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Control of breathing

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442250/can-dogs-use-vocal-intonation-as-a-social-referencing-cue-in-an-object-choice-task
#1
Erin N Colbert-White, Alexa Tullis, David R Andresen, Kiona M Parker, Kaylana E Patterson
Evidence from the literature indicates that dogs' choices can be influenced by human-delivered social cues, such as pointing, and pointing combined with facial expression, intonation (i.e., rising and falling voice pitch), and/or words. The present study used an object choice task to investigate whether intonation conveys unique information in the absence of other salient cues. We removed facial expression cues and speech information by delivering cues with the experimenter's back to the dog and by using nonword vocalizations...
February 13, 2018: Animal Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29439435/synchronization-attention-and-transformation-multidimensional-exploration-of-the-aesthetic-experience-of-contemporary-dance-spectators
#2
Coline Joufflineau, Coralie Vincent, Asaf Bachrach
The co-presence of bodies in intersubjective situations can give rise to processes of kinesthetic empathy and physiological synchronization, especially in the context of dance: the body and attention of the spectators are oriented towards the dancers. In this study, we investigate the processes of "body-mind" resonance between a choreography and its spectators, and more specifically the lasting impact of this resonance post-performance. We then explore the relation between the observed effects and subjective measures of attention...
February 10, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438845/-brain-over-body-a-study-on-the-willful-regulation-of-autonomic-function-during-cold-exposure
#3
Otto Muzik, Kaice T Reilly, Vaibhav A Diwadkar
The defense of body temperature against environmental thermal challenges is a core objective of homeostatic regulation governed by the autonomic nervous system. Autonomous mechanisms of thermoregulation are only weakly affected by top-down modulation, allowing only transient tolerance for extreme cold. There is however, anecdotal evidence of a unique set of individuals known for extreme cold tolerance. Here we present a case study of a 57-year old Dutch national, Wim Hof, the so-called "Iceman", with the ability to withstand frequent prolonged periods of extreme cold exposure based on the practice of a self-developed technique involving a combination of forced breathing, cold exposure and meditation (collectively referred to as the Wim Hof Method, henceforth "WHM")...
February 10, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438157/effects-of-varenicline-alone-and-in-combination-with-low-dose-naltrexone-on-alcohol-primed-smoking-in-heavy-drinking-tobacco-users-a-preliminary-laboratory-study
#4
Walter Roberts, Julia M Shi, Jeanette M Tetrault, Sherry A McKee
OBJECTIVES: Heavy-drinking tobacco users are less likely to successfully quit smoking than their moderate-drinking counterparts, even when they are prescribed smoking cessation medication. One strategy for improving treatment outcomes in this subgroup of tobacco users may be to combine medication therapies to target both alcohol and tobacco use simultaneously. Adding naltrexone to frontline smoking cessation treatments may improve treatment outcomes in this group. METHOD: This double-blind, placebo-controlled human laboratory study examined the effects of varenicline (2 mg/d) and varenicline (2 mg/d), combined with a low dose of naltrexone (25 mg/d) on alcohol-primed smoking behavior in a laboratory model of smoking relapse in heavy-drinking tobacco users (n = 30)...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433301/prevalence-of-fructose-malabsorption-in-patients-with-irritable-bowel-syndrome-after-excluding-small-intestinal-bacterial-overgrowth
#5
Kee Wook Jung, Myeognsook Seo, Young Hwan Cho, Young-Ok Park, So-Yoon Yoon, Jungbok Lee, Dong-Hoon Yang, In Ja Yoon, So Young Seo, Hyo Jeong Lee, Sang Hyoung Park, Kyung Jo Kim, Byong Duk Ye, Jeong-Sik Byeon, Hwoon-Yong Jung, Suk-Kyun Yang, Jin-Ho Kim, Seung-Jae Myung
Background/Aims: Fructose malabsorption (FM) mimics symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and its prevalence has increased. Diagnosing FM in IBS is challenging because of its overlap with small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). We assessed the prevalence of FM by comparing patients with IBS with asymptomatic control individuals after excluding SIBO using the glucose hydrogen breath test (HBT). Methods: Patients diagnosed with IBS and asymptomatic control individuals were prospectively enrolled in the study...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Neurogastroenterology and Motility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430257/when-traits-match-states-examining-the-associations-between-self-report-trait-and-state-mindfulness-following-a-state-mindfulness-induction
#6
Adrian J Bravo, Matthew R Pearson, Adam D Wilson, Katie Witkiewitz
Previous research has found inconsistent relationships between trait mindfulness and state mindfulness. To extend previous research, we sought to examine the unique associations between self-report trait mindfulness and state mindfulness by levels of meditation experience (meditation-naïve vs. meditation-experienced) and by mindfulness induction (experimentally induced mindful state vs. control group). We recruited 299 college students (93 with previous mindfulness meditation experience) to participate in an experiment that involved the assessment of five facets of trait mindfulness (among other constructs), followed by a mindfulness induction (vs...
February 2018: Mindfulness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429610/automated-ultrafast-kilovoltage-megavoltage-cone-beam-ct-for-image-guided-radiotherapy-of-lung-cancer-system-description-and-real-time-results
#7
Manuel Blessing, Anna Arns, Hansjoerg Wertz, Dzmitry Stsepankou, Judit Boda-Heggemann, Juergen Hesser, Frederik Wenz, Frank Lohr
PURPOSE: To establish a fully automated kV-MV CBCT imaging method on a clinical linear accelerator that allows image acquisition of thoracic targets for patient positioning within one breath-hold (∼15s) under realistic clinical conditions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Our previously developed FPGA-based hardware unit which allows synchronized kV-MV CBCT projection acquisition is connected to a clinical linear accelerator system via a multi-pin switch; i.e. either kV-MV imaging or conventional clinical mode can be selected...
February 8, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429217/-phrenic-nerve-stimulation-protects-against-mechanical-ventilation-induced-diaphragmatic-dysfunction-through-myogenic-regulatory-factors
#8
G H An, M Chen, W F Zhan, B Hu, H X Zhang
Objective: To explore the protective effect of electrical stimulation of phrenic nerve on diaphragmatic function during mechanical ventilation. Methods: Forty healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (BC), spontaneous breathing group (SB), electrical stimulation group (ES), mechanical ventilation group (MV), and electrical stimulation and mechanical ventilation group (MS). The rats in each group were treated for 18 h except for the BC group. After treatment, the diaphragm muscle tissue was obtained and the diaphragm contractility including peak-to-peak value(Vpp) and maximum rate of contraction(+ dT/dt max) were measured...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428925/adjuvant-therapy-yiqiditantongfu-decoction-with-external-diaphragm-pacer-for-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-patients-with-difficulty-weaning-from-mechanical-ventilation
#9
Cong He, Shan Ren, Quansheng Du, Yong Wang, Hui Liu, Heling Zhao, Limin Shen, Ling Long, Xianlei Wang
Context • Global morbidity from chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is high worldwide. Diaphragm pacing (DP) can maintain the natural, negative pressure breathing of COPD patients with diaphragmatic muscle dysfunction. The YiqiDitanTongfu (YDTF) decoction has been used clinically with COPD patients to help them to wean from mechanical ventilation, with their ventilation functions being improved and the success rate of weaning being largely increased. Objective • The study intended to investigate the combined therapeutic effects of external DP and the YDTF decoction for COPD patients who have had difficulty weaning from mechanical ventilation...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427989/diagnosis-and-management-of-severe-asthma
#10
Kian Fan Chung
Severe therapy-resistant asthma has been defined as "asthma which requires treatment with high dose inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) plus a second controller (and/or systemic corticosteroids) to prevent it from becoming 'uncontrolled' or which remains 'uncontrolled' despite this therapy". Patients who usually present with 'difficult-to-treat asthma' should first be assessed to determine whether he/she has asthma with the exclusion of other diagnoses and if so, whether the asthma can be classified as severe therapy-resistant...
February 2018: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427828/an-alcohol-withdrawal-test-battery-measuring-multiple-behavioral-symptoms-in-mice
#11
Pamela Metten, Jason P Schlumbohm, Lawrence C Huang, Gian D Greenberg, Wyatt R Hack, Stephanie E Spence, John C Crabbe
Despite acceptance that risk for alcohol-use disorder (AUD) has a large genetic component, the identification of genes underlying various components of risk for AUD has been hampered in humans, in part by the heterogeneity of expression of the phenotype. One aspect of AUD is physical dependence. Alcohol withdrawal is a serious consequence of alcohol dependence with multiple symptoms, many of which are seen in multiple species, and can be experienced over a wide-ranging time course. In the present three studies, we developed a battery of withdrawal tests in mice, examining behavioral symptoms from multiple domains that could be measured over time...
September 6, 2017: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427101/spinocerebellar-ataxia-type-1-molecular-mechanisms-of-neurodegeneration-and-preclinical-studies
#12
Judit M Pérez Ortiz, Harry T Orr
Spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is an adult-onset, inherited disease that leads to degeneration of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum and culminates in death 10-30 years after disease onset. SCA1 is caused by a CAG repeat mutation in the ATXN1 gene, encoding the ATXN1 protein with an abnormally expanded polyglutamine tract. As neurodegeneration progresses, other brain regions become involved and contribute to cognitive deficits as well as problems with speech, swallowing, and control of breathing. The fundamental basis of pathology is an aberration in the normal function of Purkinje cells affecting regulation of gene transcription and RNA splicing...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425703/training-and-validating-a-portable-electronic-nose-for-lung-cancer-screening
#13
Rens van de Goor, Michel van Hooren, Anne-Marie Dingemans, Bernd Kremer, Kenneth Kross
INTRODUCTION: Profiling volatile organic compounds in exhaled breath enables the diagnosis of several types of cancer. In this study we investigated if a portable point-of-care version of an electronic nose (Aeonose™) is able to discriminate between lung-cancer patients and healthy controls, based on their volatile organic compound pattern. METHODS: In this study, we used five e-nose devices to collect breath samples from lung-cancer patients and healthy controls...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425579/the-impact-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-on-cardiovascular-health-in-overweight-children
#14
Rosemary S C Horne, Genevieve Shandler, Knarik Tamanyan, Aidan Weichard, Alexsandria Odoi, Sarah N Biggs, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Lisa M Walter
BACKGROUND: Up to 50% of overweight/obese children have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) compared to up to 6% of normal weight children. We compared cardiovascular variables between normal weight and overweight/obese children with and without OSA, and controls. METHODS: Seventy-four referred children and 24 normal weight non-snoring controls (8-18 years) were recruited. Referred children were grouped according to their obstructive apnea hypopnea index (OAHI): OSA (>1 event/h) or primary snoring (PS ≤ 1 event/h) and whether they were normal weight (BMI z-score <1...
January 2018: Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422603/rem-sleep-respiratory-behaviours-mental-content-in-narcoleptic-lucid-dreamers
#15
Delphine Oudiette, Pauline Dodet, Nahema Ledard, Emilie Artru, Inès Rachidi, Thomas Similowski, Isabelle Arnulf
Breathing is irregular during rapid eye-movement (REM) sleep, whereas it is stable during non-REM sleep. Why this is so remains a mystery. We propose that irregular breathing has a cortical origin and reflects the mental content of dreams, which often accompany REM sleep. We tested 21 patients with narcolepsy who had the exceptional ability to lucid dream in REM sleep, a condition in which one is conscious of dreaming during the dream and can signal lucidity with an ocular code. Sleep and respiration were monitored during multiple naps...
February 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422040/combined-diet-and-physical-activity-is-better-than-diet-or-physical-activity-alone-at-improving-health-outcomes-for-patients-in-new-zealand-s-primary-care-intervention
#16
Catherine Anne Elliot, Michael John Hamlin
BACKGROUND: A dearth of knowledge exists regarding how multiple health behavior changes made within an exercise prescription programme can improve health parameters. This study aimed to analyse the impact of changing diet and increasing exercise on health improvements among exercise prescription patients. METHODS: In 2016, a representative sample of all enroled New Zealand exercise prescription programme (Green Prescription) patients were surveyed (N = 1488, 29% male, 46% ≥ 60 yr)...
February 8, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420859/amygdala-stimulation-induced-apnea-is-attention-and-nasal-breathing-dependent
#17
William P Nobis, Stephen Schuele, Jessica W Templer, Guangyu Zhou, Gregory Lane, Joshua M Rosenow, Christina Zelano
OBJECTIVE: Evidence suggests disordered breathing is critically involved in Sudden unexplained death in epilepsy (SUDEP). To that end, evaluating structures that are activated by seizures and can activate brain regions that produce cardiorespiratory changes can further our understanding of the pathophysiology of SUDEP. Prior preclinical studies have shown that electrical stimulation of the human amygdala induces apnea, suggesting a role for the amygdala in controlling respiration. In this study, we aimed to both confirm these findings in a larger group of patients with intractable temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) and also further explore the anatomical and cognitive properties of this effect...
February 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29420845/conscious-control-of-breathing-a-key-to-sudep-prevention
#18
Tobias Loddenkemper
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 8, 2018: Annals of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416383/obstructive-sleep-apnea-current-perspectives
#19
REVIEW
Amal M Osman, Sophie G Carter, Jayne C Carberry, Danny J Eckert
The prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) continues to rise. So too do the health, safety, and economic consequences. On an individual level, the causes and consequences of OSA can vary substantially between patients. In recent years, four key contributors to OSA pathogenesis or "phenotypes" have been characterized. These include a narrow, crowded, or collapsible upper airway "anatomical compromise" and "non-anatomical" contributors such as ineffective pharyngeal dilator muscle function during sleep, a low threshold for arousal to airway narrowing during sleep, and unstable control of breathing (high loop gain)...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416219/an-open-label-randomized-controlled-trial-to-compare-low-level-pressure-support-and-t-piece-as-strategies-for-discontinuation-of-mechanical-ventilation-in-a-general-surgical-intensive-care-unit
#20
Kaweesak Chittawatanarat, Sariphat Orrapin, Karuna Jitkaroon, Sirirat Mueakwan, Ubolrat Sroison
Objective: The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of continuous low pressure support (PSV) and T-piece as strategies for discontinuation of mechanical ventilation and extubation in a surgical ICU. Patients and Methods: This was a prospective open label randomized control study in surgical ICU patients who were intubated, mechanically ventilated, and who met criteria for a spontaneous breathing trial. Eligible, enrolled patients were randomized to receive low-level pressure supportup to 7 cmH2O (PSV) or T-piece as the mode of their spontaneous breathing trial...
February 2018: Medical Archives
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