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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116806/millimeter-sized-hole-damming
#1
So Hung Huynh, Dwayne Chung Kim Chung, Murat Muradoglu, Oi Wah Liew, Tuck Wah Ng
Valves used to control liquid filling and draining processes from storage typically need to be actuated. Here, we show that similar flow enabling and restricting operations can be achieved through millimeter scale holes that function according to the amount of hydrostatic pressure applied without any other intervention. This phenomena is exhibited using receptacles where the base is made of either a hydrophilic or superhydrophobic substrate with hole sizes ranging from 1.0-2.0 mm. The construction is such that the drainage flow velocities are of the same order in both substrates and follow Torricelli's law trends...
November 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079732/monitoring-ground-water-storage-at-mesoscale-using-seismic-noise-30-years-of-continuous-observation-and-thermo-elastic-and-hydrological-modeling
#2
Thomas Lecocq, Laurent Longuevergne, Helle Anette Pedersen, Florent Brenguier, Klaus Stammler
Groundwater is a vital freshwater resource for both humans and ecosystems. Achieving sustainable management requires a detailed knowledge of the aquifer structure and of its behavior in response to climatic and anthropogenic forcing. Traditional monitoring is carried out using piezometer networks, and recently complemented with new geophysical or satellite-based observations. These techniques survey either local (small-scale) water systems or regional areas (large scale) but, to date, adequate observation tools are lacking at the water management scale (i...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951909/stress-relaxation-in-viscous-soft-spheres
#3
Julia Boschan, Siddarth A Vasudevan, Pouyan E Boukany, Ellák Somfai, Brian P Tighe
We report the results of molecular dynamics simulations of stress relaxation tests in athermal viscous soft sphere packings close to their unjamming transition. By systematically and simultaneously varying both the amplitude of the applied strain step and the pressure of the initial condition, we access both linear and nonlinear response regimes and control the distance to jamming. Stress relaxation in viscoelastic solids is characterized by a relaxation time τ* that separates short time scales, where viscous loss is substantial, from long time scales, where elastic storage dominates and the response is essentially quasistatic...
October 4, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28937829/nonlinearity-coherence-and-complexity-biophysical-aspects-related-to-health-and-disease
#4
Alberto Foletti, Larissa Brizhik
Biological organisms are complex open dissipative systems whose dynamical stability is sustained due to the exchange of matter, energy and information. Dynamical stability occurs through a number of mechanisms that sustain efficient adaptive dynamics. Such properties of living matter can be the consequence of a self-consistent state of matter and electromagnetic field (EMF). Based on the soliton model of charge transport in redox processes, we describe a possible mechanism of the origin of endogenous EMF and coherence...
September 22, 2017: Electromagnetic Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861030/coding-of-velocity-storage-in-the-vestibular-nuclei
#5
Sergei B Yakushin, Theodore Raphan, Bernard Cohen
Semicircular canal afferents sense angular acceleration and output angular velocity with a short time constant of ≈4.5 s. This output is prolonged by a central integrative network, velocity storage that lengthens the time constants of eye velocity. This mechanism utilizes canal, otolith, and visual (optokinetic) information to align the axis of eye velocity toward the spatial vertical when head orientation is off-vertical axis. Previous studies indicated that vestibular-only (VO) and vestibular-pause-saccade (VPS) neurons located in the medial and superior vestibular nucleus could code all aspects of velocity storage...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28836427/embedded-triboelectric-active-sensors-for-real-time-pneumatic-monitoring
#6
Xian Peng Fu, Tian Zhao Bu, Feng Ben Xi, Ting Hai Cheng, Chi Zhang, Zhong Lin Wang
Pneumatic monitoring sensors have great demands for power supply in cylinder systems. Here, we present an embedded sliding triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) in air cylinder as active sensors for position and velocity monitoring. The embedded TENG is composed of a circular poly(tetrafluoroethylene) polymer and a triangular copper electrode. The working mechanism as triboelectric active sensors and electric output performance are systematically investigated. By integrating into the pneumatic system, the embedded triboelectric active sensors have been used for real-time air pressure/flow monitoring and energy storage...
September 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827457/take-off-mechanisms-in-parasitoid-wasps
#7
Malcolm Burrows, Marina Dorosenko
High-speed video analyses of the natural behaviour of parasitoid wasps revealed three strategies used to launch the insects into the air. Which strategy is the most energy efficient? In Pteromalus puparum, 92% of take-offs by were propelled entirely by movements of the middle and hind legs, which were depressed at their coxo-trochanteral and extended at their femoro-tibial joints. The front legs left the ground first, followed by the hind legs, so that the middle legs provided the final propulsion. Second, in other species of a similar mass, Cotesia glomerata and Leptopilina boulardi, all take-offs were propelled by a mean of 2...
October 15, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28772646/high-temperature-hot-air-silane-coupling-modification-of-wood-fiber-and-its-effect-on-properties-of-wood-fiber-hdpe-composites
#8
Feng Chen, Guangping Han, Qingde Li, Xun Gao, Wanli Cheng
The surfaces of poplar wood fibers were modified using high-temperature hot air (HTHA) treatment and silane coupling agent. The single factor test was then used to investigate the performances (e.g., the change of functional groups, polarity, cellulose crystallinity, and thermal stability) of modified poplar wood fibers (mPWF) through Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, X-ray diffraction and thermo-gravimetric analysis for the subsequent preparation of wood-plastic composites (WPCs). The effect of HTHA treatment conditions-such as temperature, inlet air velocity, and feed rate-on the performances of WPCs was also investigated by scanning electron microscopy and dynamic mechanical analysis...
March 13, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28552362/transformation-of-perception-from-sensory-to-motor-cortex
#9
Arash Fassihi, Athena Akrami, Francesca Pulecchi, Vinzenz Schönfelder, Mathew E Diamond
To better understand how a stream of sensory data is transformed into a percept, we examined neuronal activity in vibrissal sensory cortex, vS1, together with vibrissal motor cortex, vM1 (a frontal cortex target of vS1), while rats compared the intensity of two vibrations separated by an interstimulus delay. Vibrations were "noisy," constructed by stringing together over time a sequence of velocity values sampled from a normal distribution; each vibration's mean speed was proportional to the width of the normal distribution...
June 5, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438216/improved-pressure-contour-analysis-for-estimating-cardiac-stroke-volume-using-pulse-wave-velocity-measurement
#10
Shun Kamoi, Christopher Pretty, Joel Balmer, Shaun Davidson, Antoine Pironet, Thomas Desaive, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase
BACKGROUND: Pressure contour analysis is commonly used to estimate cardiac performance for patients suffering from cardiovascular dysfunction in the intensive care unit. However, the existing techniques for continuous estimation of stroke volume (SV) from pressure measurement can be unreliable during hemodynamic instability, which is inevitable for patients requiring significant treatment. For this reason, pressure contour methods must be improved to capture changes in vascular properties and thus provide accurate conversion from pressure to flow...
April 24, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303437/molecular-dynamics-simulations-of-the-first-charge-of-a-li-ion-si-anode-nanobattery
#11
Diego E Galvez-Aranda, Victor Ponce, Jorge M Seminario
Rechargeable lithium-ion batteries are the most popular devices for energy storage but still a lot of research needs to be done to improve their cycling and storage capacity. Silicon has been proposed as an anode material because of its large theoretical capacity of ∼3600 mAh/g. Therefore, focus is needed on the lithiation process of silicon anodes where it is known that the anode increases its volume more than 300%, producing cracking and other damages. We performed molecular dynamics atomistic simulations to study the swelling, alloying, and amorphization of a silicon nanocrystal anode in a full nanobattery model during the first charging cycle...
April 2017: Journal of Molecular Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284571/dynamic-mechanical-analysis-to-assess-viscoelasticity-of-liver-tissue-in-a-rat-model-of-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease
#12
Xinyu Zhang, Xuehua Gao, Pengpeng Zhang, Yanrong Guo, Haoming Lin, Xianfen Diao, Yingxia Liu, Changfeng Dong, Yaxin Hu, Siping Chen, Xin Chen
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common liver disorder in both developed and developing countries. A noninvasive method of detecting early stage NAFLD and distinguishing non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) from simple steatosis (SS) would be useful. The over-accumulation of fat in hepatocytes alters the physical microstructure and chemical contents of the liver tissue. This study included dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) testing on liver samples from a rat model of NAFLD to determine whether the tissue shows any significant changes in viscoelasticity due to the histological changes...
June 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27703846/dynamics-and-stability-of-directional-jumps-in-the-desert-locust
#13
Omer Gvirsman, Gabor Kosa, Amir Ayali
Locusts are known for their ability to jump large distances to avoid predation. The jump also serves to launch the adult locust into the air in order to initiate flight. Various aspects of this important behavior have been studied extensively, from muscle physiology and biomechanics, to the energy storage systems involved in powering the jump, and more. Less well understood are the mechanisms participating in control of the jump trajectory. Here we utilise video monitoring and careful analysis of experimental directional jumps by adult desert locusts, together with dynamic computer simulation, in order to understand how the locusts control the direction and elevation of the jump, the residual angular velocities resulting from the jump and the timing of flapping-flight initiation...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27517614/analysis-of-red-blood-cells-dynamic-status-in-a-simulated-blood-circulation-system-using-an-ultrahigh-speed-simultaneous-framing-optical-electronic-camera
#14
Qiang Zhang, Zeren Li, Shuming Zhao, Weifeng Wen, Lihua Chang, Helian Yu, Tianlun Jiang
Alterations in the morphologic and mechanical properties of red blood cells (RBCs) are considered direct indicators of blood quality. Current measures of characterizing these properties in vivo are limited by the complicated hemodynamic environment. To better evaluate the quality of fresh and stored blood, a new research platform was constructed to evaluate the hemodynamic characteristics of RBCs. The research platform consists mostly of a microfluidic chip, microscope, and ultrahigh-speed simultaneous framing optical electronic camera (USFOEC)...
February 2017: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27493196/modeling-age-related-changes-in-muscle-tendon-dynamics-during-cyclical-contractions-in-the-rat-gastrocnemius
#15
Nicole Danos, Natalie C Holt, Gregory S Sawicki, Emanuel Azizi
Efficient muscle-tendon performance during cyclical tasks is dependent on both active and passive mechanical tissue properties. Here we examine whether age-related changes in the properties of muscle-tendon units (MTUs) compromise their ability to do work and utilize elastic energy storage. We empirically quantified passive and active properties of the medial gastrocnemius muscle and material properties of the Achilles tendon in young (∼6 mo) and old (∼32 mo) rats. We then used these properties in computer simulations of a Hill-type muscle model operating in series with a Hookean spring...
October 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27391426/habituation-of-self-motion-perception-following-unidirectional-angular-velocity-steps
#16
Gilles Clément, Robert Terlevic
We investigated whether the perceived angular velocity following velocity steps of 80°/s in the dark decreased with the repetition of the stimulation in the same direction. The perceptual response to velocity steps in the opposite direction was also compared before and after this unidirectional habituation training. Participants indicated their perceived angular velocity by clicking on a wireless mouse every time they felt that they had rotated by 90°. The prehabituation perceptual response decayed exponentially with a time constant of 23...
September 7, 2016: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27340990/increased-velocity-storage-in-subjects-with-meniere-s-disease
#17
Claudio Krstulovic, Nabil Atrache Al Attrache, Herminio Pérez Garrigues, Herminia Argente-Escrig, Luis Bataller Alberola, Constantino Morera Pérez
OBJECTIVE: Velocity storage mechanism is a multisensory rotation estimator; it compensates for errors in the information provided by the peripheral vestibular organs by means of an adjustment in the duration of the vestibular signal. The aim of this study was to determine the activity of the velocity storage mechanism in the presence of a labyrinthine disorder, using galvanic vestibular stimulation to cause direct activation of the vestibular afferent neurons. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-one subjects with definite Meniere's disease (MD) and 36 healthy volunteers were evaluated using a 20-s galvanic vestibular stimulation...
April 2016: Journal of International Advanced Otology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255524/mechanical-and-neural-function-of-triceps-surae-in-elite-racewalking
#18
Neil J Cronin, Brian Hanley, Athanassios Bissas
Racewalking is a unique event combining mechanical elements of walking with speeds associated with running. It is currently unclear how racewalking technique impacts lower limb muscle-tendon function despite the relevance of this to muscle economy and overall performance. The present study examined triceps surae neuromechanics in 11 internationally competitive racewalkers (age 25 ± 11 yr) walking and running on a treadmill at speeds between 4.5 and 13.8 km/h while triceps surae fascicle lengths, electromyography, and kinematic data were recorded...
July 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27078463/anomalous-capillary-filling-and-wettability-reversal-in-nanochannels
#19
Simon Gravelle, Christophe Ybert, Lydéric Bocquet, Laurent Joly
This work revisits capillary filling dynamics in the regime of nanometric to subnanometric channels. Using molecular dynamics simulations of water in carbon nanotubes, we show that for tube radii below one nanometer, both the filling velocity and the Jurin rise vary nonmonotonically with the tube radius. Strikingly, with fixed chemical surface properties, this leads to confinement-induced reversal of the tube wettability from hydrophilic to hydrophobic for specific values of the radius. By comparing with a model liquid metal, we show that these effects are not specific to water...
March 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26969184/impaired-tilt-suppression-of-post-rotatory-nystagmus-and-cross-coupled-head-shaking-nystagmus-in-cerebellar-lesions-image-mapping-study
#20
Sun-Uk Lee, Jeong-Yoon Choi, Hyo-Jung Kim, Jeong-Jin Park, David S Zee, Ji-Soo Kim
We sought to determine the cerebellar structures responsible for tilt suppression of post-rotatory nystagmus. We investigated ocular motor findings and MRI lesions in 73 patients with isolated cerebellar lesions who underwent recording of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) using rotatory chair tests. Tilt suppression of post-rotatory nystagmus was diminished in 27 patients (27/73, 37.0 %). The gains of the VOR and the TCs of per- and post-rotatory nystagmus did not differ between the patients with diminished and with normal tilt suppression...
February 2017: Cerebellum
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