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Marie Audouin, Alexis Girshovich, Olivier Cussenot, Raphaele Renard-Penna
PURPOSE: Changes related to prostatic ageing include an increase of prostate volume and morphologic distortions of the prostatic edges in middle-aged and older men. These changes of the prostate exhibit a certain level of heterogeneity, which is clinically obvious for surgeons, radiologists, and anatomists, and which can be explained by the complex nature of the embryologic/anatomic development of the prostate. While the etiology of the median lobe has typically been attributed to a growth and protrusion of the prostatic area at the top of the utricle, we argue that this is not necessarily the case as intravesical protrusions of the prostate have also been observed laterally and anteriorly to the bladder neck, suggesting the involvement of other prostatic zones, thereby highlighting the need to refine the concept of the median lobe...
March 13, 2018: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
Richard Boyle, Reza Ehsanian, Alireza Mofrad, Yekaterina Popova, Joseph Varelas
The utricle provides the vestibular reflex pathways with the sensory codes of inertial acceleration of self motion and head orientation with respect to gravity to control balance and equilibrium. Here we present an anatomical description of this structure in the adult oyster toadfish, and establish a morphological basis for interpretation of subsequent functional studies. Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy techniques were applied to visualize the sensory epithelium at varying levels of detail, its neural innervation and its synaptic organization...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Wen-Wei Luo, Xin-Wei Wang, Rui Ma, Fang-Lu Chi, Ping Chen, Ning Cong, Yu-Yan Gu, Dong-Dong Ren, Juan-Mei Yang
Notch inhibition is known to generate supernumerary hair cells (HCs) at the expense of supporting cells (SCs) in the mammalian inner ear. However, inhibition of Notch activity becomes progressively less effective at inducing SC-to-HC conversion in the postnatal cochlea and balance organs as the animal ages. It has been suggested that the SC-to-HC conversion capacity is inversely correlated with E-cadherin accumulation in postnatal mammalian utricles. However, whether E-cadherin localization is linked to the SC-to-HC conversion capacity in the mammalian inner ear is poorly understood...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
Michelle L Stoller, Orvelin Roman, Michael R Deans
The organization of polarized stereociliary bundles is critical for the function of the inner ear sensory receptor hair cells that detect sound and motion, and these cells present a striking example of Planar Cell Polarity (PCP); the coordinated orientation of polarized structures within the plane of an epithelium. PCP is best understood in Drosophila where the essential genes regulating PCP were first discovered, and functions for the core PCP proteins encoded by these genes have been deciphered through phenotypic analysis of core PCP gene mutants...
March 3, 2018: Developmental Biology
Huiqian Yu, Huawei Li
Background: Sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSHL) not only involves cochlear function but might also be accompanied by vestibular disturbances. The assessment of vestibular function could be of great relevance in SSHL. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of vestibulocochlear lesions in SSHL and the correlation of specific vestibular organs with hearing prognosis. Data sources: A complete literature search of eligible studies in the PubMed and EMBASE databases was performed...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Chi Wang, Chien-Hao Wu, Po-Wen Cheng, Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study adopted an inner ear test battery comprising audiometry, and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), cervical VEMP (cVEMP), and caloric tests to investigate the sequence of inner ear deficits in pediatric Meniere's disease (MD). METHODS: From 2005 to 2016, a total of 24 MD children aged <15 years old underwent otoscopy, CT scan, blood test, and an inner ear test battery. Nine subjects were males and 15 were females, with mean age of 12 years...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
Christopher K Zalewski, R Steven Ackley, Devin L McCaslin, M Diane Clark, Wendy D Hanks, Carmen C Brewer
OBJECTIVES: Significant advancements have been made toward the clinical assessment of utricular function through ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP) and unilateral centrifugation (UCF) testing. To date, no study has examined intrasubject relationships between these measures. The study hypothesis was that intrasubject responses from oVEMP and UCF testing would be correlated inasmuch as both tests have been reported to assess utricular function. DESIGN: UCF rotations and oVEMP testing were performed on healthy volunteers, aged 18 to 62 years...
February 10, 2018: Ear and Hearing
Maitreyi A Nair, Ajitkumar P Mulavara, Jacob J Bloomberg, Haleh Sangi-Haghpeykar, Helen S Cohen
People with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) probably have otoconial particles displaced from the utricle into the posterior semicircular canal. This unilateral change in the inertial load distributions of the labyrinth may result in visual dependence and may affect balance control. The goal of this study was to explore the interaction between visual dependence and balance control. We compared 23 healthy controls to 17 people with unilateral BPPV on the Clinical Test of Sensory Interaction and Balance on compliant foam with feet together, the Rod-and-Frame Test and a Mental Rotation Test...
2018: Journal of Vestibular Research: Equilibrium & Orientation
Vikash Kumar, Chirag Punatar, Kunal Jadhav, Sharad Sagade
Prostatic utricle cyst is a rare congenital anomaly. Symptomatic cysts require treatment. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but is challenging due to close proximity to vas deferens, ejaculatory ducts, bladder, prostate, rectum and pelvic nerves. Complications include rectal injury, ureteral injury, impotence, infertility and faecal incontinence. We here report a rare complication in which bladder was accidentally removed during laparoscopic excision of prostatic utricle cyst. To best of our knowledge such a complication has never been reported previously...
January 26, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Larry F Hoffman, Kristel R Choy, David R Sultemeier, Dwayne D Simmons
Oncomodulin (OCM, aka β-parvalbumin) is an EF-hand calcium binding protein that is expressed in a restricted set of hair cells in the peristriolar region of the mammalian utricle. In the present study, we determined the topologic distribution of OCM among hair cell phenotypes to advance our understanding of the cellular organization of the striola and the relationship of these phenotypes with characteristics of tissue polarity. The distributions of OCM-positive (OCM+) hair cells were quantified in utricles of mature C57Bl/6 mice...
February 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Yi-Ho Young
OBJECTIVE: This study reviewed the development of the inner ear test battery comprising auditory brainstem response (ABR), and caloric, ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP), and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (cVEMP) tests in guinea pig models at our laboratory over the last 20 years. Detailed description of the methodology for testing the small animals is also included. METHODS: Inner ear disorders, i.e. ototoxicity, noise exposure, or perilymph fistula were established in guinea pig models first...
January 8, 2018: Acta Oto-laryngologica
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
This article was updated to correct a formatting error in Table 1.
January 3, 2018: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
Jocelyn F Krey, Rachel A Dumont, Philip A Wilmarth, Larry L David, Kenneth R Johnson, Peter G Barr-Gillespie
Sensory hair cells require control of physical properties of their apical plasma membranes for normal development and function. Members of the ADP-ribosylation factor (ARF) small GTPase family regulate membrane trafficking and cytoskeletal assembly in many cells. We identified ELMO domain-containing protein 1 (ELMOD1), a guanine nucleoside triphosphatase activating protein (GAP) for ARF6, as the most highly enriched ARF regulator in hair cells. To characterize ELMOD1 control of trafficking, we analyzed mice of both sexes from a strain lacking functional ELMOD1 [roundabout ( rda )]...
January 24, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Yusuke Yamaoka, Chikara Abe, Hironobu Morita
BACKGROUND: The vestibular lesion (VL) is required to examine the physiological function of the vestibular system in animals. Toxic chemicals or electrical apparatus have been used for the VL, however, they are not ideal as they have low specificity, and can result in unintended damage, and systemic toxic effect. NEW METHOD: Localized vibration-induced VL, using an ultrasonicator, is expected to overcome the problems associated with chemical and electrical lesions...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Jamie M Ahrens, James D Jones, Nirca J Nieves, Ann M Mitzey, Hector F DeLuca, Margaret Clagett-Dame
While all 2-methylene-19-nor analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1α,25(OH)2D3) tested produce an increase in epidermal thickness in the rhino mouse, only a subset reduce utricle size (comedolysis). All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) also causes epidermal thickening and a reduction in utricle size in the rhino mouse. We now report that 2-methylene-19-nor-(20S)-1α-hydroxybishomopregnacalciferol (2MbisP), a comedolytic analog, increases epidermal thickening more rapidly than does atRA, while both reduce utricle area at an equal rate...
2017: PloS One
David R Sultemeier, Larry F Hoffman
Although the effects of aminoglycoside antibiotics on hair cells have been investigated for decades, their influences on the dendrites of primary afferent neurons have not been widely studied. This is undoubtedly due to the difficulty in disassociating pathology to dendritic processes from that resulting from loss of the presynaptic hair cell. This was overcome in the present investigation through development of a preparation using Chinchilla laniger that enabled direct perilymphatic infusion. Through this strategy we unmasked gentamicin's potential effects on afferent calyces...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Ralf Anken, Miriam Knie, Reinhard Hilbig
The inner ears of all vertebrates are designed to perceive auditory and vestibular inputs. Although a tremendous diversity in the inner ear can be found even among bony fishes, the morphologies of the utricle and of the semicircular canals are rather conservative among vertebrates. Fish show kinetoses under reduced gravity (spinning movements and looping responses) and are regarded model organisms concerning the performance of the otolithic organs. Otoliths can be analysed easily because they are compact, in contrast to the otoconial masses of other vertebrates...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ibrahim A Mostafa, Mark N Woodward, Mohamed S Shalaby
We present a video of our technique for resection of a large prostatic utricle (PU) in a patient who presented initially with disordered sexual development. His karyotype was 46XY, and phenotypically had penoscrotal hypospadias, bifid scrotum, and retractile right testis. An initial micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) demonstrated the utricle but failed to cannulate the bladder. Being asymptomatic, we carried out staged repair of his hypospadias. Later, he started to have recurrent epididymo-orchitis with resistance to multiple antibiotics...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
In this study, we present a systematic characterization of hair cell loss and regeneration in the chicken utricle in vivo. A single unilateral surgical delivery of streptomycin caused robust decline of hair cell numbers in striolar as well as extrastriolar regions, which in the striola was detected very early, 6 h post-insult. During the initial 12 h of damage response, we observed global repression of DNA replication, in contrast to the natural, mitotic hair cell production in undamaged control utricles...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
C Lucas, J-C Leclère, E Mornet, R Marianowski
INTRODUCTION: Endolymphatic sac tumours are benign, slowly growing tumours that invade the temporal bone, and present clinically in the form of unilateral hearing loss. They can be sporadic or occur in the context of Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL). CASE SUMMARY: The authors report a case of endolymphatic sac tumour arising in the utricle presenting histological and immunohistochemical features corresponding to endolymphatic sac tumour in a patient without VHL. DISCUSSION: Endolymphatic sac tumours invade the posterior part of the petrous temporal bone...
November 5, 2017: European Annals of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck Diseases
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