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vestibular nuclei

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845378/neuronal-network-based-mathematical-modeling-of-perceived-verticality-in-acute-unilateral-vestibular-lesions-from-nerve-to-thalamus-and-cortex
#1
S Glasauer, M Dieterich, T Brandt
Acute unilateral lesions of vestibular graviceptive pathways from the otolith organs and semicircular canals via vestibular nuclei and the thalamus to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex regularly cause deviations of perceived verticality in the frontal roll plane. These tilts are ipsilateral in peripheral and in ponto-medullary lesions and contralateral in ponto-mesencephalic lesions. Unilateral lesions of the vestibular thalamus or cortex cause smaller tilts of the perceived vertical, which may be either ipsilateral or contralateral...
May 29, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29729209/gaze-stability-dynamic-balance-and-participation-deficits-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-at-fall-risk
#2
Hina Garg, Leland E Dibble, Michael C Schubert, Jim Sibthorp, K Bo Foreman, Eduard Gappmaier
Despite the common complaints of dizziness and demyelination of afferent or efferent pathways to and from the vestibular nuclei which may adversely affect the angular Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex (aVOR) and vestibulo-spinal function in persons with Multiple Sclerosis (PwMS), few studies have examined gaze and dynamic balance function in PwMS. OBJECTIVES: 1) Determine the differences in gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation measures between PwMS and controls, 2) Examine the relationships between gaze stability, dynamic balance and participation...
May 5, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722327/structural-neural-connectivity-of-the-vestibular-nuclei-in-the-human-brain-a-diffusion-tensor-imagings-study
#3
Sung Ho Jang, Mi Young Lee, Sang Seok Yeo, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Many animal studies have reported on the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN). However, little is reported on the structural neural connectivity of the VN in the human brain. In this study, we attempted to investigate the structural neural connectivity of the VN in 37 healthy subjects using diffusion tensor tractography. A seed region of interest was placed on the isolated VN using probabilistic diffusion tensor tractography. Connectivity was defined as the incidence of connection between the VN and each brain region...
April 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698581/segmental-analysis-of-the-vestibular-nerve-and-the-efferents-of-the-vestibular-complex
#4
Carmen Díaz, Luis Puelles
Use of a segmental approach in the study of vestibular centers in the hindbrain improves morphological and functional understanding of this region controlled by Hox genes, among other molecular determinants. Here we review accrued data about segmental organization of vestibular afferents and efferents. Inner ear-originated vestibular fibers enter the hindbrain, together with auditory ones, through the alar plate of rhombomere 4, then branch into descending and ascending branches to reach appropriate vestibular nuclei along the vestibular column...
April 26, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662702/the-ipsilateral-vestibulothalamic-tract-in-the-human-brain
#5
Sung Ho Jang, Hyeok Gyu Kwon
Although there are a few studies of portions of the vestibular system such as the vestibulocerebellar tract and the neural connectivity of the vestibular nuclei (VN), no study of the ipsilateral vestibulothalamic tract (VTT) (originating from the VN and mainly connecting to the lateral thalami nuclei) has been reported. In the current study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigate the reconstruction method and characteristics of the ipsilateral VTT in normal subjects. Thirty-three subjects were recruited for this study...
2018: Translational Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593640/vestibular-dysfunction-in-wernicke-s-encephalopathy-predominant-impairment-of-the-horizontal-semicircular-canals
#6
Seung-Han Lee, Sang-Hoon Kim, Ji-Min Kim, Alexander Andrea Tarnutzer
Background: Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE), a metabolic disorder due to thiamine deficiency, manifests with various neurological symptoms and signs. It has been known as a cause of vestibular dysfunction. Preliminary reports have proposed predominant involvement of the horizontal semicircular canals (HSCs). Objective: To better characterize the pattern of vestibular impairment in patients with WE using quantitative video head-impulse testing and to review the literature regarding this topic...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29589816/modulation-of-complex-spike-activity-differs-between-zebrin-positive-and-negative-purkinje-cells-in-the-pigeon-cerebellum
#7
Rebecca M Long, Janelle M P Pakan, David J Graham, Peter L Hurd, Cristian Gutierrez-Ibanez, Douglas R Wylie
The cerebellum is organized into parasagittal zones defined by its climbing and mossy fibre inputs, efferent projections, and Purkinje cell (PC) response properties. Additionally, parasagittal stripes can be visualized with molecular markers, such as the heterogeneous expression of the isoenzyme zebrin II (ZII), where sagittal stripes of high ZII expression (ZII+) are interdigitated with stripes of low ZII expression (ZII-). In the pigeon vestibulocerebellum, a ZII+/- stripe pair represents a functional unit, insofar as both ZII+ and ZII- PCs within a stripe pair respond best to the same pattern of optic flow...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29571264/white-matter-connectivity-of-the-visual-vestibular-cortex-examined-by-diffusion-weighted-imaging
#8
Anna M Wirth, Sebastian M Frank, Mark W Greenlee, Anton L Beer
The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) and the posterior insular cortex (PIC) are key regions of the cortical vestibular network, both located in the midposterior section of the lateral sulcus. Little is known about the structural connectivity pattern of these areas. We used probabilistic fiber tracking based on diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and compared the ipsilateral connectivity of PIVC and PIC. Seed areas for the tracking algorithm were identified in each brain by functional MRI activity during caloric and visual motion stimulation, respectively...
May 2018: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557546/whole-brain-mapping-of-direct-inputs-to-and-axonal-projections-from-gabaergic-neurons-in-the-parafacial-zone
#9
Yun-Ting Su, Meng-Yang Gu, Xi Chu, Xiang Feng, Yan-Qin Yu
The GABAergic neurons in the parafacial zone (PZ) play an important role in sleep-wake regulation and have been identified as part of a sleep-promoting center in the brainstem, but the long-range connections mediating this function remain poorly characterized. Here, we performed whole-brain mapping of both the inputs and outputs of the GABAergic neurons in the PZ of the mouse brain. We used the modified rabies virus EnvA-ΔG-DsRed combined with a Cre/loxP gene-expression strategy to map the direct monosynaptic inputs to the GABAergic neurons in the PZ, and found that they receive inputs mainly from the hypothalamic area, zona incerta, and parasubthalamic nucleus in the hypothalamus; the substantia nigra, pars reticulata and deep mesencephalic nucleus in the midbrain; and the intermediate reticular nucleus and medial vestibular nucleus (parvocellular part) in the pons and medulla...
June 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29460253/neuronal-apoptosis-in-the-brainstem-medulla-of-sudden-unexpected-death-in-infancy-sudi-and-the-importance-of-standardized-sudi-classification
#10
Natalie Ambrose, Karen A Waters, Michael L Rodriguez, Kendall Bailey, Rita Machaalani
The purpose of this study was to examine the neuronal expression of apoptotic markers in the rostral medulla of a newly characterized dataset of sudden unexpected death in infancy (SUDI), and to determine the impact of diagnostic groupings on these findings and whether they pertain to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Immunohistochemical staining was quantified to determine the percentage of neurons positive for active caspase-9 (specific to the intrinsic apoptotic pathway), active caspase-3 (common to the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways) and Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase mediated dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL) (labels DNA fragmentation) in nine nuclei of the rostral medulla...
March 2018: Forensic Science, Medicine, and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447907/wilhelm-his-lasting-insights-into-hindbrain-and-cranial-ganglia-development-and-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Joel C Glover, Karen L Elliott, Albert Erives, Victor V Chizhikov, Bernd Fritzsch
Wilhelm His (1831-1904) provided lasting insights into the development of the central and peripheral nervous system using innovative technologies such as the microtome, which he invented. 150 years after his resurrection of the classical germ layer theory of Wolff, von Baer and Remak, his description of the developmental origin of cranial and spinal ganglia from a distinct cell population, now known as the neural crest, has stood the test of time and more recently sparked tremendous advances regarding the molecular development of these important cells...
February 12, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29390518/central-vestibular-disorder-due-to-ischemic-injury-on-the-parieto-insular-vestibular-cortex-in-patients-with-middle-cerebral-artery-territory-infarction-observational-study
#12
Sang Seok Yeo, Sung Ho Jang, Jung Won Kwon
Central vestibular disorder is common after middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory infarction. The MCA supplies blood to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC), a core region of central vestibular symptoms. We report on patients that sustained injuries of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC with central vestibular disorder following MCA territory infarction, demonstrated on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Nineteen patients with MCA territory infarction and 12 control subjects were recruited. To reconstruct the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC, we defined seed region of interest (ROI) as vestibular nuclei of pons and target ROI as the PIVC...
December 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217256/lateral-medullary-syndrome-following-injury-of-the-vestibular-pathway-to-the-core-vestibular-cortex-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#13
Sang Seok Yeo, Sung Ho Jang, Jung Won Kwon
OBJECTIVE: The parieto-insular vestibular cortex (PIVC) is a core region of vestibular input into regions of the cortex. The vestibular nuclei have reciprocal connections with the PIVC. However, little is known about injury of the core vestibular pathway to the PIVC in patients with dorsolateral medullary infarctions. In this study, using diffusion tensor tractography (DTT), we investigated injury of the neural connections between the vestibular nuclei and the PIVC in patients with typical central vestibular disorder...
February 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190334/the-ventral-posterior-lateral-thalamus-preferentially-encodes-externally-applied-versus-active-movement-implications-for-self-motion-perception
#14
Alexis Dale, Kathleen E Cullen
Successful interaction with our environment requires that voluntary behaviors be precisely coordinated with our perception of self-motion. The vestibular sensors in the inner ear detect self-motion and in turn send projections via the vestibular nuclei to multiple cortical areas through 2 principal thalamocortical pathways, 1 anterior and 1 posterior. While the anterior pathway has been extensively studied, the role of the posterior pathway is not well understood. Accordingly, here we recorded responses from individual neurons in the ventral posterior lateral thalamus of macaque monkeys during externally applied (passive) and actively generated self-motion...
November 28, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163732/a-comparison-of-the-effects-and-side-effects-of-oral-betahistine-with-injectable-promethazine-in-the-treatment-of-acute-peripheral-vertigo-in-emergency
#15
Hassan Motamed, Meisam Moezzi, Ali Dalir Rooyfard, Kambiz Ahmadi Angali, Zahra Izadi
Background: Vertigo is an illusion of rotation that is caused by the asymmetry of neurological function of the right and left vestibular nuclei. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy and side effects of oral betahistine with injectable promethazine in treatment of acute peripheral vertigo. Methods: In this double-blind clinical trial study, the patients with acute peripheral vertigo were assigned in the two groups: receiving promethazine intramuscularly at a dose of 25 mg (group A) and receiving 8 mg betahistine tablets (group B) and the severity of their vertigo was evaluated on the visual analog scale (VAS) scoring system...
December 2017: Journal of Clinical Medicine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163085/involvement-of-the-avian-dorsal-thalamic-nuclei-in-homing-pigeon-navigation
#16
Paulo E Jorge, Belmiro V Pinto, Verner P Bingman, John B Phillips
The navigational ability of birds has been a focus of popular and scientific interest for centuries, but relatively little is known about the neuronal networks that support avian navigation. In the brain, regions like the piriform cortex, olfactory bulbs, hippocampal formation, vestibular nuclei, and the wulst, are among the brain regions often discussed as involved in avian navigation. However, despite large literature showing a prominent role of some anterior and dorsal thalamic nuclei in mammalian spatial navigation, little is known about the role of the thalamus in avian navigation...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143209/the-medial-vestibular-nuclei-a-vulnerable-target-in-thiamine-deficiency
#17
Jorge C Kattah, Cindy Guede, Bahareh Hassanzadeh
BACKGROUND: Bilateral medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) is a common target in thiamine depletion and results in acute vestibular failure. Involvement of the MVN was present in 27 out of 38 brainstem sections reported in the largest thiamine deficiency autopsy cohort with Wernicke's encephalopathy. METHOD: Serial clinical, imaging and vestibulo-ocular reflex gain measured with the video head impulse (vHIT) in one patient with acute thiamine deficiency. RESULTS: Low horizontal VOR gain correlated with an abnormal manual head impulse and with MRI evidence of MVN in an alcohol-dependent patient with low thiamine levels...
January 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28978765/convergence-of-linear-acceleration-and-yaw-rotation-signals-on-non-eye-movement-neurons-in-the-vestibular-nucleus-of-macaques
#18
Shawn D Newlands, Ben Abbatematteo, Min Wei, Laurel H Carney, Hongge Luan
Roughly half of all vestibular nucleus neurons without eye movement sensitivity respond to both angular rotation and linear acceleration. Linear acceleration signals arise from otolith organs, and rotation signals arise from semicircular canals. In the vestibular nerve, these signals are carried by different afferents. Vestibular nucleus neurons represent the first point of convergence for these distinct sensory signals. This study systematically evaluated how rotational and translational signals interact in single neurons in the vestibular nuclei: multisensory integration at the first opportunity for convergence between these two independent vestibular sensory signals...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965517/not-a-one-trick-pony-diverse-connectivity-and-functions-of-the-rodent-lateral-geniculate-complex
#19
REVIEW
Aboozar Monavarfeshani, Ubadah Sabbagh, Michael A Fox
Often mislabeled as a simple relay of sensory information, the thalamus is a complicated structure with diverse functions. This diversity is exemplified by roles visual thalamus plays in processing and transmitting light-derived stimuli. Such light-derived signals are transmitted to the thalamus by retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), the sole projection neurons of the retina. Axons from RGCs innervate more than ten distinct nuclei within thalamus, including those of the lateral geniculate complex. Nuclei within the lateral geniculate complex of nocturnal rodents, which include the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN), ventral lateral geniculate nucleus (vLGN), and intergeniculate leaflet (IGL), are each densely innervated by retinal projections, yet, exhibit distinct cytoarchitecture and connectivity...
January 2017: Visual Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911803/sensory-overload-and-imbalance-resting-state-vestibular-connectivity-in-ptsd-and-its-dissociative-subtype
#20
Sherain Harricharan, Andrew A Nicholson, Maria Densmore, Jean Théberge, Margaret C McKinnon, Richard W J Neufeld, Ruth A Lanius
BACKGROUND: The vestibular system integrates multisensory information to monitor one's bodily orientation in space, and is influenced by interoceptive awareness. Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) involves typically alterations in interoceptive and bodily self-awareness evidenced by symptoms of hyperarousal, as well as of emotional detachment, including emotional numbing, depersonalization, and derealization. These alterations may disrupt vestibular multisensory integration between the brainstem (vestibular nuclei) and key vestibular cortical regions (parieto-insular vestibular cortex, prefrontal cortex)...
September 11, 2017: Neuropsychologia
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