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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29543019/electromagnetically-induced-transparency-in-circuit-quantum-electrodynamics-with-nested-polariton-states
#1
Junling Long, H S Ku, Xian Wu, Xiu Gu, Russell E Lake, Mustafa Bal, Yu-Xi Liu, David P Pappas
Quantum networks will enable extraordinary capabilities for communicating and processing quantum information. These networks require a reliable means of storage, retrieval, and manipulation of quantum states at the network nodes. A node receives one or more coherent inputs and sends a conditional output to the next cascaded node in the network through a quantum channel. Here, we demonstrate this basic functionality by using the quantum interference mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency in a transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator...
February 23, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29459843/hypothesis-the-vestibular-and-cerebellar-basis-of-the-mal-de-debarquement-syndrome
#2
Bernard Cohen, Sergei B Yakushin, Catherine Cho
The Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS) generally follows sea voyages, but it can occur after turbulent flights or spontaneously. The primary features are objective or perceived continuous rocking, swaying, and/or bobbing at 0.2 Hz after sea voyages or 0.3 Hz after flights. The oscillations can continue for months or years and are immensely disturbing. Associated symptoms appear to be secondary to the incessant sensation of movement. We previously suggested that the illness can be attributed to maladaptation of the velocity storage integrator in the vestibular system, but the actual neural mechanisms driving the MdDS are unknown...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373699/characteristics-and-mechanism-of-apogeotropic-central-positional-nystagmus
#3
Jeong-Yoon Choi, Stefan Glasauer, Ji Hyun Kim, David S Zee, Ji-Soo Kim
Here we characterize persistent apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus, and compare it with the apogeotropic nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo involving the lateral canal. Nystagmus was recorded in 27 patients with apogeotropic type of central positional nystagmus (22 with unilateral and five with diffuse cerebellar lesions) and 20 patients with apogeotropic nystagmus of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. They were tested while sitting, while supine with the head straight back, and in the right and left ear-down positions...
January 24, 2018: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29370246/enhancement-of-muscle-and-locomotor-performance-by-a-series-compliance-a-mechanistic-simulation-study
#4
Jason W Robertson, Colin N Struthers, Douglas A Syme
The objective was to better understand how a series compliance alters contraction kinetics and power output of muscle to enhance the work done on a load. A mathematical model was created in which a gravitational point load was connected via a linear spring to a muscle (based on the contractile properties of the sartorius of leopard frogs, Rana pipiens). The model explored the effects of load mass, tendon compliance, and delay between onset of contraction and release of the load (catch) on lift height and power output as measures of performance...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29369045/spine-morphology-and-energetics-how-principles-from-nature-apply-to-robotics
#5
Yevgeniy Yesilevskiy, William Yang, Christian David Remy
Inspired by the locomotive advantages that an articulated spine enables in quadrupedal animals, we explore and quantify the energetic effect that an articulated spine has in legged robots. We compare two model instances of a conceptual planar quadruped: one with a traditional rigid main body and one with an articulated main body with an actuated spinal joint. Both models feature four distinct legs, series elastic actuation, distributed mass in all body segments, and limits on actuator torque and speed...
January 25, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296489/deformation-velocity-imaging-using-optical-coherence-tomography-and-its-applications-to-the-cornea
#6
Samuel Lawman, Peter W Madden, Vito Romano, Yue Dong, Sharon Mason, Bryan M Williams, Stephen B Kaye, Colin E Willoughby, Simon P Harding, Yao-Chun Shen, Yalin Zheng
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) can monitor human donor corneas non-invasively during the de-swelling process following storage for corneal transplantation, but currently only resultant thickness as a function of time is extracted. To visualize and quantify the mechanism of de-swelling, we present a method exploiting the nanometer sensitivity of the Fourier phase in OCT data to image deformation velocities. The technique was demonstrated by non-invasively showing during de-swelling that osmotic flow through an intact epithelium is negligible and removing the endothelium approximately doubled the initial flow at that interface...
December 1, 2017: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116806/millimeter-sized-hole-damming
#7
So Hung Huynh, Dwayne Chung Kim Chung, Murat Muradoglu, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
Valves used to control liquid filling and draining processes from storage typically need to be actuated. Here, we show that similar flow enabling and restricting operations can be achieved through millimeter scale holes that function according to the amount of hydrostatic pressure applied without any other intervention. This phenomena is exhibited using receptacles where the base is made of either a hydrophilic or superhydrophobic substrate with hole sizes ranging from 1.0-2.0 mm. The construction is such that the drainage flow velocities are of the same order in both substrates and follow Torricelli's law trends...
December 5, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079732/monitoring-ground-water-storage-at-mesoscale-using-seismic-noise-30-years-of-continuous-observation-and-thermo-elastic-and-hydrological-modeling
#8
Thomas Lecocq, Laurent Longuevergne, Helle Anette Pedersen, Florent Brenguier, Klaus Stammler
Groundwater is a vital freshwater resource for both humans and ecosystems. Achieving sustainable management requires a detailed knowledge of the aquifer structure and of its behavior in response to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Traditional monitoring is carried out using piezometer networks, and recently complemented with new geophysical or satellite-based observations. These techniques survey either local (small-scale) water systems or regional areas (large scale) but, to date, adequate observation tools are lacking at the water management scale (i...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951909/stress-relaxation-in-viscous-soft-spheres
#9
Julia Boschan, Siddarth A Vasudevan, Pouyan E Boukany, Ellák Somfai, Brian P Tighe
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic...
October 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937829/nonlinearity-coherence-and-complexity-biophysical-aspects-related-to-health-and-disease
#10
Alberto Foletti, Larissa Brizhik
Biological organisms are complex open dissipative systems whose dynamical stability is sustained due to the exchange of matter, energy and information. Dynamical stability occurs through a number of mechanisms that sustain efficient adaptive dynamics. Such properties of living matter can be the consequence of a self-consistent state of matter and electromagnetic field (EMF). Based on the soliton model of charge transport in redox processes, we describe a possible mechanism of the origin of endogenous EMF and coherence...
September 22, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#11
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836427/embedded-triboelectric-active-sensors-for-real-time-pneumatic-monitoring
#12
Xian Peng Fu, Tian Zhao Bu, Feng Ben Xi, Ting Hai Cheng, Chi Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827457/take-off-mechanisms-in-parasitoid-wasps
#13
Malcolm Burrows, Marina Dorosenko
High-speed video analyses of the natural behaviour of parasitoid wasps revealed three strategies used to launch the insects into the air. Which strategy is the most energy efficient? In Pteromalus puparum, 92% of take-offs by were propelled entirely by movements of the middle and hind legs, which were depressed at their coxo-trochanteral and extended at their femoro-tibial joints. The front legs left the ground first, followed by the hind legs, so that the middle legs provided the final propulsion. Second, in other species of a similar mass, Cotesia glomerata and Leptopilina boulardi, all take-offs were propelled by a mean of 2...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772646/high-temperature-hot-air-silane-coupling-modification-of-wood-fiber-and-its-effect-on-properties-of-wood-fiber-hdpe-composites
#14
Feng Chen, Guangping Han, Qingde Li, Xun Gao, Wanli Cheng
The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA) treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability) of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF) through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The effect of HTHA treatment conditions-such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate-on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis...
March 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552362/transformation-of-perception-from-sensory-to-motor-cortex
#15
Arash Fassihi, Athena Akrami, Francesca Pulecchi, Vinzenz Schönfelder, Mathew E Diamond
To better understand how a stream of sensory data is transformed into a percept, we examined neuronal activity in vibrissal sensory cortex, vS1, together with vibrissal motor cortex, vM1 (a frontal cortex target of vS1), while rats compared the intensity of two vibrations separated by an interstimulus delay. Vibrations were "noisy," constructed by stringing together over time a sequence of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution; each vibration's mean speed was proportional to the width of the normal distribution...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438216/improved-pressure-contour-analysis-for-estimating-cardiac-stroke-volume-using-pulse-wave-velocity-measurement
#16
Shun Kamoi, Christopher Pretty, Joel Balmer, Shaun Davidson, Antoine Pironet, Thomas Desaive, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Pressure contour analysis is commonly used to estimate cardiac performance for patients suffering from cardiovascular dysfunction in the intensive care unit. However, the existing techniques for continuous estimation of stroke volume (SV) from pressure measurement can be unreliable during hemodynamic instability, which is inevitable for patients requiring significant treatment. For this reason, pressure contour methods must be improved to capture changes in vascular properties and thus provide accurate conversion from pressure to flow...
April 24, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303437/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-first-charge-of-a-li-ion-si-anode-nanobattery
#17
Diego E Galvez-Aranda, Victor Ponce, Jorge M Seminario
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are the most popular devices for energy storage but still a lot of research needs to be done to improve their cycling and storage capacity. Silicon has been proposed as an anode material because of its large theoretical capacity of ∼3600 mAh/g. Therefore, focus is needed on the lithiation process of silicon anodes where it is known that the anode increases its volume more than 300%, producing cracking and other damages. We performed molecular dynamics atomistic simulations to study the swelling, alloying, and amorphization of a silicon nanocrystal anode in a full nanobattery model during the first charging cycle...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284571/dynamic-mechanical-analysis-to-assess-viscoelasticity-of-liver-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#18
Xinyu Zhang, Xuehua Gao, Pengpeng Zhang, Yanrong Guo, Haoming Lin, Xianfen Diao, Yingxia Liu, Changfeng Dong, Yaxin Hu, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in both developed and developing countries. A noninvasive method of detecting early stage NAFLD and distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis (SS) would be useful. The over-accumulation of fat in hepatocytes alters the physical microstructure and chemical contents of the liver tissue. This study included dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) testing on liver samples from a rat model of NAFLD to determine whether the tissue shows any significant changes in viscoelasticity due to the histological changes...
June 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703846/dynamics-and-stability-of-directional-jumps-in-the-desert-locust
#19
Omer Gvirsman, Gabor Kosa, Amir Ayali
Locusts are known for their ability to jump large distances to avoid predation. The jump also serves to launch the adult locust into the air in order to initiate flight. Various aspects of this important behavior have been studied extensively, from muscle physiology and biomechanics, to the energy storage systems involved in powering the jump, and more. Less well understood are the mechanisms participating in control of the jump trajectory. Here we utilise video monitoring and careful analysis of experimental directional jumps by adult desert locusts, together with dynamic computer simulation, in order to understand how the locusts control the direction and elevation of the jump, the residual angular velocities resulting from the jump and the timing of flapping-flight initiation...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517614/analysis-of-red-blood-cells-dynamic-status-in-a-simulated-blood-circulation-system-using-an-ultrahigh-speed-simultaneous-framing-optical-electronic-camera
#20
Qiang Zhang, Zeren Li, Shuming Zhao, Weifeng Wen, Lihua Chang, Helian Yu, Tianlun Jiang
Alterations in the morphologic and mechanical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) are considered direct indicators of blood quality. Current measures of characterizing these properties in vivo are limited by the complicated hemodynamic environment. To better evaluate the quality of fresh and stored blood, a new research platform was constructed to evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics of RBCs. The research platform consists mostly of a microfluidic chip, microscope, and ultrahigh-speed simultaneous framing optical electronic camera (USFOEC)...
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
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