestation period of 105-115 days. Furthermore, the chinchilla placenta is of the haemomonochorial labyrinthine type and is therefore comparable to the human villous haemomonochorial placenta...
April 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28474189/transsphenoidal-and-infralabyrinthine-approach-of-the-petrous-apex-cholesterol-granuloma
#13
Karl-Ludwig Bruchhage, Barbara Wollenberg, Anke Leichtle
Space-demanding or destructive changes in the petrous bone are often challenging differential diagnosis. Cholesterol granulomas of the petrous apex can clinically present in a combination of hearing loss, vertigo, tinnitus, chronic cephalgia, impairment of facial nerve function, neuralgic pain of the nervus trigeminus, or manifest diplopia by the nerve palsy of the nervus abducens. CT-morphologically cholesterol granulomas appear as soft-tissue density masses, which may display a discrete rim after intravenous administration of a contrast agent...
May 4, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422031/the-importance-of-labyrinthine-examination-in-the-prognosis-and-therapy-for-balance-in-spinocerebellar-ataxia
#14
João Henrique Faryniuk, Bianca Simone Zeigelboim, Hélio Afonso Ghizoni Teive, Vinicius Ribas Fo, Paulo Breno Noronha Liberalesso, Jair Mendes Marques
INTRODUCTION: Spinocerebellar ataxias (SCAs) are a heterogeneous group of neurodegenerative diseases that are characterized by the presence of progressive cerebellar ataxia. OBJECTIVE: Identify vestibular disorders and demonstrate the importance of labyrinthine examination in the prognosis and therapy for balance in patients with SCAs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study had a retrospective cross-sectional design and evaluated 57 patients, mean age of 41...
April 19, 2017: International Tinnitus Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406206/a-living-mesoscopic-cellular-automaton-made-of-skin-scales
#15
Liana Manukyan, Sophie A Montandon, Anamarija Fofonjka, Stanislav Smirnov, Michel C Milinkovitch
In vertebrates, skin colour patterns emerge from nonlinear dynamical microscopic systems of cell interactions. Here we show that in ocellated lizards a quasi-hexagonal lattice of skin scales, rather than individual chromatophore cells, establishes a green and black labyrinthine pattern of skin colour. We analysed time series of lizard scale colour dynamics over four years of their development and demonstrate that this pattern is produced by a cellular automaton (a grid of elements whose states are iterated according to a set of rules based on the states of neighbouring elements) that dynamically computes the colour states of individual mesoscopic skin scales to produce the corresponding macroscopic colour pattern...
April 12, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389810/perineural-spread-susceptible-structures-a-non-pathological-evaluation-of-the-skull-base
#16
Francisco J Barrera-Flores, Natalia Villarreal-Del Bosque, Alejandro Díaz González-Colmenero, Carolina Garza-González, Rodolfo Morales-Ávalos, Ricardo Pinales-Razo, Guillermo Elizondo-Riojas, Santos Guzmán-López, Rodrigo E Elizondo-Omaña
Perineural spread adenoid cystic carcinoma can alter the dimension of foramina and canals of the skull base. The objective of this study was to determine the range of normal variation of the foramina and canals of both hemicranium. We analyzed 200 individuals with no alterations of the skull base in a retrospective manner using high-resolution computed tomography. We measured the short and long axis diameters of the foramen rotundum (FR), foramen ovale (FO), stylomastoid foramen (SMF), pterygoid canal (PTC), internal auditory canal (IAC), and the facial nerve canal in its labyrinthine portion (LPFC) to calculate the area in each hemicranium, compare them and obtain the normal range of asymmetry...
April 7, 2017: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28386500/diagnostic-bedside-vestibuloocular-reflex-evaluation-in-the-setting-of-a-false-negative-fistula-test-in-cholesteatoma-of-the-middle-ear
#17
Ricardo D'Albora, Ligia Silveira, Sergio Carmona, Nicolas Perez-Fernandez
Background. False negative fistula testing in patients with chronic suppurative otitis media is a dilemma when proceeding to surgery. It is imperative to rule out a dead labyrinth or a mass effect secondary to the cholesteatoma in an otherwise normally functioning inner ear. We present a case series of three patients in whom a bedside vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) evaluation using a head impulse test was used successfully for further evaluation prior to surgery. Results. In all three cases with a false negative fistula test we were able to further evaluate at the bedside and were not only able to register the abnormal VOR but also localize its deterioration to a particular semicircular canal eroded by the fistula...
2017: Case Reports in Otolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384775/superior-canal-dehiscence-syndrome-affecting-3-families
#18
Katherine D Heidenreich, Paul R Kileny, Sameer Ahmed, Hussam K El-Kashlan, Tori L Melendez, Gregory J Basura, Marci M Lesperance
Importance: Superior canal dehiscence syndrome (SCDS) is an increasingly recognized cause of hearing loss and vestibular symptoms, but the etiology of this condition remains unknown. Objective: To describe 7 cases of SCDS across 3 families. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective case series included 7 patients from 3 different families treated at a neurotology clinic at a tertiary academic medical center from 2010 to 2014. Patients were referred by other otolaryngologists or were self-referred...
April 6, 2017: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379409/dna-methylation-divergence-and-tissue-specialization-in-the-developing-mouse-placenta
#19
Benjamin E Decato, Jorge Lopez-Tello, Amanda N Sferruzzi-Perri, Andrew D Smith, Matthew D Dean
The placental epigenome plays a vital role in regulating mammalian growth and development. Aberrations in placental DNA methylation are linked to several disease states, including intrauterine growth restriction and preeclampsia. Studying the evolution and development of the placental epigenome is critical to understanding the origin and progression of such diseases. Although high-resolution studies have found substantial variation between placental methylomes of different species, the nature of methylome variation has yet to be characterized within any individual species...
July 1, 2017: Molecular Biology and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353623/preoperative-ct-assessment-in-ci-dehiscence-of-the-labyrinthine-segment-of-the-facial-nerve-causing-facial-nerve-stimulation
#20
Lieke van der Meer, Rutger Hofman, Rolien Free
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 2017: Otology & Neurotology
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