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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822818/phrenic-long-term-facilitation-following-intrapleural-ctb-sap-induced-respiratory-motor-neuron-death
#1
Nicole L Nichols, Taylor A Craig, Miles A Tanner
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating disease leading to progressive motor neuron degeneration and death by ventilatory failure. In a rat model of ALS (SOD1(G93A)), phrenic long-term facilitation (pLTF) following acute intermittent hypoxia (AIH) is enhanced greater than expected at disease end-stage but the mechanism is unknown. We suggest that one trigger for this enhancement is motor neuron death itself. Intrapleural injections of cholera toxin B fragment conjugated to saporin (CTB-SAP) selectively kill respiratory motor neurons and mimic motor neuron death observed in SOD1(G93A) rats...
August 16, 2017: Respiratory Physiology & Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822448/-warning-symptoms-of-asthma-attack-and-asthma-self-management-a-national-asthma-control-survey-from-china
#2
J T Lin, W Q Wang, X Zhou, C Z Wang, M Huang, S X Cai, P Chen, Q C Lin, J Y Zhou, Y H Gu, Y D Yuan, D J Sun, X H Yang, L Yang, J M Huo, Z C Chen, P Jiang, J Zhang, X W Ye, H G Liu, H P Tang, R Y Liu, C T Liu, W Zhang, C P Hu, Y Q Chen, X J Liu, L M Dai, W Zhou, Y J Huang, J Y Xu
Objective: To investigate warning symptoms of asthma attack and evaluate asthma self-management status of asthma patients in urban China. Methods: A multi-center, cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out from 30 general hospitals dispersed in 30 provinces of mainland China (except for Tibet) during Oct 2015 to May 2016. Information of frequency and warning symptoms of asthma attack, the time from warning symptoms to asthma attack, the impact of asthma attack and asthma self-management were collected from asthma patients of outpatient department...
August 8, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822267/a-similar-pro-anti-inflammatory-cytokine-balance-is-present-in-the-airways-of-competitive-athletes-and-non-exercising-asthmatics
#3
Marcin Kurowski, Janusz Jurczyk, Agnieszka Olszewska-Ziąber, Marzanna Jarzębska, Hubert Krysztofiak, Marek L Kowalski
PURPOSE: Intensive exercise modifies airway inflammation and infection susceptibility. We aimed to determine the effect of exercise on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1ra, IL-10) and innate immunity protein (HSPA1, sCD14) levels in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and nasal secretions of competitive athletes, non-exercising asthmatics and healthy controls (HC). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 15 competitive athletes (five speed skaters and ten swimmers) aged 15-25...
August 16, 2017: Advances in Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820662/the-impact-of-deep-muscle-training-on-the-quality-of-posture-and-breathing
#4
Elżbieta Szczygieł, Jędrzej Blaut, Katarzyna Zielonka-Pycka, Krzysztof Tomaszewski, Joanna Golec, Dorota Czechowska, Agata Masłoń, Edward Golec
Postural control and breathing are mechanically and neuromuscularly interdependent. Both systems- of spinal stability and respiration- involve the diaphragm, transversus abdominis, intercostal muscles, internal oblique muscles and pelvic floor muscles. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of exercises activating deep stabilizer muscles on postural control and quality of breathing movements. Eighteen volunteers (25,7 ± 3,5) were recruited from the general population. All the subjects implemented an exercise program activating deep muscles...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819793/the-mechanisms-underlying-the-production-of-discontinuous-gas-exchange-cycles-in-insects
#5
REVIEW
Philip G D Matthews
This review examines the control of gas exchange in insects, specifically examining what mechanisms could explain the emergence of discontinuous gas exchange cycles (DGCs). DGCs are gas exchange patterns consisting of alternating breath-hold periods and bouts of gas exchange. While all insects are capable of displaying a continuous pattern of gas exchange, this episodic pattern is known to occur within only some groups of insects and then only sporadically or during certain phases of their life cycle. Investigations into DGCs have tended to emphasise the role of chemosensory thresholds in triggering spiracle opening as critical for producing these gas exchange patterns...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. B, Biochemical, Systemic, and Environmental Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819181/capnography-monitoring-the-hypoventilation-during-the-induction-of-bronchoscopic-sedation-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Ting-Yu Lin, Yueh-Fu Fang, Shih-Hao Huang, Tsai-Yu Wang, Chih-Hsi Kuo, Hau-Tieng Wu, Han-Pin Kuo, Yu-Lun Lo
We hypothesize that capnography could detect hypoventilation during induction of bronchoscopic sedation and starting bronchoscopy following hypoventilation, may decrease hypoxemia. Patients were randomized to: starting bronchoscopy when hypoventilation (hypopnea, two successive breaths of at least 50% reduction of the peak wave compared to baseline or apnea, no wave for 10 seconds) (Study group, n = 55), or when the Observer Assessment of Alertness and Sedation scale (OAAS) was less than 4 (Control group, n = 59)...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819055/temperature-effects-on-the-cardiorespiratory-control-of-american-bullfrog-tadpoles-based-on-a-non-invasive-methodology
#7
Leonardo S Longhini, Lucas A Zena, Glauber S F da Silva, Kênia C Bícego, Luciane H Gargaglioni
Temperature effects on cardiac autonomic tonus in amphibian larval stages have never been investigated. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of different temperatures (15°C, 25°C, and 30°C) on the cardiorespiratory rates and cardiac autonomic tonus of premetamorphic bullfrog tadpoles, Lithobates catesbeianus To this end, a non-invasive method was developed to permit measurements of electrocardiogram (ECG) and buccal movements (fB ; surface electromyography of the buccal floor). For evaluation of autonomic regulation, intraperitoneal injections of Ringer's solution (control), atropine (cholinergic muscarinic antagonist), and sotalol (β-adrenergic antagonist) were performed...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819003/skeletal-muscle-signaling-metabolism-and-performance-during-sprint-exercise-in-severe-acute-hypoxia-after-the-ingestion-of-antioxidants
#8
David Morales-Alamo, Borja Guerra, Jesus Gustavo Ponce-Gonzalez, Amelia Guadalupe-Grau, Alfredo Santana, Marcos Martin-Rincon, Miriam Gelabert-Rebato, Joan Aureli Cadefau, Roser Cussó, Cecilia Dorado, Jose A L Calbet
The aim of this study was to determine reactive oxygen species (ROS) could play a role in blunting Thr(172)-AMPKα phosphorylation in human skeletal muscle after sprint exercise in hypoxia and to elucidate the potential signaling mechanisms responsible for this response. Nine volunteers performed a single 30s sprint (Wingate test) in two occasions while breathing hypoxic gas (PIO2=75 mmHg): one after the ingestion of placebo (P) and another following the intake of antioxidants (A) (α-lipoic acid, vitamin C, and vitamin E), with a randomized double-blind design...
August 17, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818839/do-electronic-cigarettes-increase-cigarette-smoking-in-uk-adolescents-evidence-from-a-12-month-prospective-study
#9
Mark Conner, Sarah Grogan, Ruth Simms-Ellis, Keira Flett, Bianca Sykes-Muskett, Lisa Cowap, Rebecca Lawton, Christopher J Armitage, David Meads, Carole Torgerson, Robert West, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND: In cross-sectional surveys, increasing numbers of adolescents report using both electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) and cigarettes. This study assessed whether adolescent e-cigarette use was associated prospectively with initiation or escalation of cigarette use. METHODS: Data were from 2836 adolescents (aged 13-14 years at baseline) in 20 schools in England. At baseline, breath carbon monoxide levels, self-reported e-cigarette and cigarette use, sex, age, friends and family smoking, beliefs about cigarette use and percentage receiving free school meals (measure of socioeconomic status) were assessed...
August 17, 2017: Tobacco Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818179/multiple-trauma-and-emergency-room-management
#10
Michael Frink, Philipp Lechler, Florian Debus, Steffen Ruchholtz
BACKGROUND: The care of severely injured patients remains a challenge. Their initial treatment in the emergency room is the essential link between first aid in the field and definitive in-hospital treatment. METHODS: We present important elements of the initial in-hospital care of severely injured patients on the basis of pertinent publications retrieved by a selective search in PubMed and the current German S3 guideline on the care of severely and multiply traumatized patients, which was last updated in 2016...
July 24, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818154/physiology-based-modeling-may-predict-surgical-treatment-outcome-for-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#11
Yanru Li, Jingying Ye, Demin Han, Xin Cao, Xiu Ding, Yuhuan Zhang, Wen Xu, Jeremy Orr, Rachel Jen, Scott Sands, Atul Malhotra, Robert Owens
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To test whether the integration of both anatomical and nonanatomical parameters (ventilatory control, arousal threshold, muscle responsiveness) in a physiology-based model will improve the ability to predict outcomes after upper airway surgery for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). METHODS: In 31 patients who underwent upper airway surgery for OSA, loop gain and arousal threshold were calculated from preoperative polysomnography (PSG). Three models were compared: (1) a multiple regression based on an extensive list of PSG parameters alone; (2) a multivariate regression using PSG parameters plus PSG-derived estimates of loop gain, arousal threshold, and other trait surrogates; (3) a physiological model incorporating selected variables as surrogates of anatomical and nonanatomical traits important for OSA pathogenesis...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813842/using-wearable-physiological-sensors-to-predict-energy-expenditure
#12
Kimberly A Ingraham, Daniel P Ferris, C David Remy
Lower-limb assistive robotic devices are often evaluated by measuring a reduction in the user's energy cost. Using indirect calorimetry to estimate energy cost is poorly suited for real-time estimation and long-term collection. The goal of this study was to use data from wearable sensors to predict energy cost with better temporal resolution and less variability than breath measurements. We collected physiological data (heart rate, electrodermal activity, skin temperature) and mechanical data (EMG, accelerometry) from three healthy subjects walking on a treadmill at various speeds on level ground, inclined, and backwards...
July 2017: IEEE ... International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics: [proceedings]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810688/exhaled-breath-condensate-a-novel-matrix-for-biological-monitoring-to-assess-occupational-exposure-to-respirable-crystalline-silica
#13
Elizabeth Leese, James F Staff, Vikki A Carolan, Jackie Morton
Biological monitoring (BM) is a useful way of determining overall exposures to chemical substances; however, in the case of respirable crystalline silica (RCS), this has not been analytically feasible in conventional biological matrices. The aim of this study was to investigate the utility of exhaled breath condensate (EBC) as a potential biological matrix in which to determine exposure to RCS. A small pilot study was undertaken collecting EBC from six quarry workers and six occupationally unexposed persons; the samples were analysed using both single particle inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (spICP-MS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM)...
August 1, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809848/a-multimodal-dataset-for-various-forms-of-distracted-driving
#14
Salah Taamneh, Panagiotis Tsiamyrtzis, Malcolm Dcosta, Pradeep Buddharaju, Ashik Khatri, Michael Manser, Thomas Ferris, Robert Wunderlich, Ioannis Pavlidis
We describe a multimodal dataset acquired in a controlled experiment on a driving simulator. The set includes data for n=68 volunteers that drove the same highway under four different conditions: No distraction, cognitive distraction, emotional distraction, and sensorimotor distraction. The experiment closed with a special driving session, where all subjects experienced a startle stimulus in the form of unintended acceleration-half of them under a mixed distraction, and the other half in the absence of a distraction...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Data
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809383/increasing-symptoms-in-irritable-bowel-symptoms-with-ingestion-of-galacto-oligosaccharides-are-mitigated-by-%C3%AE-galactosidase-treatment
#15
C J Tuck, K M Taylor, P R Gibson, J S Barrett, J G Muir
OBJECTIVES: Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) are dietary FODMAPs (fermentable carbohydrates) associated with triggering gastrointestinal symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial aimed to assess whether oral α-galactosidase co-ingestion with foods high in GOS and low in other FODMAPs would reduce symptoms. METHODS: Patients meeting the Rome III criteria for IBS who were hydrogen-producers on breath testing were recruited...
August 15, 2017: American Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808861/epidemiology-of-sleep-disordered-breathing-and-heart-failure-what-drives-what
#16
REVIEW
Sushma M Dharia, Lee K Brown
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The bidirectional relationships that have been demonstrated between heart failure (HF) and central sleep apnea (CSA) demand further exploration with respect to the implications that each condition has for the other. This review discusses the body of literature that has accumulated on these relationships and how CSA and its potential treatment may affect outcomes in patients with CSA. RECENT FINDINGS: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can exacerbate hypertension, type 2 diabetes, obesity, and atherosclerosis, which are known predicates of HF...
August 14, 2017: Current Heart Failure Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808316/habituation-based-synaptic-plasticity-and-organismic-learning-in-a-quantum-perovskite
#17
Fan Zuo, Priyadarshini Panda, Michele Kotiuga, Jiarui Li, Mingu Kang, Claudio Mazzoli, Hua Zhou, Andi Barbour, Stuart Wilkins, Badri Narayanan, Mathew Cherukara, Zhen Zhang, Subramanian K R S Sankaranarayanan, Riccardo Comin, Karin M Rabe, Kaushik Roy, Shriram Ramanathan
A central characteristic of living beings is the ability to learn from and respond to their environment leading to habit formation and decision making. This behavior, known as habituation, is universal among all forms of life with a central nervous system, and is also observed in single-cell organisms that do not possess a brain. Here, we report the discovery of habituation-based plasticity utilizing a perovskite quantum system by dynamical modulation of electron localization. Microscopic mechanisms and pathways that enable this organismic collective charge-lattice interaction are elucidated by first-principles theory, synchrotron investigations, ab initio molecular dynamics simulations, and in situ environmental breathing studies...
August 14, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808178/metabolomic-profiles-of-plasma-exhaled-breath-condensate-and-saliva-are-correlated-with-potential-for-air-toxics-detection
#18
Chandresh Nanji Ladva, Rachel Golan, Roby Greenwald, Tianwei Yu, Stefanie Ebelt Sarnat, W Dana Flanders, Karan Uppal, Douglas I Walker, ViLinh Tran, Donghai Liang, Dean P Jones, Jeremy Sarnat
Advances in the development of high-resolution metabolomics (HRM) have provided new opportunities for their use in characterizing exposures to environmental air pollutants and air pollution-related disease etiologies. Exposure assessment studies have considered blood, breath, and saliva as biological matrices suitable for measuring responses to air pollution exposures. The current study examines comparability among these three matrices using HRM and explored their potential for measuring mobile source air toxics...
August 15, 2017: Journal of Breath Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807576/evaluation-of-three-tidal-volumes-10-12-and-15%C3%A2-ml%C3%A2-kg-1-in-dogs-for-controlled-mechanical-ventilation-assessed-by-volumetric-capnography-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#19
Seline Bumbacher, Johannes P Schramel, Martina Mosing
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate three routinely used tidal volumes (VT; 10, 12 and 15 mL kg(-1)) for controlled mechanical ventilation (CMV) in lung-healthy anaesthetized dogs by assessing alveolar ventilation (VTalv) and dead space (DS). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized clinical trial. ANIMALS: A total of 36 client-owned dogs. METHODS: Dogs were randomly allocated to a VT of 10 (G10), 12 (G12) or 15 (G15) mL kg(-1). After induction CMV was started...
May 8, 2017: Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803440/electrical-impedance-tomography-for-diagnosis-and-monitoring-of-pulmonary-function-disorders-in-the-intensive-care-unit-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#20
Szymon Białka, Maja Copik, Katarzyna Rybczyk, Hanna Misiołek
The aim of this paper is to describe the possibility of using Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) as a treatment monitoring tool in the ICU. It was based on case report and literature review. A 19-year-old female was admitted to ICU due to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. Despite aggressive treatment there was no improvement. We decided to use EIT in the monitoring of treatment because of difficulties in transporting the patient to the radiology department in order to perform a control CT scan...
2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
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