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horse larynx

B Wysocka, W Kluciński
The goal of the present study was to establish the occurrence of structural disorders in the larynx and pharynx during treadmill exercise tests in horses diagnosed with Equine Asthma (EA). Investigation was performed in 29 horses, patients of the Equine Clinic of the Warsaw University of Life Sciences in Poland, admitted with poor exercise performance. Upper and lower airway examinations were performed in all patients revealing both mild to moderate Equine Asthma (13 horses), and no lower airway abnormalities (16 animals)...
March 2018: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
Rachael J Lawrence, Matthew J Butterell, James D Constable, Matija Daniel
OBJECTIVES: Laryngomalacia is the most common cause of stridor in infants. Dynamic airway collapse is also a well-recognised entity in horses and an important cause of surgical veterinary intervention. We compare the aetiology, clinical features and management of human laryngomalacia with equine dynamic airway collapse. METHODS: A structured review of the PubMed, the Ovid Medline and the Cochrane Collaboration databases (Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews)...
February 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
F Rossignol, O Brandenberger, J D Perkins, J-P Marie, C Mespoulhès-Rivière, N G Ducharme
BACKGROUND: In horses, the only established method for reinnervation of the larynx is the nerve-muscle pedicle implantation, whereas in human medicine, direct nerve implantation is a standard surgical technique for selective laryngeal reinnervation in human patients suffering from bilateral vocal fold paralysis. OBJECTIVES: (1) To describe a modified first or second cervical nerve transplantation technique for the treatment of recurrent laryngeal neuropathy (RLN) in horses and (2) evaluate the outcomes of reinnervation using direct nerve needle-stimulation of the first cervical nerve and exercising endoscopy before and after surgery...
November 28, 2017: Equine Veterinary Journal
Aimée C Colbath, Alejandro Valdés-Martínez, Britta S Leise, Eileen S Hackett
OBJECTIVE To determine the pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of radiopaque contrast medium administered orally or via nasopharyngeal catheter to standing horses. ANIMALS 5 healthy adult horses. PROCEDURES A crossover study was conducted. Radiopaque contrast medium (12 mL) was administered orally and via nasopharyngeal catheter to each horse. Pharyngeal and laryngeal distribution of contrast medium was determined by examination of radiographs obtained immediately after administration of contrast medium, compared with those obtained before administration...
September 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
David J Mellor, Ngaio J Beausoleil
Horses engaged in strenuous exercise display physiological responses that approach the upper functional limits of key organ systems, in particular their cardiorespiratory systems. Maximum athletic performance is therefore vulnerable to factors that diminish these functional capacities, and such impairment might also lead to horses experiencing unpleasant respiratory sensations, i.e., breathlessness. The aim of this review is to use existing literature on equine cardiorespiratory physiology and athletic performance to evaluate the potential for various types of breathlessness to occur in exercising horses...
May 26, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Justine Kane-Smyth, Timothy P Barnett, John Mark O'Leary, Padraic M Dixon
OBJECTIVE: To describe a novel surgical technique for correcting postoperative ventral glottic stenosis (cicatrix or web formation) and the outcome in 2 Thoroughbred racehorses. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case report. ANIMALS: Thoroughbreds diagnosed with ventral glottic stenosis (n=2). METHODS: Horses presenting with iatrogenic ventral glottic stenosis and resultant exercise intolerance and abnormal exercise-related noise were anesthetized and a midline sagittal skin incision was made over the ventral larynx and between the sternohyoideus muscles overlying the cricothyroid notch...
May 2016: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Martin Reichel, Johannes Martinek
Distribution of the electrical field is very important to activate muscle and nerve cells properly. One therapeutic method to treat Recurrent Laryngeal Neuropathy (RLN) in horses can be performed by Functional Electrical Stimulation (FES). Current method to optimize the stimulation effect is to use implanted quadripolar electrodes to the musculus cricoarythenoideus dorsalis (CAD) and testing electrode configuration until best possible optimum is reached. For better understanding and finding of maximum possible activation of CAD a simulation model of the actual entire setting is currently in development...
September 23, 2014: European Journal of Translational Myology
Jonathon Dixon, Ken Smith, Justin Perkins, Ceri Sherlock, Tim Mair, Renate Weller
Melanomas are one of the most common neoplasms in the horse and are frequently found in the head region. There is a genetic predisposition in horses with a gray hair coat. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used in referral practice to evaluate the equine head but there are few reports describing the CT appearance of melanomas in this location. The aim of this retrospective, case series study was to describe characteristics in a group of horses with confirmed disease. Case records from two referral hospitals were reviewed, and 13 horses were identified that had undergone CT of the head, with a diagnosis of melanoma based on cytology, histopathology, or visual assessment of black (melanotic) tissue...
May 2016: Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound
Fabrice Rossignol, Amélie Vitte, Josef Boening, Michael Maher, Antoine Lechartier, Olivier Brandenberger, Manuel Martin-Flores, Hayley Lang, Wade Walker, Norm G Ducharme
OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical experience with standing laryngoplasty in a series of horses mostly nonracing. STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Seventy-one client-owned horses. METHODS: Medical records (April 2008-February 2014) of horses treated by standing laryngoplasty for abnormal respiratory noise and or poor performance were reviewed. Horses were included if they had a diagnosis of idiopathic right or left recurrent laryngeal neuropathy confirmed by videoendoscopy...
April 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Marcos P Santos, Santiago D Gutierrez-Nibeyro, Gavin P Horn, Joshua D Hicke, Matthew C Stewart, David J Schaeffer
OBJECTIVE: To compare the mechanical properties of laryngeal tie-forward (LTF) constructs prepared with different suture materials and suture placement patterns during single load to failure testing. SAMPLE: Larynges harvested from 50 horse cadavers and 5 intact horse cadavers. PROCEDURES: In vitro LTF constructs were created by a standard technique with polyester sutures, a standard technique with polyethylene sutures, a modified technique with metallic implants and polyester sutures, a modified technique with metallic implants and polyethylene sutures, or a modified tie-off technique with polyester sutures (10 of each type of construct)...
April 2015: American Journal of Veterinary Research
Javier E Mirazo, Patrick Page, Luis Rubio-Martinez, Hendrick J Marais, Catriona Lyle
Upper airway endoscopy at rest has been the diagnostic method of choice for equine upper respiratory tract (URT) conditions. Development of high-speed treadmill endoscopy improved the sensitivity of URT endoscopy by allowing observation of the horse's nasopharynx and larynx during exercise. However, treadmill exercise may not always accurately represent the horse's normal exercise as track surface, rider, tack and environmental variables are altered. Recently, the development of dynamic overground endoscopy (DOE) has addressed some of these shortcomings...
2014: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
A Kilgué, I U Teudt, T Grundmann, K Püschel
Every blunt laryngeal trauma requires examination by an ENT physician and may necessitate observation for a number of hours. The literature shows a heterogeneous picture regarding airway management (tracheotomy vs. intubation). Extremely violence forces such as horse kicks require a tracheotomy, as demonstrated by case studies. In such cases, a high level of responsibility lies with the emergency physician providing the initial treatment. We present the case of a 37-year-old horse trainer, who suffered a horse kick to the larynx with a complex laryngeal fracture...
December 2014: HNO
S Offord, L K Tulloch, S H Franklin, W H Tremaine, N S Woodford, K J Allen
The laryngeal tie-forward (LTF) procedure has been shown to move the larynx rostrally and dorsally whilst repositioning the basihyoid bone caudally and dorsally. Other studies have shown that the position of the hyoid bones influences the size of the nasopharynx. The effect of the LTF procedure on the size of the nasopharynx is unknown. It was hypothesised that the LTF procedure would result in a decrease in dorsoventral nasopharyngeal diameter. Twenty-five thoroughbred horses which underwent LTF with or without soft palate cautery (LTF±SPC) for treatment of dorsal displacement of the soft palate were included in this study...
January 3, 2015: Veterinary Record
Antoine Lechartier, Fabrice Rossignol, Olivier Brandenberger, Amelie Vitte, Céline Mespoulhès-Rivière, Anthony Rossignol, Karl Joseph Boening
OBJECTIVE: To compare mechanical properties of 2 techniques with a conventional technique for anchoring the muscular process in a laryngoplasty procedure. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental ex vivo study. SAMPLE POPULATION: Equine larynges (n = 60). METHODS: A single loop (SL), a screw (SC), and a double loop technique (DL) were compared. Constructs were subjected to cyclic loading, oscillating from 5 to 50 N for 3000 cycles, followed by a single cycle to failure test...
April 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Hadley Willsallen, Jane Heller, Lauren Kark, Bryan J Hilbert
OBJECTIVES: In vitro comparison of the mechanical properties of braided polyurethane elastomer (Lycra®) and braided polyester (Ethibond™) (1) when inserted into the muscular process of the arytenoid cartilage and (2) as suture loops. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. ANIMALS: Equine cadaver larynges (n = 15). METHODS: The muscular processes (n = 30) of the arytenoid cartilages were dissected from each larynx and embedded in a resin base...
February 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Nathaniel R McClellan, Elizabeth M Santschi, Samuel D A Hurcombe, Alan S Litsky
OBJECTIVES: To (1) develop a model of cyclical adduction force on an abducted left arytenoid cartilage that mimics swallowing or coughing; (2) determine if arytenoid abduction by a clamp before knot tying will improve the maintenance of abduction under cyclical adduction testing. STUDY DESIGN: Experimental. SAMPLE POPULATION: Cadaveric equine larynges (n = 14). METHODS: Left laryngoplasty performed using a single suture of #5 Ethibond with (n = 7) and without (n = 7) abducting the arytenoid with a clamp before knot tying...
July 2014: Veterinary Surgery: VS
Phil A Cramp, Timo Prange, Frank A Nickels
The purpose of this article is to review the literature and personal experiences of equine surgeons so as to describe procedures that can be performed in the standing sedated horse to alleviate conditions that result in upper respiratory tract obstruction. Upper respiratory tract surgery requires attention to detail, meticulous planning, and careful dissection and execution with little room for error. This article describes a selection of standing upper airway procedures, the indications for and possible complications of these surgeries, and advantages and disadvantages of a particular method...
April 2014: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Equine Practice
Safia Z Barakzai, Paddy M Dixon, Claire S Hawkes, Alistair Cox, Timothy P Barnett
OBJECTIVE: To describe a complication observed endoscopically in horses after prosthetic laryngoplasty (LP). STUDY DESIGN: Case series. ANIMALS: Horses (n = 5) that had previous LP. METHODS: Four horses had endoscopic examination as part of a larger prospective study and had saliva emanating from their upper esophageal opening. One other horse was referred with clinical signs of severe upper esophageal obstruction 2 months after LP...
February 2015: Veterinary Surgery: VS
A Zebisch, A May, S Reese, H Gehlen
Different head-neck positions (HNPs) are used in equestrian sports and are regarded as desirable for training and competition by riders, judges and trainers. Even though some studies have been indicative of hyperflexion having negative effects on horses, this unnatural position is frequently used. In the present study, the influence of different HNPs on physical and psychological stress parameters in the ridden horse was investigated. Heart rate (HR), heart rate variability (HRV) and blood cortisol levels were measured in 18 horses...
October 2014: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
A Zebisch, A May, S Reese, H Gehlen
Hyperflexion, that is the strong deflection of the horse's head, poll and neck, is a prevalent training technique in equitation. Hyperflexion has come under criticism in recent years for being suspected of affecting the horses' well-being contrary to animal welfare. The goal of the present study is a comparison between the impacts of different poll-neck positions on findings in the upper respiratory tract of ridden horses. For this purpose, video recordings of the larynges of 14 horses were taken using an overground endoscope...
October 2014: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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