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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667681/escapees-from-rhombomeric-lineage-restriction-extensive-migration-rostral-to-the-r4-r5-border-of-hox-a3-expression
#1
Charles Watson, Gayeshika Leanage, Nadja Makki, Petr Tvrdik
The rhombomeric compartments of the hindbrain are characterized by lineage restriction; cells born in one compartment generally remain there and do not migrate to neighboring rhombomeres. Two well-known exceptions are the substantial migrations of the pontine nuclei and the mammalian facial nucleus. In this study we used Hoxa3-Cre lineage to permanently mark cells that originate in rhombomeres caudal to r4. We found that cells born caudal to the r4/r5 border migrate forwards to a number of different locations in rhombomeres 1-4; the final locations include the interfascicular trigeminal nucleus, the principal trigeminal nucleus, the pontine nuclei, the reticulotegmental nucleus, the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus, and the lateral and medial vestibular nuclei...
July 1, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28649492/relationship-between-brainstem-neurodegeneration-and-clinical-impairment-in-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury
#2
Patrick Grabher, Claudia Blaiotta, John Ashburner, Patrick Freund
BACKGROUND: Brainstem networks are pivotal in sensory and motor function and in recovery following experimental spinal cord injury (SCI). OBJECTIVE: To quantify neurodegeneration and its relation to clinical impairment in major brainstem pathways and nuclei in traumatic SCI. METHODS: Quantitative MRI data of 30 chronic traumatic SCI patients (15 with tetraplegia and 15 with paraplegia) and 23 controls were acquired. Patients underwent a full neurological examination...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536922/head-shaking-tilt-suppression-a-clinical-test-to-discern-central-from-peripheral-causes-of-vertigo
#3
F C Zuma E Maia, Renato Cal, Ricardo D'Albora, Sergio Carmona, Michael C Schubert
Tilt suppression refers to both tilting the head away from an Earth vertical axis and a reduction of an induced horizontal nystagmus. This phenomenon of reducing an induced horizontal nystagmus involves a circuitry of neurons within the vestibular nuclei and the cerebellum (collectively referred to as velocity storage) and signals from the otolith end organs. Lesions involving this circuitry can disrupt tilt suppression of induced horizontal nystagmus. We investigated the clinical value of combining the horizontal head-shaking nystagmus test with tilt suppression in 28 patients with unilateral peripheral vestibular hypofunction and 11 patients with lesions affecting the central nervous system...
June 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505527/amino-acid-and-acetylcholine-chemistry-in-the-central-auditory-system-of-young-middle-aged-and-old-rats
#4
Donald A Godfrey, Kejian Chen, Thomas R O'Toole, Abdurrahman I A A Mustapha
Older adults generally experience difficulties with hearing. Age-related changes in the chemistry of central auditory regions, especially the chemistry underlying synaptic transmission between neurons, may be of particular relevance for hearing changes. In this study, we used quantitative microchemical methods to map concentrations of amino acids, including the major neurotransmitters of the brain, in all the major central auditory structures of young (6 months), middle-aged (22 months), and old (33 months old) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats...
May 4, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484004/maturation-arrest-in-early-postnatal-sensory-receptors-by-deletion-of-the-mir-183-96-182-cluster-in-mouse
#5
Jianguo Fan, Li Jia, Yan Li, Seham Ebrahim, Helen May-Simera, Alynda Wood, Robert J Morell, Pinghu Liu, Jingqi Lei, Bechara Kachar, Leonardo Belluscio, Haohua Qian, Tiansen Li, Wei Li, Graeme Wistow, Lijin Dong
The polycistronic miR-183/96/182 cluster is preferentially and abundantly expressed in terminally differentiating sensory epithelia. To clarify its roles in the terminal differentiation of sensory receptors in vivo, we deleted the entire gene cluster in mouse germline through homologous recombination. The miR-183/96/182 null mice display impairment of the visual, auditory, vestibular, and olfactory systems, attributable to profound defects in sensory receptor terminal differentiation. Maturation of sensory receptor precursors is delayed, and they never attain a fully differentiated state...
May 23, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28471720/effects-of-mechanical-trauma-to-the-human-tympanic-membrane-an-experimental-study-using-transmission-electron-microscopy
#6
Nadine Schart-Morén, Paula Mannström, Helge Rask-Andersen, Magnus von Unge
HYPOTHESIS: To examine the cellular events following induced superficial lesions of the human tympanic membrane (TM). Such information could lead to enhanced appreciation of repair mechanisms and novel strategies to restore TM perforations. BACKGROUND: Persistent perforation of the TM in chronic otitis media is a major global health problem and frequently necessitates surgical intervention. Most TM perforations heal spontaneously and swiftly, but sometimes healing fails...
May 4, 2017: Acta Oto-laryngologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470551/nuclear-derivatives-and-axonal-projections-originating-from-rhombomere-4-in-the-mouse-hindbrain
#7
Maria Di Bonito, Michèle Studer, Luis Puelles
The r4-derived territory is located in the pontine region of the brainstem, forming a wedge-shaped slice that broadens from the choroidal roof to the ventral midline. R4-derived neuronal populations migrate radially inside and tangentially outside this rhombomere, forming nuclei of the sensorimotor auditory, vestibular, trigeminal and reticular systems. R4-derived fibre tracts contribute to the lateral lemniscus, the trigeminothalamic tracts, the medial tegmental tract and the medial forebrain bundle, which variously project to the midbrain, thalamus, hypothalamus and telencephalon...
May 3, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450830/spiral-ganglion-neuron-projection-development-to-the-hindbrain-in-mice-lacking-peripheral-and-or-central-target-differentiation
#8
Karen L Elliott, Jennifer Kersigo, Ning Pan, Israt Jahan, Bernd Fritzsch
We investigate the importance of the degree of peripheral or central target differentiation for mouse auditory afferent navigation to the organ of Corti and auditory nuclei in three different mouse models: first, a mouse in which the differentiation of hair cells, but not central auditory nuclei neurons is compromised (Atoh1-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ); second, a mouse in which hair cell defects are combined with a delayed defect in central auditory nuclei neurons (Pax2-cre; Atoh1(f/f) ), and third, a mouse in which both hair cells and central auditory nuclei are absent (Atoh1(-/-))...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#9
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#10
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390798/complete-and-irreversible-unilateral-vestibular-loss-a-novel-rat-model-of-vestibular-pathology
#11
David Péricat, Anne Farina, Emilie Agavnian-Couquiaud, Christian Chabbert, Brahim Tighilet
BACKGROUND: Both basic and applied studies on the pathophysiology of vestibular disorders are currently impaired by the lack of animal models of controlled vestibular damages. NEW METHODS: In the present study, we describe the procedure to achieve a surgical unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the rat and evaluate its functional consequences. This procedure is suitable for reproducing a unilateral, sudden and definitive vestibular areflexia. RESULTS: Proper induction of a UVN induces a severe vestibular syndrome, which mimics vestibular disorders encountered in humans...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379624/surgical-removal-of-a-choroid-plexus-oncocytoma-in-an-adult-cat
#12
B Cossic, G Silver, M Kent, E N Glass, D Agnew, S McDonough, A D Miller
An 11-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented with left central vestibular dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large, extra-parenchymal, strongly contrast-enhancing mass at the level of the left cerebellopontine angle and compressing the cerebellum and brainstem. The mass was surgically excised via left rostral and sub-tentorial craniectomies and histopathology revealed an epithelial neoplasm composed of anastomosing cords of neoplastic cells that contained large amounts of finely granular hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365909/a-mosaic-pattern-of-ini1-smarcb1-protein-expression-distinguishes-schwannomatosis-and-nf2-associated-peripheral-schwannomas-from-solitary-peripheral-schwannomas-and-nf2-associated-vestibular-schwannomas
#13
Rosario Caltabiano, Gaetano Magro, Agata Polizzi, Andrea Domenico Praticò, Andrea Ortensi, Valerio D'Orazi, Andrea Panunzi, Pietro Milone, Luigi Maiolino, Francesco Nicita, Gabriele Lorenzo Capone, Roberta Sestini, Irene Paganini, Mariella Muglia, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Salvatore Lanzafame, Laura Papi, Martino Ruggieri
BACKGROUND: The INI1/SMARCB1 gene protein product has been implicated in the direct pathogenesis of schwannomas from patients with one form of schwannomatosis [SWNTS1; MIM # 162091] showing a mosaic pattern of loss of protein expression by immunohistochemistry [93% in familial vs. 55% in sporadic cases]. AIM OF STUDY: To verify whether such INI1/SMARCB1 mosaic pattern could be extended to all schwannomas arising in the sporadic and familial schwannomatoses [i.e...
April 1, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#14
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315957/right-sided-dominance-of-the-bilateral-vestibular-system-in-the-upper-brainstem-and-thalamus
#15
Marianne Dieterich, V Kirsch, T Brandt
MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289399/auditory-and-vestibular-evoked-potentials-correlate-with-motor-and-non-motor-features-of-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Ali Soliman Shalash, Dalia Mohamed Hassan, Hanan Hani Elrassas, Mohamed Mosaad Salama, Edna Méndez-Hernández, José M Salas-Pacheco, Oscar Arias-Carrión
Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284887/downbeat-nystagmus-due-to-ranitidine-in-a%C3%A2-pediatric-patient
#17
Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Blanca Toledo Del Castillo, Cristina Rodríguez Jimenez, Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Jimena Pérez Moreno
BACKGROUND: Ranitidine has not been considered as a potential cause of ocular movement conditions. However, it is known that the vestibular nucleus complex, that has a key role in gaze control and vestibule-ocular reflexes, receives hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. Some studies reported the effect of ranitidine blocking the excitatory responses of vestibular nuclei neurons to histamine. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a downbeat nystagmus secondary to ranitidine in an infant...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#18
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242733/ocular-stability-and-set-point-adaptation
#19
REVIEW
D S Zee, P Jareonsettasin, R J Leigh
A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push-pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237912/vestibular-stimulation-improves-insight-into-illness-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#20
Philip Gerretsen, David D Pothier, Carolyn Falls, Maxine Armstrong, Thushanthi Balakumar, Hiroyuki Uchida, David C Mamo, Bruce G Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Impaired insight into illness (IMP-INS) is common among individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), contributing to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Caloric vestibular simulation (CVS) is typically used to assess peripheral vestibular system function. Left cold CVS is also a transiently effective treatment for IMP-INS and hemineglect secondary to right brain hemisphere stroke, and possibly for IMP-INS and mood stabilization in patients with SSD. Participants with SSD and moderate-to-severe IMP-INS participated in an exploratory double blind, crossover, randomized controlled study of the effects of CVS on IMP-INS...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
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