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vestibular nuclei

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424655/sustained-and-transient-vestibular-systems-a-physiological-basis-for-interpreting-vestibular-function
#1
REVIEW
Ian S Curthoys, Hamish G MacDougall, Pierre-Paul Vidal, Catherine de Waele
Otolithic afferents with regular resting discharge respond to gravity or low-frequency linear accelerations, and we term these the static or sustained otolithic system. However, in the otolithic sense organs, there is anatomical differentiation across the maculae and corresponding physiological differentiation. A specialized band of receptors called the striola consists of mainly type I receptors whose hair bundles are weakly tethered to the overlying otolithic membrane. The afferent neurons, which form calyx synapses on type I striolar receptors, have irregular resting discharge and have low thresholds to high frequency (e...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405011/plasticity-within-excitatory-and-inhibitory-pathways-of-the-vestibulo-spinal-circuitry-guides-changes-in-motor-performance
#2
Diana E Mitchell, Charles C Della Santina, Kathleen E Cullen
Investigations of behaviors with well-characterized circuitry are required to understand how the brain learns new motor skills and ensures existing behaviors remain appropriately calibrated over time. Accordingly, here we recorded from neurons within different sites of the vestibulo-spinal circuitry of behaving macaque monkeys during temporally precise activation of vestibular afferents. Behaviorally relevant patterns of vestibular nerve activation generated a rapid and substantial decrease in the monosynaptic responses recorded at the first central stage of processing from neurons receiving direct input from vestibular afferents within minutes, as well as a decrease in the compensatory reflex response that lasted up to 8 hours...
April 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390798/complete-and-irreversible-unilateral-vestibular-loss-a-novel-rat-model-of-vestibular-pathology
#3
David Péricat, Anne Farina, Emilie Agavnian-Couquiaud, Christian Chabbert, Brahim Tighilet
BACKGROUND: Both basic and applied studies on the pathophysiology of vestibular disorders are currently impaired by the lack of animal models of controlled vestibular damages. NEW METHODS: In the present study, we describe the procedure to achieve a surgical unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) in the rat and evaluate its functional consequences. This procedure is suitable for reproducing a unilateral, sudden and definitive vestibular areflexia. RESULTS: Proper induction of a UVN induces a severe vestibular syndrome, which mimics vestibular disorders encountered in humans...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379624/surgical-removal-of-a-choroid-plexus-oncocytoma-in-an-adult-cat
#4
B Cossic, G Silver, M Kent, E N Glass, D Agnew, S McDonough, A D Miller
An 11-year-old male castrated domestic shorthair cat presented with left central vestibular dysfunction. Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain revealed a large, extra-parenchymal, strongly contrast-enhancing mass at the level of the left cerebellopontine angle and compressing the cerebellum and brainstem. The mass was surgically excised via left rostral and sub-tentorial craniectomies and histopathology revealed an epithelial neoplasm composed of anastomosing cords of neoplastic cells that contained large amounts of finely granular hypereosinophilic cytoplasm and round nuclei...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365909/a-mosaic-pattern-of-ini1-smarcb1-protein-expression-distinguishes-schwannomatosis-and-nf2-associated-peripheral-schwannomas-from-solitary-peripheral-schwannomas-and-nf2-associated-vestibular-schwannomas
#5
Rosario Caltabiano, Gaetano Magro, Agata Polizzi, Andrea Domenico Praticò, Andrea Ortensi, Valerio D'Orazi, Andrea Panunzi, Pietro Milone, Luigi Maiolino, Francesco Nicita, Gabriele Lorenzo Capone, Roberta Sestini, Irene Paganini, Mariella Muglia, Sebastiano Cavallaro, Salvatore Lanzafame, Laura Papi, Martino Ruggieri
BACKGROUND: The INI1/SMARCB1 gene protein product has been implicated in the direct pathogenesis of schwannomas from patients with one form of schwannomatosis [SWNTS1; MIM # 162091] showing a mosaic pattern of loss of protein expression by immunohistochemistry [93% in familial vs. 55% in sporadic cases]. AIM OF STUDY: To verify whether such INI1/SMARCB1 mosaic pattern could be extended to all schwannomas arising in the sporadic and familial schwannomatoses [i.e...
April 1, 2017: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365885/the-spectrum-of-vestibular-and-ocular-motor-abnormalities-in-thiamine-deficiency
#6
REVIEW
Jorge C Kattah
PURPOSE: The first aim of this review is to summarize recent ocular motor signs in pre-encephalopathy patients with nutritional deficiency at risk of thiamine deficiency. Timely recognition of thiamine depletion in these patients, who may have a normal brain MRI, could lead to appropriate management and prevention of Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE) with full recovery. The second aim is to incorporate recent diagnostic testing on the revised WE diagnostic criteria and the identification of patients who may show slow, partial, or no response to treatment...
May 2017: Current Neurology and Neuroscience Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315957/right-sided-dominance-of-the-bilateral-vestibular-system-in-the-upper-brainstem-and-thalamus
#7
Marianne Dieterich, V Kirsch, T Brandt
MRI diffusion tensor imaging tractography was performed on the bilateral vestibular brainstem pathways, which run from the vestibular nuclei via the paramedian and posterolateral thalamic subnuclei to the parieto-insular vestibular cortex. Twenty-one right-handed healthy subjects participated. Quantitative analysis revealed a rope-ladder-like system of vestibular pathways in the brainstem with crossings at pontine and mesencephalic levels. Three structural types of right-left fiber distributions could be delineated: (1) evenly distributed pathways at the lower pontine level from the vestibular nuclei to the pontine crossing, (2) a moderate, pontomesencephalic right-sided lateralization between the pontine and mesencephalic crossings, and (3) a further increase of the right-sided lateralization above the mesencephalic crossing leading to the thalamic vestibular subnuclei...
March 18, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28289399/auditory-and-vestibular-evoked-potentials-correlate-with-motor-and-non-motor-features-of-parkinson-s-disease
#8
Ali Soliman Shalash, Dalia Mohamed Hassan, Hanan Hani Elrassas, Mohamed Mosaad Salama, Edna Méndez-Hernández, José M Salas-Pacheco, Oscar Arias-Carrión
Degeneration of several brainstem nuclei has been long related to motor and non-motor symptoms (NMSs) of Parkinson's disease (PD). Nevertheless, due to technical issues, there are only a few studies that correlate that association. Brainstem auditory-evoked potential (BAEP) and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) responses represent a valuable tool for brainstem assessment. Here, we investigated the abnormalities of BAEPs, ocular VEMPs (oVEMPs), and cervical VEMPs (cVEMPs) in patients with PD and its correlation to the motor and NMSs...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284887/downbeat-nystagmus-due-to-ranitidine-in-a%C3%A2-pediatric-patient
#9
Laura Butragueño Laiseca, Blanca Toledo Del Castillo, Cristina Rodríguez Jimenez, Silvia Manrique-Rodríguez, Jimena Pérez Moreno
BACKGROUND: Ranitidine has not been considered as a potential cause of ocular movement conditions. However, it is known that the vestibular nucleus complex, that has a key role in gaze control and vestibule-ocular reflexes, receives hypothalamic histaminergic innervations. Some studies reported the effect of ranitidine blocking the excitatory responses of vestibular nuclei neurons to histamine. CASE REPORT: We report the first case of a downbeat nystagmus secondary to ranitidine in an infant...
February 11, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28261089/sex-and-age-differences-in-motion-sickness-in-rats-the-correlation-with-blood-hormone-responses-and-neuronal-activation-in-the-vestibular-and-autonomic-nuclei
#10
Wei Zhou, Junqin Wang, Leilei Pan, Ruirui Qi, Peng Liu, Jiluo Liu, Yiling Cai
Many studies have demonstrated sex and age differences in motion sickness, but the underlying physiological basis is still in controversy. In the present study, we tried to investigate the potential correlates of endocrine and/or neuronal activity with sex and age differences in rats with motion sickness. LiCl-induced nausea symptom was evaluated by conditioned gaping. Motion sickness was assessed by measurement of autonomic responses (i.e., conditioned gaping and defecation responses), motor impairments (i...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242733/ocular-stability-and-set-point-adaptation
#11
REVIEW
D S Zee, P Jareonsettasin, R J Leigh
A fundamental challenge to the brain is how to prevent intrusive movements when quiet is needed. Unwanted limb movements such as tremor impair fine motor control and unwanted eye drifts such as nystagmus impair vision. A stable platform is also necessary to launch accurate movements. Accordingly, nature has designed control systems with agonist (excitation) and antagonist (inhibition) muscle pairs functioning in push-pull, around a steady level of balanced tonic activity, the set-point Sensory information can be organized similarly, as in the vestibulo-ocular reflex, which generates eye movements that compensate for head movements...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237912/vestibular-stimulation-improves-insight-into-illness-in-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorders
#12
Philip Gerretsen, David D Pothier, Carolyn Falls, Maxine Armstrong, Thushanthi Balakumar, Hiroyuki Uchida, David C Mamo, Bruce G Pollock, Ariel Graff-Guerrero
Impaired insight into illness (IMP-INS) is common among individuals with schizophrenia spectrum disorders (SSD), contributing to medication nonadherence and poor clinical outcomes. Caloric vestibular simulation (CVS) is typically used to assess peripheral vestibular system function. Left cold CVS is also a transiently effective treatment for IMP-INS and hemineglect secondary to right brain hemisphere stroke, and possibly for IMP-INS and mood stabilization in patients with SSD. Participants with SSD and moderate-to-severe IMP-INS participated in an exploratory double blind, crossover, randomized controlled study of the effects of CVS on IMP-INS...
May 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226411/the-control-of-eye-movements-by-the-cerebellar-nuclei-polysynaptic-projections-from-the-fastigial-interpositus-posterior-and-dentate-nuclei-to-lateral-rectus-motoneurons-in-primates
#13
Vincent Prevosto, Werner Graf, Gabriella Ugolini
Premotor circuits driving extraocular motoneurons and downstream motor outputs of cerebellar nuclei are well known. However, there is, as yet, no unequivocal account of cerebellar output pathways controlling eye movements in primates. Using retrograde transneuronal transfer of rabies virus from the lateral rectus (LR) eye muscle, we studied polysynaptic pathways to LR motoneurons in primates. Injections were placed either into the central or distal muscle portion, to identify innervation differences of LR motoneurons supplying singly innervated (SIFs) or multiply innervated muscle fibers (MIFs)...
February 22, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185235/impact-of-a-simulated-gravity-load-for-atmospheric-reentry-10%C3%A2-g-for-2%C3%A2-min-on-conscious-mice
#14
Hironobu Morita, Aoi Yamaguchi, Dai Shiba, Masaki Shirakawa, Satoru Takahashi
The Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency recently performed a mouse experiment in the International Space Station in which mice were raised for 35 days, retrieved using the Dragon spacecraft, and then harvested for analysis 2 days after splashdown. However, the impact of the retrieval procedure, which exposed mice to 5-10 g for 2 min during atmospheric reentry and splashdown, was unknown. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a 10 g load for 2 min (using a gondola-type centrifuge with a 1...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28128226/low-level-of-swiprosin-1-efhd2-in-vestibular-nuclei-of-spontaneously-hypersensitive-motion-sickness-mice
#15
Zhi-Bin Wang, Ping Han, Ling-Chang Tong, Yi Luo, Wei-Heng Su, Xin Wei, Xu-Hong Yu, Wei-Ye Liu, Xiu-Hua Zhang, Hong Lei, Zhen-Zhen Li, Fang Wang, Jian-Guo Chen, Tong-Hui Ma, Ding-Feng Su, Ling Li
Susceptibility to motion sickness (MS) varies considerably among humans. However, the cause of such variation is unclear. Here, we used a classical genetic approach to obtain mouse strains highly sensitive and resistant to MS (SMS and RMS). Proteomics analysis revealed substantially lower swiprosin-1 expression in SMS mouse brains. Inducing MS via rotary stimulation decreased swiprosin-1 in the mouse brains. Swiprosin-1 knockout mice were much more sensitive to motion disturbance. Immunohistochemistry revealed strong swiprosin-1 expression in the vestibular nuclei (VN)...
January 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075326/transformation-of-spatiotemporal-dynamics-in-the-macaque-vestibular-system-from-otolith-afferents-to-cortex
#16
Jean Laurens, Sheng Liu, Xiong-Jie Yu, Raymond Chan, David Dickman, Gregory C DeAngelis, Dora E Angelaki
Sensory signals undergo substantial recoding when neural activity is relayed from sensors through pre-thalamic and thalamic nuclei to cortex. To explore how temporal dynamics and directional tuning are sculpted in hierarchical vestibular circuits, we compared responses of macaque otolith afferents with neurons in the vestibular and cerebellar nuclei, as well as five cortical areas, to identical three-dimensional translational motion. We demonstrate a remarkable spatio-temporal transformation: otolith afferents carry spatially aligned cosine-tuned translational acceleration and jerk signals...
January 11, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28026001/expression-of-glycine-receptors-and-gephyrin-in-rat-medial-vestibular-nuclei-and-flocculi-following-unilateral-labyrinthectomy
#17
Wen Zhou, Liu-Qing Zhou, Hong Shi, Yang-Ming Leng, Bo Liu, Su-Lin Zhang, Wei-Jia Kong
The medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) and the cerebellar flocculus have been known to be the key areas involved in vestibular compensation (VC) following unilateral labyrinthectomy (UL). In this study, we examined the role of gephyrin and glycine receptor (GlyR) in VC using Sprague-Dawley rats, in an aim to gain deeper insight into the mechanisms responsible for VC. The expression of the α1 and β subunits of GlyR and gephyrin was immunohistochemically localized in rat MVN and flocculi. The mRNA and protein expression of GlyR (α1 and β subunits) and gephyrin was quantitatively determined by RT-qPCR and western blot analysis at 8 h, and at 1, 3 and 7 days following UL...
November 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888500/the-effect-of-isoflurane-on-18-f-fdg-uptake-in-the-rat-brain-a-fully-conscious-dynamic-pet-study-using-motion-compensation
#18
Matthew G Spangler-Bickell, Bart de Laat, Roger Fulton, Guy Bormans, Johan Nuyts
BACKGROUND: In preclinical positron emission tomography (PET) studies an anaesthetic is used to ensure that the animal does not move during the scan. However, anaesthesia may have confounding effects on the drug or tracer kinetics under study, and the nature of these effects is usually not known. METHOD: We have implemented a protocol for tracking the rigid motion of the head of a fully conscious rat during a PET scan and performing a motion compensated list-mode reconstruction of the data...
December 2016: EJNMMI Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874249/role-of-neural-integrators-in-oculomotor-systems-a%C3%A2-systematic-narrative-literature-review
#19
REVIEW
Katherine Sanchez, Fiona J Rowe
PURPOSE: To evaluate the role of neural integrators (NI) in the oculomotor system. METHODS: A literature search was carried out using several electronic databases during the months of June 2014 to March 2015. The following keywords were used to generate focused results: 'neural integrators', 'gaze-holding', 'oculomotor integration', 'impaired gaze-holding', 'gaze evoked nystagmus' and 'gaze dysfunction'. Further materials were found through searching relevant articles within reference lists...
November 22, 2016: Acta Ophthalmologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856360/sensitivity-to-isoflurane-anesthesia-increases-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-shank3-%C3%A2-c-mutant-mouse-model
#20
Changsheng Li, Michele Schaefer, Christy Gray, Ya Yang, Orion Furmanski, Sufang Liu, Paul Worley, C David Mintz, Feng Tao, Roger A Johns
Autism is a heterogeneous developmental disorder characterized by impaired social interaction, impaired communication skills, and restricted and repetitive behavior. The abnormal behaviors of these patients can make their anesthetic and perioperative management difficult. Evidence in the literature suggests that some patients with autism or specific autism spectrum disorders (ASD) exhibit altered responses to pain and to anesthesia or sedation. A genetic mouse model of one particular ASD, Phelan McDermid Syndrome, has been developed that has a Shank3 haplotype truncation (Shank3(+/Δc))...
March 2017: Neurotoxicology and Teratology
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