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Masaya Takumida, Hiroshi Takumida, Matti Anniko
CONCLUSION: Gastric type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in the vestibular end organs may be of importance for K(+) circulation and may also be related to pH regulation in vestibular end organs and endolymphatic sac. OBJECTIVE: To analyze the expression of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase in normal mouse vestibular end organs. METHODS: 8 weeks old CBA/J mice were used in this study. The presence of gastric-type H(+),K(+)-ATPase α and β in the vestibular end organs, viz...
October 21, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
S X Tang, H L Zhou, Y L Ding
Objective: To analyze the effectiveness of transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the treatment of persistent hematospermia, and oligoasthenozoospermia and azoospermia from ejaculatory duct obstruction. Methods: The clinical date of 56 cases of persistent hematospermia, or azoospermia/oligoasthenozoospermia from ejaculatory duct obstruction treated with transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy between November 2013 and January 2016 in the First Affiliated Hospital of Fujian Medical University were reviewed. A total of 30 cases were persistent hematospermia for 6 months to 3 years, with no response to routine antibiotic therapy for >4 weeks; 24 cases were obstructive azoospermia; and the other 2 cases were extreme oligoasthenozoospermia...
September 27, 2016: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
David S Thylur, Russell E Jacobs, John L Go, Arthur W Toga, John K Niparko
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the ability of ultra-high-field magnetic resonance imaging (UHF-MRI) at 11.7 T to visualize membranous structures of the human inner ear. SPECIMENS: Three temporal bones were extracted from cadaveric human heads for use with small-bore UHF-MRI. INTERVENTION: Ex vivo cadaveric temporal bone specimens were imaged using an 11.7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scanner via T1- and T2-weighted-imaging with and without contrast...
October 12, 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Holly A Holman, Vy M Tran, Mausam Kalita, Lynn N Nguyen, Sailaja Arungundram, Balagurunathan Kuberan, Richard D Rabbitt
We report on a new xyloside conjugated to BODIPY, BX and its utility to prime fluorescent glycosaminoglycans (BX-GAGs) within the inner ear in vivo. When BX is administered directly into the endolymphatic space of the oyster toadfish (Opsanus tau) inner ear, fluorescent BX-GAGs are primed and become visible in the sensory epithelia of the semicircular canals, utricle, and saccule. Confocal and 2-photon microscopy of vestibular organs fixed 4 h following BX treatment, reveal BX-GAGs constituting glycocalyces that envelop hair cell kinocilium, nerve fibers, and capillaries...
September 12, 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
L E Walther
Otoconia are calcite-based nanocomposites containing >90 % calcite and <10 % organic material. The mean size is approximately 10 µm. The external structure of all otoconia in the utricle and saccule is similar, with a cylindrical bulbous body with a slightly hexagonal contour. The internal structure consists of a composite with varying volume thickness, dense branching structures (branches) and less dense surrounding areas (bellies). Intact otoconia can be clearly identified only by scanning electron microscopy...
October 2016: HNO
Chan Joo Yang, Ji-Won Lee, Sung-Jin Kim, Chang-Whan Lee, Hong Ju Park
CONCLUSION: The results showed a gradual detachment of otoconia in the utricle after a single event of head vibration, possibly explaining the frequent recurrence of BPPV attacks and persistent dizziness after trauma. OBJECTIVES: This study developed a murine model of traumatic BPPV and observed the changes in otoconia detachment over time. METHODS: Six-week-old CBA mice were used in this study. Otoconia detachment was induced by vibrating the head for 2 min...
August 26, 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Pezhman Salehi, Anthony Myint, Young J Kim, Marshall X Ge, Joel Lavinsky, Maria K Ho, Amanda L Crow, Charlene Cruz, Maya Monges-Hernadez, Juemei Wang, Jaana Hartiala, Li I Zhang, Hooman Allayee, Aldons J Lusis, Takahiro Ohyama, Rick A Friedman
This study aimed to investigate the genetic causes of vestibular dysfunction. We used vestibular sensory-evoked potentials (VsEPs) to characterize the vestibular function of 35 inbred mouse strains selected from the Hybrid Mouse Diversity Panel and demonstrated strain-dependent phenotypic variation in vestibular function. Using these phenotypic data, we performed the first genome-wide association study controlling for population structure that has revealed two highly suggestive loci, one of which lies within a haplotype block containing five genes (Stard6, 4930503L19Rik, Poli, Mbd2, Dcc) on Chr...
October 2016: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Yang Zhou, Zhengqing Hu
The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza) causes genomic demethylation to regulate gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether 5-aza affects gene expression and cell fate determination of stem cells. In this study, 5-aza was applied to mouse utricle sensory epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs) to investigate whether 5-aza stimulated MUCs to become sensory hair cells. After treatment, MUCs increased expression of hair cell genes and proteins. The DNA methylation level (indicated by percentage of 5-methylcytosine) showed a 28...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Jingfang Wu, Wenyan Li, Chen Lin, Yan Chen, Cheng Cheng, Shan Sun, Mingliang Tang, Renjie Chai, Huawei Li
This work sought to determine the crosstalk between the Notch and Wnt signaling pathways in regulating supporting cell (SC) proliferation and hair cell (HC) regeneration in mouse utricles. We cultured postnatal day (P)3 and P60 mouse utricles, damaged the HCs with gentamicin, and treated the utricles with the γ-secretase inhibitor DAPT to inhibit the Notch pathway and with the Wnt agonist QS11 to active the Wnt pathway. We also used Sox2-CreER, Notch1-flox (exon 1), and Catnb-flox (exon 3) transgenic mice to knock out the Notch pathway and activate the Wnt pathway in Sox2+ SCs...
2016: Scientific Reports
Pauliana Lamounier, Thiago Silva Almeida de Souza, Debora Aparecida Gobbo, Fayez Bahmad
INTRODUCTION: Ménière's disease (MD) is an inner ear disorder characterized by episodic vertigo, tinnitus, ear fullness, and fluctuating hearing. Its diagnosis can be especially difficult in cases where vestibular symptoms are present in isolation (vestibular MD). The definitive diagnosis is made histologically and can only be performed post-mortem, after analysis of the temporal bone. Endolymphatic hydrops is a histopathological finding of the disease and occurs more often in the cochlea and saccule, followed by the utricle and semicircular canals...
June 2, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Daniel J Brown, Christopher J Pastras, Ian S Curthoys, Cassandra S Southwell, Lieke Van Roon
There are a variety of techniques available to investigate endolymph dynamics, primarily seeking to understand the cause of endolymphatic hydrops. Here we have taken the novel approach of injecting, via a glass micropipette, fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dex) and artificial endolymph into scala media of anaesthetized guinea pigs, with subsequent imaging of the inner ear using Light Sheet Fluorescence Microscopy (LSFM) as a means to obtain highly resolved 3D visualization of fluid movements. Our results demonstrate endolymph movement into the utricle, semicircular canals and endolymphatic duct and sac when more than 2...
September 2016: Hearing Research
Wei Jia, Guo-Chang Liu, Li-Yu Zhang, Ying-Quan Wen, Wen Fu, Jin-Hua Hu, Hui-Min Xia
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to report our clinical experience with laparoscopic excision (LE) and to compare the outcomes of LE versus open transvesical excision (OTE) for the management of prostatic utricle (PU) in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center study of 14 children who underwent OTE or LE for managing symptomatic PU between April 2003 and December 2014. Age, utricle size, operative time, estimated blood loss, duration of hospital stay, indwelling time of the urethral catheter, presence of residual postoperative utricular stump, and complications were compared between the two groups...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Bing-Yi Lin, Yi-Ho Young
This study adopted an inner ear test battery in adults with congenital hearing loss to assess residual vestibular function. Thirty patients with non-inherited non-syndromatic congenital hearing loss were assigned to two groups based on their pure tone average (PTA). Subjects in Group A (n = 10) had PTA >90 dB, and those with PTA ≤90 dB were assigned to Group B (n = 20). All patients underwent audiometry, and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP) and caloric tests...
June 13, 2016: European Archives of Oto-rhino-laryngology
Katarina E M Klimpel, Min Young Lee, W Michael King, Yehoash Raphael, Jochen Schacht, Richard L Neitzel
OBJECTIVES: The vestibular system allows the perception of position and motion and its dysfunction presents as motion impairment, vertigo and balance abnormalities, leading to debilitating psychological discomfort and difficulty performing daily tasks. Although declines and deficits in vestibular function have been noted in rats exposed to lead (Pb) and in humans exposed to Pb and cadmium (Cd), no studies have directly examined the pathological and pathophysiological effects upon the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear...
June 3, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Akiko Taura, Noriyuki Nakashima, Hiroe Ohnishi, Takayuki Nakagawa, Kazuo Funabiki, Juichi Ito, Koichi Omori
OBJECTIVES: Vestibular ganglion cells, which convey sense of motion from vestibular hair cells to the brainstem, are known to degenerate with aging and after vestibular neuritis. Thus, regeneration of vestibular ganglion cells is important to aid in the recovery of balance for associated disorders. METHODS: The present study derived hNSCs from induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and transplanted these cells into mouse utricle tissues. After a 7-day co-culture period, histological and electrophysiological examinations of transplanted hNSCs were performed...
October 2016: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Takao Imai, Noriaki Takeda, Tetsuo Ikezono, Kohichiro Shigeno, Masatsugu Asai, Yukio Watanabe, Mamoru Suzuki
Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common peripheral vertigo and the posterior and/or lateral semicircular canals are usually affected. BPPV is characterized by brief attacks of rotatory vertigo associated with positional and/or positioning nystagmus, which are elicited by specific head positions or changes in head position relative to gravity. In patients with the posterior-canal-type of BPPV, torsional nystagmus is induced by the Dix-Hallpike maneuver. In patients with the lateral-canal-type of BPPV, horizontal geotropic or apogeotropic nystagmus is induced by the supine roll test...
May 9, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Xiao-bo Zhu, Xiang-sheng Zhang, Shi-long Zhang, Hong-lin Shi, Chao-hui Kong, De-gang Ding, Zhong-hua Liu
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical application value of 8.5/11.5 F transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy in the diagnosis and treatment of refractory hematospermia. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed 78 cases of refractory hematospermia diagnosed and treated by 8.5/11.5 F transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy from June 2012 to June 2014. The patients underwent serum PSA examination, transrectal ultrasonography, seminal vesicle ultrasonography, and pelvis CT or MRI before surgery, and all received transurethral seminal vesiculoscopy under the 8...
March 2016: Zhonghua Nan Ke Xue, National Journal of Andrology
Rafael da Costa Monsanto, Mehmet Erdil, Henrique F Pauna, Geeyoun Kwon, Patricia A Schachern, Vladimir Tsuprun, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the histopathologic changes of dark, transitional, and hair cells of the vestibular system in human temporal bones from patients with chronic otitis media. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative human temporal bone study. SETTING: Otopathology laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: To compare the density of vestibular dark, transitional, and hair cells in temporal bones with and without chronic otitis media, we used differential interference contrast microscopy...
September 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Jung Eun Shin, Kyung-Hwa Jeong, Sung Hwan Ahn, Chang-Hee Kim
OBJECTIVE: To demonstrate positional nystagmus during a head-roll test in two patients with lateral semicircular canal (LSCC) cupulolithiasis who presented with spontaneous detachment of otoliths from the LSCC cupula, and to confirm that otoliths may adhere to both the utricle and canal sides of the cupula. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using video nystagmography, positional nystagmus was evaluated in two patients with LSCC cupulolithiasis who showed the change of nystagmus direction during a head-roll test...
April 18, 2016: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Raymond L Konger, Ethel Derr-Yellin, Delaram Hojati, Cathleen Lutz, John P Sundberg
Hairless albino Crl:SKH1-Hr(hr) mice are commonly utilized for studies in which hair or pigmentation would introduce an impediment to observational studies. Being an outbred strain, the SKH1 model suffers from key limitations that are not seen with congenic mouse strains. Inbred and congenic C57BL/6J mice are commonly utilized for modified genetic mouse models. We compare the acute UV-induced photoresponse between outbred SKH1 mice and an immune competent, hairless, albino C57BL/6J congenic mouse line [B6.Cg-Tyr(c-2J) Hr(hr) /J]...
September 2016: Experimental Dermatology
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