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Alice M Clement, Tom J Challands, John A Long, Per E Ahlberg
The first virtual cranial endocast of a lungfish from the Early Devonian, Dipnorhynchus sussmilchi, is described. Dipnorhynchus, only the fourth Devonian lungfish for which a near complete cranial endocast is known, is a key taxon for clarifying primitive character states within the group. A ventrally-expanded telencephalic cavity is present in the endocast of Dipnorhynchus demonstrating that this is the primitive state for "true" Dipnoi. Dipnorhynchus also possesses a utricular recess differentiated from the sacculolagenar pouch like that seen in stratigraphically younger lungfish (Dipterus, Chirodipterus, Rhinodipterus), but absent from the dipnomorph Youngolepis...
2016: PeerJ
Maristela Mian Ferreira, Maurício Malavasi Ganança, Heloisa Helena Caovilla
INTRODUCTION: Otolith function can be studied by testing the subjective visual vertical, because the tilt of the vertical line beyond the normal range is a sign of vestibular dysfunction. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a disorder of one or more labyrinthine semicircular canals caused by fractions of otoliths derived from the utricular macula. OBJECTIVE: To compare the subjective visual vertical with the bucket test before and immediately after the particle repositioning maneuver in patients with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo...
September 28, 2016: Brazilian Journal of Otorhinolaryngology
Wee Tin K Kao, Lorne S Parnes, Richard A Chole
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common vestibular disorder with an incidence between 10.7 and 17.3 per 100,000 persons per year. The mechanism for BPPV has been postulated to involve displaced otoconia resulting in canalithiasis. Although particulate matter has been observed in the endolymph of affected patients undergoing posterior canal occlusion surgery, an otoconial origin for the disease is still questioned. STUDY DESIGN: In this study, particulate matter was extracted from the posterior semicircular canal of two patients and examined with scanning electron microscopy...
October 11, 2016: Laryngoscope
Niraj Kumar Singh, Animesh Barman
BACKGROUND: Utility of frequency tuning of ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) for evaluation of utricular function in individuals with Meniere's disease is a recent development. However, there is dearth of studies regarding its utility in differential diagnosis of Meniere's disease from other vestibular pathologies. PURPOSE: The present study aimed at investigating the feasibility of frequency tuning of oVEMP in discriminating Meniere's disease from benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV)...
October 2016: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
Andoret van Wyk, Carina A Eksteen, Piet J Becker, Barbara M Heinze
INTRODUCTION: Visual impairment, specifically eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction may have a negative influence on the functional recovery in post-stroke patients. This type of sensory dysfunction may further be associated with poor functional outcome in patients' post-stroke. METHODS: In phase 1, a cross-sectional survey (n = 100) will be conducted to determine the prevalence of eye movement disorders and vestibular dysfunction in patients who sustained a stroke...
2016: Frontiers in Neurology
Rachael L Taylor, Leigh A McGarvie, Nicole Reid, Allison S Young, G Michael Halmagyi, Miriam S Welgampola
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the profiles of afferent dysfunction in a cross section of patients with acute vestibular neuritis using tests of otolith and semicircular canal function sensitive to each of the 5 vestibular end organs. METHODS: Forty-three patients fulfilling clinical criteria for acute vestibular neuritis were recruited between 2010 and 2016 and studied within 10 days of symptom onset. Otolith function was evaluated with air-conducted cervical and bone-conducted ocular/vestibular evoked myogenic potentials and the subjective visual horizontal test...
October 18, 2016: Neurology
Julia A Müller, Christopher J Bockisch, Alexander A Tarnutzer
OBJECTIVE: Acute unilateral peripheral-vestibular hypofunction (UVH) shifts the subjective visual vertical (SVV) ipsilesionally, triggering central compensation that usually eliminates shifts when upright. We hypothesized that compensation is worse when roll-tilted. METHODS: We quantified SVV errors and variability in different roll-tilted positions (0°, ±45°, ±90°) in patients with chronic UVH affecting the superior branch (SVN; n=4) or the entire (CVN; n=9) vestibular nerve...
October 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Aisha Harun, Esther S Oh, Robin T Bigelow, Stephanie Studenski, Yuri Agrawal
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest an association between vestibular and cognitive function. The goal of the study was to investigate whether vestibular function was impaired in individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) compared with cognitively normal individuals. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Outpatient memory clinic and longitudinal observational study unit. PATIENTS: Older individuals ≥55 years with MCI or AD...
September 2016: Otology & Neurotology
Jacob M Pogson, Rachael L Taylor, Allison S Young, Leigh A McGarvie, Sean Flanagan, G Michael Halmagyi, Miriam S Welgampola
Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0...
October 2016: Journal of Neurology
Wei Jia, Guo-Chang Liu, Li-Yu Zhang, Ying-Quan Wen, Wen Fu, Jin-Hua Hu, Hui-Min Xia
PURPOSE: The aims of this study were to report our clinical experience with laparoscopic excision (LE) and to compare the outcomes of LE versus open transvesical excision (OTE) for the management of prostatic utricle (PU) in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective single-center study of 14 children who underwent OTE or LE for managing symptomatic PU between April 2003 and December 2014. Age, utricle size, operative time, estimated blood loss, duration of hospital stay, indwelling time of the urethral catheter, presence of residual postoperative utricular stump, and complications were compared between the two groups...
October 2016: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Liang Chen, Hui Xu, Wu-Qing Wang, Qing-Quan Zhang, Qiao-Ying Lv, Xi-Cheng Song
BACKGROUND: Cervical and ocular vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (c/oVEMPs) reflect otolith function. Up-to-date, there are no published reports on the systemic evaluation of otolith function in Ménière's Disease (MD) nor are there any reports on the differences in VEMPs between patients with early and late stage MD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the difference in c/oVEMPs between patients with MD and normal controls, as well as between patients with early and late stage MD...
2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Isaac D Erbele, Frank R Lin, Yuri Agrawal, Howard W Francis, John P Carey, Wade W Chien
OBJECTIVES: Melanin pigmentation is present in the human inner ear. In this study, we quantify the melanin pigmentation in the vestibular system and examine racial differences of vestibular melanin pigmentation using human cadaveric temporal bone specimens. STUDY DESIGN: Basic research. SETTING: Laboratory. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Light microscopy was used to examine specimens from 40 left temporal bones from the Johns Hopkins Human Temporal Bone Collection...
September 2016: Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery
Marc Herbin, Caroline Simonis, Lionel Revéret, Rémi Hackert, Paul-Antoine Libourel, Daniel Eugène, Jorge Diaz, Catherine de Waele, Pierre-Paul Vidal
At the acute stage following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL), rats, mice or guinea pigs exhibit a complex motor syndrome combining circling (HSCC lesion) and rolling (utricular lesion). At the chronic stage, they only display circling, because proprioceptive information related to the plane of support substitutes the missing utricular information to control posture in the frontal plane. Circling is also observed following unilateral lesion of the mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons by 6- hydroxydopamine hydrobromide (6-OHDA rats) and systemic injection of apomorphine (APO rats)...
2016: PloS One
Xiaohong Deng, Doris K Wu
The inner ear is a complex organ comprised of various specialized sensory organs for detecting sound and head movements. The timing of specification for these sensory organs, however, is not clear. Previous fate mapping results of the inner ear indicate that vestibular and auditory ganglia and two of the vestibular sensory organs, the utricular macula (UM) and saccular macula (SM), are lineage related. Based on the medial-lateral relationship where respective auditory and vestibular neuroblasts exit from the otic epithelium and the subsequent formation of the medial SM and lateral UM in these regions, we hypothesized that specification of the two lateral structures, the vestibular ganglion and the UM are coupled and likewise for the two medial structures, the auditory ganglion and the SM...
June 1, 2016: Developmental Biology
Serdar Kaya, Ömer Hızlı, Fatıma Kübra Kaya, Rafael DaCosta Monsanto, Michael M Paparella, Sebahattin Cureoglu
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: In this study, our objective was to histopathologically analyze the peripheral vestibular system in patients with Mondini dysplasia. STUDY DESIGN: Comparative human temporal bone study. METHODS: We assessed the sensory epithelium of the human vestibular system with a focus on the number of type I and type II hair cells, as well as the total number of hair cells. We compared those numbers in our Mondini dysplasia group versus our control group...
April 14, 2016: Laryngoscope
N Böttcher, T Bremova, K Feil, C Heinze, R Schniepp, M Strupp
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether there is a change in ocular (oVEMP) and cervical (cVEMP) vestibular evoked myogenic potentials in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) before and after spinal tap test (STT). METHODS: In 25 patients (6 females, age 62-83years) c/oVEMP were measured before and after STT. Patients with an increase of >20% of walking velocity were classified as responders (n=10). VEMP were also measured in a control group of 13 non-NPH patients...
May 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
Daniel Olaya-Sánchez, Luis Óscar Sánchez-Guardado, Sho Ohta, Susan C Chapman, Gary C Schoenwolf, Luis Puelles, Matías Hidalgo-Sánchez
The inner ear is a morphologically complex sensory structure with auditory and vestibular functions. The developing otic epithelium gives rise to neurosensory and non-sensory elements of the adult membranous labyrinth. Extrinsic and intrinsic signals manage the patterning and cell specification of the developing otic epithelium by establishing lineage-restricted compartments defined in turn by differential expression of regulatory genes. FGF3 and FGF16 are excellent candidates to govern these developmental events...
March 19, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
Christian Van Nechel
Reliable knowledge of one's space is a prerequisite for effective action, and only sensory experience, although not alone sufficient, can provide access to knowledge of reality. All the diferent sensory modalities help to make sense of this mental construct, but visual information, when available, is predominant. This requires stable images and constant updating of one's awareness of gaze direction and position in space at the moment of acquisition. The vestibular system is sensitive to angular and linear accelerations and thus acts as a reference for stability--an inertial base which stabilizes and characterizes the gaze direction and encodes the subject's movement tracking...
June 2014: Bulletin de L'Académie Nationale de Médecine
Qi Yao, Alexandra A DeSmidt, Mustafa Tekin, Xuezhong Liu, Zhongmin Lu
The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a valuable vertebrate model for human hearing disorders because of many advantages in genetics, embryology, and in vivo visualization. In this study, we investigated auditory function of zebrafish during the first week postfertilization using microphonic potential recording. Extracellular microphonic potentials were recorded from hair cells in the inner ear of wild-type AB and transgenic Et(krt4:GFP)(sqet4) zebrafish at 3, 5, and 7 days postfertilization in response to 20, 50, 100, 200, 300, and 400-Hz acoustic stimulation...
April 2016: Zebrafish
Courtney Stewart, Yue Yu, Jun Huang, Adel Maklad, Xuehui Tang, Jerome Allison, William Mustain, Wu Zhou, Hong Zhu
Some individuals with noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) also report balance problems. These accompanying vestibular complaints are not well understood. The present study used a rat model to examine the effects of noise exposure on the vestibular system. Rats were exposed to continuous broadband white noise (0-24 kHz) at an intensity of 116 dB sound pressure level (SPL) via insert ear phones in one ear for three hours under isoflurane anesthesia. Seven days after the exposure, a significant increase in ABR threshold (43...
May 2016: Hearing Research
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